US 2497759 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb- 14, 1950 H. L. CAPPLEMAN, JR 2,497,759
RAIN OR SNOW GAUGE 626 40 J9 Inventar Homer L. Gappleman Jr.
Fell 14, 1950 H. l.. CAPPLEMAN, JR 2,497,759
RAIN 0R SNOW GAUGE Filed Dec. 2, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Homer L. Gappleman Jr.
ma/wy Hmm Patented F eb. 1'4, 195() UNITED STATES PATENT FFICE RAIN R SNOW GAUGE Homer L. Gappleman, Jr., Miami, Fla.
Application December 2, 1946, Serial No. 713,562"
"8 Claims. 1
This invention relates to improvements in rain or snow gauges.
An object of the invention is to provide an improved rain or snow gauge which will accurately measure and record the cumulative amount of rain fall or snow fall over a period of time, said gauge being 'in no manner effected by evaporation after the rain or snow has been measured and recorded.
Another object ofthe .invention .is to provide an improved rain or snow gauge including a collecting vessel supported upon .a column of mercury 'in a chamber for vforcing the column of mercury downward in said chamber when water or snow collects in said vessel, the mercury being forced into ar smaller chamber beneath a piston which is provided with a vone Way ratchet clutch engageable with a rack on a vertically movable rod for moving said. rod upwardly with said piston and the samefis .forced upwardly by the column of mercury, said ratchet clutch being automatically declutched Afrom the rod when the. piston moves downwardly in the smaller chamber; the. rack on said rod. .also .engaging a second or upper ratchet. clutch which permits upward movement of the rod but checks any downward movement thereof, .said lsecond ratchet gear operating a longitudinally .movable pen .over a paper `chart. disposed Aon a rotatable drum suitably' driven by a` spring motor.
A further object of the invention .is to .provide an improved. rain or snow gauge which will be highly ellici'ent. in operation, and relatively inexpensive to. manufacture and produce.
Other objects will appear as the description proceeds.
In the accompanying draw-ings which form a part oi this4 application,
Figure 1 .is av vertical sectional view through the improved rain or snow gauge;
Figure 2 isv a View partly in section taken on the line 2-2 of Figure l.;
Figure 3 is a front elevation of the improved rain or snowv gauge. Abeing partly broken away and 'in section to .show the ratchet Aclutch mechanisms and piston with rack rod in the smaller chamber;
Figure 4 is an' enlarged detail sectional view through a portion of the piston with ratchet clutch and rack rod associated therewith, and
Figure 5 is a partial sectional view taken on the. line. 5--5l of Figure 4.
Like characters of reference are used through- `out the "following specification and the accompanying drawings to designate corresponding parts.
In carrying out the invention, there is provided a suitable base or support I having depending supporting feet or ilanges 2 at its corners, and formed with upwardly extending positioning anges 3 and Il at its upper surface.
A unit comprising a large vertically extending cylinder 5 and a smaller vertically extending cylinder 5 spaced therefrom is provided with a common base or bottom I, and are vconnected by the tubeV 8 and adapted to be received and positioned between said flanges 3 and 4.
The large cylinder 5 is open at its top and is formed with .an external annular shoulder 9 which supports the collar Ill and Vfunnel II connected therewith. A cylindrical containerv or vessel "I2 is slidably received `in the large con'- tainer 5, the same being open at its upper end to receive rain or snow which falls into and through the funnel 'I I.
Mercury I3 is placed in the cylinders 5 and 6 and completely fills the connecting tube 8' eX- tending upwardly above the level of lsaid vtube in each ofthe cylinders 5 and 6 to provide mercury columns, said vessel I2 resting upon the mercury column in the large ychamber or cylinder 5.
A piston 'i4 having a concave lower surface I5 is disposed in ther'smaller cylinder 6 and is centrally apertured to slide upon the vertically and axially disposed rack bar .t6 in said cylinder 6,
and is formed with a rack l1 on one side thereof. A ratchet .clutch 18 is supported a Well I9 in the piston I4 upon the cross pin 20, the gear vof the same being in engagement with the rack ITI and controlled by the pivoted pawl .or dog 2l, whereby when the column of mercury I3 in the small cylinder 8. raises, due to rain or snow accumulating in the vessel I2 and by its weight forcing the mercury from the large cylinder 5 into the smaller cylinder .6, the ratchet clutch will engage and lock itself to the rack Il of the rack bar I6 to raise vthe bar upwardly.
The upper end ci the smaller cylinder `li is closed as at 22 andis externally threaded as at 23 on its upper end, the bar IS extends upwardly through a central aperturel in the Vclosed head 22 and through the cap closure member 24 threaded on the upper end of the cylinder 5.
A Vsecond clutch 25 is controlled bythe pivoted pawl or dog 26 and is supported in the ycap member 24 with its gear 21- engaging the rack I'l Von the rack bar IB, to perm-it the bar to move up Wardly in a succession of sepa-rate steps, but to check and prevent its downward movement when the piston I4 drops downwardly upon the mercury moving to its normal position when the rain or snow has evaporated or has been dumped from the vessel I2.
A shaft 28 will extend through the cap member 24, being connected with the gear 2'I and to a gear 29, which in turn connects with gear 30 on the horizontally disposed screw shaft 3l upon which a holder 32 for a pen 33 is supported for longitudinal movement as the shaft 3l is rotated by the upward movement of the rack bar I6.
A cylinder 34 is suitably supported in the brackets 35 and 36 at its opposite ends, and supports a replaceable paper recording sheet 4I upon which the pen 33 marks its record as the cylinder 34 is rotated by the spring motor 31.
From the foregoing description, it will be apparent that the mode of operation of the rain or snow gauge will be as follows: The gauge is placed out of doors on a level support, and when it rains or snows, the same will enter the funnel I I into the vessel I2 increasing the weight on the column of mercury in the large cylinder forcing the mercury downward in said cylinder and through the tube 8 into the smaller cylinder 6 to raise the column of mercury therein and the piston I4 which will raise the rack rod or bar I6 to operate the pen mechanism hereinbeiore described. Each time there is a rain fall or snow f-all, the rod or bar I6 will be movedfurther upward to move the pen along the spring rotated cylinder and graph sheet.
After the precipitation has been measured and recorded, the liquid in the vessel I2 can be siphoned out or the vessel removed and inverted to release the captured liquid. The paw 26 is then disengaged from the ratchet gear to allow the same to rotate freely and permit the rack rod to move downwardly to its normal position. In this respect, a transverse shaft o1' rod 39 is disposed through the cap closure 24, its inner reduced end carrying the pawl 26. A lever 40 is disposed on the outer end of the rod and responsive to manual pressure rotates the inner end of l the rod and functions to disengage the pawl. Of course, the ratchet assembly mounted in the piston freely rotates to allow the rack bar to slide 4 operable by the movement of the last mentioned means.
2. A rain or snow gauge including a support ing base, spaced interconnected cylinders thereon, mercury in said cylinders above the connection therebetween, an open vessel in one cylinder supported on the mercury therein, a piston in the other cylinder supported on the mercury therein, an apertured cap closure on said second cylinder, a rack rod slidably mounted through said piston and extending through said cap closure. a ratchet gear supported by said piston and engaged with said rack rod for connecting said piston and rod for simultaneous upward movement, a ratchet gear in said cap member engageable with said rack rod to prevent downward I movement of the same, and a recording device downwardly, the pawl 2I functioning only to enable the ratchet gear I8 to move the rod upwardly, responsive to an upward movement of the piston, upon an increase of pressure.
While the preferred embodiment of the instant invention has been illustrated. and described, it will be understood that it is not intended to limit the scope of the invention thereto, as many minor changes in detail of construction may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of theinvention; n
Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
l. A rain or snow gauge including a supporting base, spaced yvertical open top cylinders seated thereon .a connecting means between said cylinders, mercury in said connecting means and in the cylinders above the connecting means, an open vessel in one cylinder supported on the mercury therein, a piston in the other cylinder and actuated by the mercury therein, a rack rod slidably disposed through said piston, a ratchet gear `supported by said piston and engaged with said rack rod means for preventing downward movement of the rack rod, and a recording device operable by the movement of said last mentioned ratchet gear.
3. The subject matter as claimed in claim 2, a rotatable screw operated by the last mentioned ratchet gear, a pen supported thereon for longitudinal movement, and a rotatable graph supporting cylinder engaged by said pen.
4. The combination of claim 2, wherein said last mentioned ratchet gear is rotatably mounted in the cap closure, a shaft transversely disposed through the cap member, and operatively associated with said gear, a rotatable screw actuated by said shaft, drive transmitting means connected between said shaft and screw, an inscribed ycarriage longitudinally moved by said screw and a graph disposed adjacent said carriage engaged thereby.
5. A rain and snow recording gauge comprising a supporting base, a first open top cylinder mounted on said base, a second cylinder mounted on said base and spaced from said rst cylinder, a horizontally disposed connecting means between the said cylinders, fluid pressure means disposed in said connecting means and in the lower portion of the cylinders, a vessel slidably disposed in the first cylinder and supported by the uid pressure means, a piston slidably mounted in the second` cylinder in response to an external pressure in said vessel, a rack rod slidably disposed in said piston, locking means carried by the piston and engaged'with the rack rod effecting an upward movement of the piston and rod, means for preventing free downward movement of the rack rod, and actuating means operatively associated with said rack rod, a l,rotatable screw operated by said actuating means, a longitudinal movable carriage mounted on said screw, an inseribing needle carried by said carriage, and a graph disposed adjacent said carriage and engaged by said needle.
6. A rain and snow recording gauge comprising a supporting base, spaced interconnected vertically disposed cylinders seated on said base, fluid pressure means communicated between the lower portions of said cylinders, an open top vessel slidably disposed in one cylinder, a piston slidably mounted in the other cylinder and actuated by the fluid pressure means, responsive to an external pressure in said vessel, an operating rod slidably mounted in said piston, means in said piston engaging said rod for moving the same upwardly upon upward movement of the piston, a ratchet gear actuated by said rod, a rotatable screw operatively associated with said ratchet gear, an inscribing instrument supported on said screw for longitudinal movement, and a rotatable graph supporting cylinder engaged by said instrument.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
Number Number 6 UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date Ferguson Dec. 17, 1889 Hardel et a1 Feb. 3, 1925 Chappell et ai. May 24, 1938 Cornick Aug. 5, 1941 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Great Britain 1887 France Dec. 28, 1925