US 2500144 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
l atented Mar. 14, 1950 UNITED RESINOUS STARCHING COMPOSITION John B. Beck, Flushing, N. Y.
No Drawing. Application January 18, 1949, Serial No. 71,558
3 Claims. (Cl. 260-17) This invention relates to a semi-permanent starching composition for starching fabrics or garments during the laundering and ironing thereof, or for any other purpose where a stiffening of fabrics may be required, but more especially for general home and commercial laundering purposes.
The primary object of this invention is to provide a composition that can be readily and simply applied to a fabric or garment so that the latter will retain the starching composition after several washings, and after each washing the fabric or garment will'stiflen or become crisp from the retained starching composition and may be ironed without restarching after each washing.
At the present time it is conventional to use commercially available starches, such as rice starch, corn starch, potato starch-and the like, which are limited in their applicability by virtue of the kind, type and color of fabrics which may be starched. For example, these commercially available starches cannot be employed with any degree of success on dark colored fabrics since the whiteness of the starch itself shows up and effects the appearance of the fabric. Also, it is well known that these starches will only remain adhered to the fabric until washed, in which process the starch is lost and the fabric must be restarched after each washing. Moreover, the starches do not lend themselves well to the starching of nylon or rayon sheers, tulles, silks or netting. Curtains or fabrics so starched where exposed to a humid atmosphere soon lose their stiffness, becoming limp and requiring restarching.
Consequently, it is an important object of this invention to provide a starching composition which, when employed for starching fabrics or any woven materials for laundering purposes, will remain semi-permanently fixed in the fabric to the extent that it will not wash out when laundered in water except imperceptibly, as only a fractional part is lost with each washing, and thereby greatly lessening the work involved in starching after each washing as is now necessary where commercial starches are employed. Depending, of course, upon the nature of the fabric starched and the amount and kind of soaps and detergents used in the washing, it has been found that fabric starched with the compositions of the instant invention can be washed from 3 to 20 times without requiring restarching or stiffening.
Another important object of this invention is to incorporate an agent increasing the water resistance of the basic composition so that perspiration or humidity will not cause garments, fabrics.
curtains or other materials so starched to wilt at the rate normally encountered with commercial starches. Inasmuch as the starching films formed by the application of the compositions of the instant invention are clear and rendered completely transparent through the application of heat, delicate fabrics such as rayon or nylon sheers, netting, lace veiling, and dark colored linen or cotton fabrics can be effectively stiffened. The basic composition of the instant invention comprises a water emulsion of polyvinyl acetate combined with modifying, extending, thickening,
and water resistant agents. Because of the excellent penetration and bonding characteristics of polyvinyl alcohol in the sizing of yarns, it is especially useful as an extending agent for the aqueous emulsion of polyvinyl acetate. Before the emulsion can be properly employed as a starching composition, it is necessary to add a thickening or emulsion stabilizing agent to hold the resin solids in a dispersed state. While it may be possible to employ water soluble gums, it has been found that sodium carboxymethylcellulose, otherwise known as sodium cellulose glycolate, cooperates with the polyvinyl acetate and the polyvinyl alcohol in a superior manner. Not only is the sodium carboxymethylcellulose employed for its high viscosity, which is most desirable, but for its smoothness, clarity, almost total lack of odor, stability, its natural starching properties, and its perfect compatability with the above mentioned plastics.
It should be here mentioned that polyvinyl acetate is itself somewhat water resistant, will bond at a temperature of approximately F. and will flow at a point slightly higher than F. so that the heat of an iron applied to a closely woven fabric will drive the polyvinyl acetate well into the fibers, so embedding itself through its bonding action as to make it difficult to remove through washing. Polyvinyl alcohol, even in small amounts, will increase the penetration of the acetate-water emulsion making it even morel diflicult to wash out the starchingcomposition particularly after it had been thickened with sodium carboxymethylcellulose.
To increase the water resistance of the basic composition so that a starched fabric would not be attacked by perspiration or a humid atmosphere, it was found desirable to add a small amount of an aqueous solution of glyoxal. In addition, it was found desirable to add to the basic composition a smoothing agent so that the resinous starching composition could be applied to fabrics evenly and in a thin film. For this purpose, a special smoothing agent in the form of a heavy paste, water soluble, consisting of wifenated tallows, such as Concental 75, manufactured and sold by the Hercules Powder Company.
The examples which follow set forth the ingredients in percentages b weight employed in the novel resinous starching compositions of the instant invention.
Example I Per cent Water 70 to 74 Polyvinyl alcohol 1 to 2 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose 2 to 5 Polyvinyl acetate (water emulsion containing 55 to 57% by weight of polyvinyl acetate) 20 to 26 Example If Per cent Water 40 to 69 Polyvinyl alcohol 1 to 2 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose 1 to 2 Glyoxal (80% water solution) 1 to 2 Polyvinyl acetate (water emulsion containing 55 to 57% by weight of polyvinyl acetate) 1 25 to 55 Example III Per cent Water 41.5
Polyvinyl alcohol 0.5
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose 1.0
Sulfonated tallow 5.0
Giyoxal (30% water solution) 2.0
Polyvinyl acetate (water emulsion containing 55 to 57% by weight of polyvinyl acetate) 50.0
It should be here noted that the last example given hereinabove describes the most superior and preferred composition. The above compositions are concentrates and it is contemplated that they will be extended with water before use.
The process of preparing the compositions consists ofthe following. The polyvinyl alcohol is first mixed in cold water with rapid surface agitation until a fine particle dispersion is obtained, after which the temperature is slowly raised to 200 F. with continued agitation until all of the polyvinyl alcohol is dissolved. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose is then added to the polyvinyl alcohol-water solution with rapid surface agitation until dissolved, and this resultant solution is added to the water emulsion of polyvinyl acetate by pouring slowly under continued agitation. The completed composition is allowed to stand from 24 to 48 hours at room temperature before use.
When it is desired to add the glyoxal and the sulfonated tallow to the composition, it is preferable to add the glyoxal first and then the sulfonated tallow with constant agitation to the dispersion of polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate and sodium carboxymethylcellulose before the latter is set aside for 24 to 48 hours.
In preparing the preferred composition, 2.25 grams of polyvinyl alcohol is added to 187 grams of cold water with rapid surface agitation until a fine particle dispersion is obtained. The temperature is then slowly raised to 200 F. with continued agitation until the Polyvinyl alcohol is dissolved and 4.50 grams of sodium carboxymethylcellulose is added with continued agitation until the latter is also dissolved. 225 grams of polyvinyl acetate in the form of a water emulsion containing polyvinyl acetate and 45% water is placed in a container and the aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is then slowly poured under continued agitation into the polyvinyl acetate emulsion. Thereafter 9 grams of a 30% water solution by weight or glyoxal is added with constant agitation followed by the addition of 22.25 grams of the sulfonated tallow and agitation is continued until a relatively smooth dispersion is obtained. The resultant composition is allowed to cool and set aside for 24 to 48 hours before use.
The garments or fabrics to be treated with the resinous starch composition of the instant invention may be dipped in the compositions or the compositions may be sprayed on the garment in any suitable conventional manner. Application of heat to the treated garments, as by means of an iron, will cause penetration and bonding of the starching solution to the fibers of the garment and will also spread the composition evenly throughout the garment. It has been found that the fabrics may be subjected to conventional laundering with various soaps and detergents, and as mentioned hereinabove, depending upon the type of fabric starched and the amount and type of soaps and detergents employed, the starching composition will not be stripped from the fabric after the latter has been washed from 3 to 20 times.
While certain preferred resinous starching compositions have been fully disclosed and described hereinabove, it will be understood that minor variations in the compositions may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention and the scope of the appended claims.
Having described the invention, what is claimed as new is:
1. A resinous starching composition comprising the following ingredients in percentage by weight: water, to 74%; polyvinyl alcohol, 1 to 2%; sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 2 to 5%; and a water emulsion containing 55 to 57% by weight of polyvinyl acetate, 20 to 26%.
2. A resinous starching composition comprising the following ingredients in percentage by weight: water, 40 to 69%; polyvinyl alcohol, 1 to 2%; sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1 to 2%; a 30% water solution of glyoxal, 1 to 2%; and a water emulsion containing 55 to 57 per cent by weight of polyvinyl acetate, 25 to 55%.
3. A resinous starching composition comprising the following ingredients in percentage by weight: water, 41.5%; P lyvinyl alcohol 0.5%; sodium carboxymethylcellulose, 1.0%; sulfonated tallow, 5.0%; a 30 per cent water solution of glyoxal, 2.0%; and a water emulsion containing 55 to 57 per cent by weight of polyvinyl acetate, 50.0%.
JOHN B. BECK.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
OTHER REFERENCES Elvanol, page 34, published by E. I. du Pont de Nemours 6: Co., Electrochemicals Dept, Wilmington 98, Del., 1947.