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Publication numberUS2497619 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 14, 1950
Filing dateOct 15, 1948
Priority dateOct 15, 1948
Publication numberUS 2497619 A, US 2497619A, US-A-2497619, US2497619 A, US2497619A
InventorsAdolph Mass
Original AssigneeAdolph Mass
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Combination lock
US 2497619 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 14, 1950 A. MAss 2,497,619

COMBINATION LcK Filed Oct. 15, 1948 I5 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR.


A. MASS COMBINATION LOCK Feb. M, 1950 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Oct. l5, 1948 INVENTOR.



K Mg

Feb. 14, 1950 A. MAss 2,497,619

COMBINATION LOCK Filed Oct. 15, 1948 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 lFpoLPH H655,


Patented Feb. 14, IQ :5;

UNITED STATESy PATENT vOFFICE COMBINATION LOOK Adolph Mass, M'plewooa, N. J. y Application October 15, 1948, Serial No. 54,739 dol. 711-25) i 14 Claims.

This invention relates in general to combina- A tion locks of the type comprising a plurality of rotatable tumblers, one object of the invention being to provide a lock of this character which shall be compact, simple and reliable in construction -and which"` can be easily and quickly adjusted or setand operated.

Another object is to provide such a combination lock which shall include twov relatively movable series or sets of tumblers having cooper-v ating portions such that when the two series of tumblers are in one relation to each other, a 1 bolt is locked while when the two series of tumblers are in another relation to each other, the bolt is released or unlocked, in combination with no'vel and improved means for causing relativev movement of said two seriesof tumblers and approximately simultaneous movement of the bolt to actuate the latter into vlookedv and unlocked positions, respectively. .Y

A further object is to provide a combination: lock which shall include av novel and improved r construction combination and arrangement of two series of tumblers each of which series shall include a plurality of tumblers, and means for relatively rotating the tumblers of each series to set or adjust the lock and to permit opening of the same, and means for causing relative movement of the said series of tumblers for opening and closing the lock.

A still further object is to provide in a com'- bination lock, novel and improved rotatable tumblers and means for rotating the tumblers comprising a finger piece for rotating one tumf bier and operative driving connections between the tumblers. l

Other objects, advantages and results of the invention will be brought out by thefollowingr description in conjunction with thel acc'ompany-v f ing drawings in which Figure 1 is a front elevational View of a comiy showingf'the lock in Figure 3 is a greatly enlarged front elevational 2 view of the lock with the front `cover plate removed and showing .the parts in the positions shown in Figure 1;

Figure 4 is a fragmentary vievv similar to Fig-1 ure 3 showing the lock in vpartially opened'condition;

Figure 5 is a similar view showing the lock in completely opened condition;v 'l v Figure 6 is a similar view showing one position into locking position;'

Figure 7 is a transverse vertical sectional ViewV if approximately on the plane of the line 1 1 of l Figure 5; f I

Figure 8 is a similar View approximately on the plane of the line 8--8 of FigureG;

Figures 9, 10 and 11 are enlarged horizontal sectional views approximately on the planes of j thelines 9-9, lll-I0 and Il-ll, respectively,

Figure 9 showing the Geneva movements of the upper set of tumblers in plan view, Figures 10 and l1 showing in plan view the upper ends'of the 5 upper set of tumblers and the lower set of tumblers, respectively. y

Figure 12 is a fragmentary transverse vertical sectional view approximately on the plane of the :L

line l2-I20f Figure 6;

Figure 13'is a fragmentary horizontalsectional 1 view approximately on ,the `plane of theline K I3-l3 of Figure 6;

Figure 14 is a `view similar yto Figure 12 showing the parts in another position;

Figure 15 is aihorizontal sectional view ap f proximately on Vthe plane of the line I5-l5 of Figure 14; v

Figure 16 is a fragmentary transverse vertical sectional view approximately on the plane of the f line IS--IS of Figure 3;

. Figure 17 isa similar view approximately the plane of the line l'l-I'l of Figure 5';

of the pins when'the bolt is in locking position,

and c Figure 20 is an'enlarged fragmentary plan view of a modified driving connection between adj acent' tumblers. f'

For the vpurpose I have shown it embodied in a padlock, but it'will be understood tha-t' the invention may be utilized in other types of locking mechanisms, for ex ample door locks. Specifically describing the illustrated embodiment of the invention, the lock includes a casing yA which is shown asv approximately rectangular in plan view and comprisesa front wall I, a rearA if 3, a `bottom wall 4 and side Wall 2, a top wall walls 5. l l

Within the casing are two sheets or series of tumblers, each comprising three tumblers revoluble on parallel axes, and as shown one tumbler i'series' B is stationarily vfixed in the casing While the of illustrating the invention 'i which is slidably mountedbetweenguides Il and 10 the front and rear Walls l and 2 ofthe casing as best shown in Figures 6, 7 and 9, the front wall l having a depressed panel l2 against which thebearing bracket 9 slidably abuts. two sets of tumblers are so related that the tum- As shown, the. f

blers d, e and f of the upper set maymove end wise toward and from the lower` set of tumblersv a, b and c. The tumblers a, b and c are opposed to and cooperate respectively with tumbers d, e f

and f and each tumbler isi-',{shown as hexagonal in crossv section and. elongated. with: itsqflat faces ory panels consecutively numberedfrom 2 to .7, inclusive,- although. any suitable` characters; or indicia may be utilized; At the end-.of each ofthe tumblers of one set that is opposed to the correspending tumbler of the other set is a plurality of pins I3 eachofwhich corresponds to one panel or facer It will be understood, however, that the pins 6.- might be. substituted by other types of projections andrecesses. As shown, the pins or each ofthe tumblers;l a; b and'c'progressively increase in length fromthe pin corresponding to the panel 2 to the. pin. corresponding., to the panel T, ori fromthe first to the lastl indicia, while on the upper tumblers d, e and f, the pins progressively der grease inlength from the: pini corresponding to the panel 2;to the pincorresponding,l to the panel .v

Therefore, in order to permitthel upper set C of tumblersto move towardgtheylower-see B aV pre.:- determined distance.v toipermit opening of .thelockty the tumblers of the two sets must. be so` positioned that thepinspof each tumbler of theupper set of tumblers are indirectlongitudinalaline.- f

ment with'the pins;.of. the; corresponding indicia of j thev cooperative',lower,L tumbler. This is. best: schematically illustrated in Figures 18L and; 191. which are in effecta development ofthe pins of one.,` of; the l tumblers' in. 'each i of the" upper. andv lower sets, the pins of the upperftumbler being.: shown'finsolid-lines and ofmthel'ower tumbler.: bel ing shown in Adotted lines.

tionof the pins when the: lock-'is in closed posi. tion but ready-fforgopeningwhile Figure 18 shows the pins in lock-opening or bolt-.releasingcondition.-

The atu'rnblersd, e and f ofgthe -upper set arethe master or setting tumblers, While the tumblers a., b and;cvofthe1ower\set arethe'operating tum-y blersfor. opening-the lock; andqwhen the pins of;

the lower tumblers a, b and c are properly orgcom-l plemrentally located with respectV to the corre*-` spondinggpinsot the upper tumblers d, e and f, re-K spectively the slide I0 may Vmove clovvnwardlyfay predetermined-,distance to move the upper tumblers d, e and f toward the lower` fturnblers a, b

and-7c and.` therebyv` permit unlocking movementl of Figure 19' shows. relashackle l1 (see Figures 3 and 16) for holding the shackle in locked condition; and the other arm of the shackle is slidable in an opening i8 in the top wall of the casing and in an Opening in a bracket I9 fixed on the casing to permit the first-mentioned arm to move into and out of the casing for closing and opening the lock, respectively, as shown in Figures 1 and 2. Preferably a spring 2G is provided for normally actuating'the shackle'routwardly of the casing into the positions shown in FigureZ'Z For rotating the tumblers of the upper set, an operating rod 2l has one end relatively nonrotatably connected to one tumbler, in the present instance the tumbler d, as by a polygonal portion of the rod tting a correspondingly shaped socketin` the. tumbler and a spring 22 is interposed between the top wall of the casing and a knobforfnger piece 23 on the rod outside the casing to frictionally resist rotation of said rod. The tumbler.- d isoperatively connected to the next tumbler' e and the latter lis operatively connected tothel last tumbler.` fv by mechanism operating on the principles. of a- Genevavmovement.

@More particularlyv there are a plurality of Geneva movements, the driving elementv of one Geneva movement being on onertumbler-of each set, a driven element of, a. Geneva movement being on each. ofthe other tumblers of each set, and a cooperating complemental. driving element being' on the `next adjacent tumbler; As best shown in Figure-9, the drivingjelementy comprising a disk having` the major'fportionof its periphery constituting amajor arc. of a circle and another portioncut away to` form a. finger 25, is rigidly connected to the tumbler dand cooperates with a driven elementV 26, that is rigidly connected to theftumbler eandhas` six radial slots 21 opening through ,its periphery, one. in alinement with each of the faces or panels of theitumbler, the portions of. thev periphery' of; said element between said notchesbeing arcuately concave as indicated at; 21 tov receive the arcuate portion of the element24.

Similarly a driving. element 28 identical with theelement., 24 is alsoi connected to ythe tumbler eandapdrivenzelement 29 identical with the element. 26is connectedrto the vtumbler f. With this;

oonstructionyby'rotatingtthei rod. 2l, the tumbler d may be continuously rotated :in` either direction to .rotateth'e other'two tumblers e and f step by step, the .fingers-ofthe drivingelements 24 enteringwthenotches 21'of'the-driven ,elements to rotateggthe latter; Inv this. manner itheA desired panel or indicium ofthertumbl'er'fshould rst be exk posed at the front of the casing, and this voperathe bolt Mfas'shownin Figuresfli and 5f.' When.

the pins, are otherwise related, themovement of the upper Aset'of tumblersin said-direction is lim'- 1f itedto a distance less than saidprecletermined distance and release of the bolt is prevented.. Thev mechanism for operating the -boltV will 'be hereinafter described-:L

gage y a shoulder; l 6. on one arm .1 of.; a" U -slrapedtvs f,

tionfisgcontinued un-til :the` desired. panels of the tumblers-fe. and: d yaregbro'ught to the front. This:

is thezsetting. operation .ofthe lock. andthe exposed indicia on the tumblers rare'the combina tion fortopeningtheclock.;Y As shown'on the drawings, thisv indicia constitutes. the .numb ers 2--5-6.v f This setting` operation is executed awhile' the lockt is in openiconditionzas showninlillgs: 5 and 6 and y, the numbers or indicia are exposedthrough'core f responding openings tannini .the front" wall of the casing.. However, 'the-numbers constituting the combination. shouldfb'e .invisible when the lockis in locked condition, and consequently 'I provide a Y shutterorslide 32| havingspacedfopenin'gs 32, one for :sacht of 'the tumblers,:.saidslidebeing mount-v ed on a bracket arm 33 and actuated by a, finger:l

34 1 on the -operating .shaft/35 I so vthat l'when said shaft is moved to slide; fthe. vboltixlll intolockingll position; as :shownp,ir1";1igure- 3;. the .shutter will close the openings 30 and obscure the indicia, while when the operating shaft 35 is rotated in the other direction to throw the bolt into unlocking position, as shown in Figure 5, the shutter will be slid to cause the openings 32 to register `with the openings 30 and expose the combination indicia. More particularly, the slide 33 has a portion of its edges around the bracket 33 as indicated at 36, and a, pair of arms 31 cooperate with the finger 34 in sliding the shutter.

Now turning to the operating tumblers a, b and c, they are actuated in substantially the same manner as are the setting tumblers d, e and f. The tumbler a has an operating shaft 36 connected thereto which is frictionally held against rotation by a spring 31, and a driving element 38 identical with the element 24 is connected to said tumbler a and cooperates with a driven element 39 identical with the element 26 which is con nected to the tumbler b to cooperate with the driving element 38. A driven element 40 also identical with the element 24 is connected to the tumbler b and cooperates with a driven element 4| on the tumbler c. The tumblers are rotated by the rod 36 in the same manner as the tumblers d, e and f are operated by the rod 2|. For preventing accidental operation of the setting rod 2| while the lock is in closed condition, the rod 2| may have a hexagonal collar 42 one side of which will always be in frictional contact with a portion 43 of the bolt I4 when the latter is in locking position as shown in Figure 3. This portion 43 of the bolt is moved from contact with the collar 42 when the bolt is in open condition as shown in Figure 5.

For controlling the operation of the bolt, the slide I8 is pivotally connected at 44 to one end of a toggle link 45 the other end of which is pivotally connected at 46 to one end of a second toggle link 41 the other end of which is pivotally connected at 5|) to the bolt I4 which is in turn shown as slidably mounted in the casing by a pin and slot connection 5| and a roller 52. The toggle is so located that when the bolt is in locking position the slide is pulled upwardly to hold the pins of the'upper set of tumblers out of engagement with the pins of the lower tumbler set as best shown in Figure 3. The pivot pin 46 projects beyond the link 45 as best shown in Figures 12 and 14, and as the bolt is slid toward its open or unlocking position, the pivot pin 46 engages the under surface of an inclined ange 48 on a fixed guide member 49 which causes the toggle to push the slide Il) downwardly as best shown in Figure 4 so as to bring the ends of the aligned pins on the upper series of tumblers into engagement with the corresponding pins of the lower tumblers as best shown in Figure 4. Then upon further movement of the bolt into completely open position as shown in Figure 5, the toggle pulls upwardly on the slide l0 to move the upper tumblers away from the lower tumblers, the toggle link 41 being constrained to swing upwardly and thus to pull the slide as the pivot point 50 moves nearer the pivot point 44 (compare Figures 4 and and at the same time the pin 46 is moved upwardly in juxtaposition to the upper side of the inclined flange 48 as shown in Figure 5 so as to hold the slide against downward movement during the return of the bolt to locking position as shown in Figure 6.

Preferably an auxiliary guide member 54 is pivotally connected at 55 to the bracket 53 on which the guide member 49 is mounted, said guide member having a beveled end adjacent the end of the inclined flange 48 to positively guide the pin 46 under said guide flange and to permit said pin to move freely away from said guide flange as the bolt reaches its full-closed position. It is desirable that the guide member 54 be yieldingly influenced, as by a spring 56 into its normal position wherein it may guide the pin 46 beneath the flange 48, and preferably the underside of the free end of the guide member 54 is beveled as shown at 55a in Figure 15 to facilitate the passage of the pin 46 from beneath the guide member during the closing movement of the bolt, as shown in Figures 14 and 15.

The bolt is slid in both directions by a finger 51 carried by the operating shaft 35 and engaging opposite sides of a, V-shaped notch 58 in the lower edge of the bolt. This operating shaft may be of any suitable construction but is shown as comprising a hub portion 59 having a socket in one end to receive a stud 6l) on the rear wall of the casing, Figure 16, said hub having a polygonal portion 6| on which a finger piece 62 is fitted and held by a nut 63 screw threaded on the extremity of the hub. The finger piece may have a pivoted finger loop 64 and the front wall of the casing may have a recess 65 into which said finger loop may normally be swung and located in an out of the way position.

vIt will be understood by those skilled in the art that the tumblers may have more or less than six sides or panels; for example as shown in Figure 20,- the tumblers 66 and 61 have four panels. It is also possible to use other driving gear than the specific Geneva movement shown in Figures 3 to 8 inclusive, and as shown in Figure 20, the driving element 68 on one of the tumblers comprises a disk having a driving pin 69 projecting therefrom to engage notches 16 in the periphery of the fourstep driven element 1|. The driving element also has a stop hub 12 to cooperate with arcuately concave stop surfaces on the driven element 1|.

Other modifications and changes in the details of construction of the lock will occur to those skilled in the art as within the spirit and scope of the invention.

I claim:

1. A combination lock comprising a bolt movable into and out of locking position, coaxially rotatable opposed tumblers at least one of which is movable toward and from the other and each having a plurality of projections extending toward the other, whereby when certain of said projec-- tions of one tumbler are in one position directly opposed to certain pins of the other tumbler said movable tumblers may move a certain distancel toward the other tumbler while when said projections of the tumblers are in other positions movement of said movable tumbler toward the other tumbler is limited to less than said certain distance, and a connection between said movable tumbler and said bolt to release said bolt from and to hold said bolt in locking position when said projections are in the rst mentioned and secondmentioned positions respectively.

2. A combination lock as defined in claim 1 wherein said projections are of different lengths.

3. A combination lock as defined in claim 1 wherein each of said tumblers has a plurality of peripherally spaced indicia corresponding in number and character to the peripherally spaced indicia of the other tumbler, and each of said projections corresponds to one of said indicia.

4. A combination lock as defined in claim 3 wherein said indicia are consecutively arranged and said projections of one tumbler are of grad-r ually increasing lengths `from lthe first ,to the last of said indicia while the projections of the other tumbler are of gradually decreasing lengths .from the rst to the last indicia.

5. A combination lock comprising a bolt, two sets of tumblers each set including a plurality -of tumblers rotatable about parallel axis and each tumbler of one set coaxial with and in opposed relation to a tumbler of the other set, :means mounting at least one of said tumblersets `:for movement Itoward and from the other tumbler set, each tumbler of one Vset having a plurality of projections of different lengths extending toward the opposed tumbler of the other set, means including elements interconnecting said tumblers for rotating them, whereby when certain .of said projections of each tumbler of one s et are in one position directly opposed to certain pins of v0pposed tumbler of the otherset said tumbler `sets may relatively move toward each other a predetermined distance while when said projections on the tumblers are in other relative positions relative movement of said tumbler sets toward each other is limited to less than said predetermined distance, and an operative connection between said bolt and said tumbler sets to release and to hold said bolt from and in locking position when said projections are in the inst-mentioned and second-mention@.positions respectively.

6. vA combination lock as defined in claim ,5, wherein each said ytumbler `has a plurality 'of identical peripherally spaced indiciaandfeaehof said projections corresponds to one of saidindicia.

7. A combination lockas defined in claim 5, wherein each said tumbler has a 4plurality df identical peripherally spaced indicia .and veacl'iof said projections corresponds to one of saidV indicia, said indicia are consecutively arranged and said projections on the tumblers Vof one set are of gradually increasing lengths ,from the first to the last indicia while the projections onthe other `set are of gradually decreasing lengths from the .first to the last indicia.

8. A combination lock as defined in ,claim .5 wherein said means for rotating said ,tumblers comprises an operating rod for one tumbler jof each set, and driving connections-between said one tumbler of each set and theother tumblers of the corresponding set. f

9. A combination lock as defined in claim .5 wherein said means for rotating said tumblers comprises an operating `rodiorone tumblercf each set, a plurality of Genevamovements, V.the driving element of one AGenevaymovementbeing on said one tumbler of .leach set,.a`,r driven element ofv a Geneva movement being `on each oftheother tumblers of each set iand a cooperating complemental4 driving element being on .a next adjae'nt tumbler.

L10. A combination ,lock as defined ,in claim 5 wherein said operative `connection between s aid tumbler sets and said bolt comprises two toggle links one pivotallyconnected to said one tumbler set and the other ,connected to said bolt, means for moving said bolt, and guide means for said toggle links to cause them to push and to pull on said 'one tumbler set upon movement o-f said bolt ,from locking to unlocking position and from unlocking ,to locking position, respectively.

.151.'In `a combination lock, a plurality of tumblers rotatable on parallel axes, and means for rotating said tumblers comprising an operating rodfor Aone tumbler, a plurality of Geneva move'- mentsthe driving ,element of one Geneva movement on said Aone tumbler, a driven element of a Geneva movement being on each of ythe other tumblers and a cooperating complemental driving elementjbeing lon an adjacent tumbler.

f 12. A combinationlock as defined in claim 1 wherein one of said tumblers has indicia thereon,v and with the addition of means for covering and uncovering said indicia uponmovement of saidboltinto locking position and intounlocking positions, respectively.

13. lIn acombinaton lock, a casing, a tumbler set comprising a plurality of tumblers rotatable on parallel axes and each having spaced indicia on its periphery, a driving element of a Geneva gear movement'having a driving pin connected to one tumbler and a complemental driving element connected to an adjacent tumblerand having radial slots tocooperate with said driving pin for rotating the second-mentioned tumbler, said pin corresponding to one of said indicia on the correspondngtumbler and each of said slots corresponding to one of said indicia on the other tumbler.

.14. Avcombination lock as defined in claim 13, wherein said indicia on each tumbler are consecutiveand Withthe addition of another similar tumbler set comprising a plurality of tumblers rotatable in said casing lonparallel axes and having eachtumbler disposed opposite to one of the first-mentioned tumblers means for relatively moving said sets of tumblers toward and from each other, projections one for each of said indicia on each tumbler of each set, extending toward `andopposedto the projections on the turnblers of the other set, said projections on the tumblers of one set increasingin length from the rst to the last indicia andsaid projections on the tumblers of the other set decreasing in length fromthe first to the last indicia. ADOLPH MASS.

Noreferences cited.

Non-Patent Citations
1 *None
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U.S. Classification70/25, 70/302, 70/322, 70/292, 70/315
International ClassificationE05B37/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05B37/0068
European ClassificationE05B37/00P