US 2501629 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
I March 21, 1950 J. M. GOULDING PRINT ROLL 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed June 13, 1944 INVENTOR. Jase zrhmfiouldakg BY J. M. eougpms PRINT ROLL 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed June 13, 1944 v 21,- 1950 J. M. GOULDING 2,501,629
PRINTROLL Filed June 13, 1944 v 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 /7 551 .vza/ 33 a1 INVENTOR. JasephM Gouldakwg Patented Mar. 21, 1950 PRINT ROLL Joseph M. Goulding, Fair-haven, Mass., asslgnor to Revere Copper and Brass Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Maryland Application June 13, 1944, Serial No. 540,040
10 Claims. 1
My invention relates to print rolls and the like and to methods of making the same.
The invention, which has among its objects the provision of a print roll of lighter weight. and less expensive construction and manufacture, than prior print rolls, will be best understood from the following description of several embodiments of the invention and methods of making the some, while the scope of the invention will be more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section on the lines ll of Figs. 4 and 5, with parts in'elevation, of a print roll according to the invention;
Fig. 2 is an end elevation of the print roll according to Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a more or less diagrammatic illustration of a step in one way of making a print roll according to the invention;
Figs. 4 and 5 are, respectively, sections on the lines 44 and 5-5 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 6 is a transverse section, corresponding to Fig. 4, of a modified form of print roll according to the invention;
Fig. 7 is a fragmentary transverse section, corresponding to Fig. 6, on an enlarged scale;
Fig. 8 is a transverse section, corresponding to Fig. 4, of a further modified form of print roll according to the invention;
' Fig. 9 is a fragmentary transverse section, corresponding to Fig. 8, on an enlarged cale;
Fig. 10 is a plan of a lamination employed for the core of a still further modified form of print roll according to the invention;
Fig. 11 is an isometric view of a fragment of the length of a key employed in the print roll having the laminations according to Fig. 10;
Fig. 12 is a transverse section, corresponding to Fig. 4, of the modified print roll having the laminations according to Fig. 10 and the key according to Fig. 11;
Fig. 13 is a more or dess diagrammatic fragment of a transverse section of the print rolls according to Figs. 4 and 12 on an enlarged scale;
Fig. 14 is a more or less diagrammatic fragmentary section on the line I l-l4 of Fig. 13;
Fig. 15 illustrates a step in the method of making the core for a print roll to which the shell is applied in the way illustrated by Fig. 3; and
Fig. 16 illustrates a step in a further method of making a print roll, according to the invention.
Heretofore print rolls, as a commercial proposition, have been almost exclusively made of a solid mass of copper pierced to receive the mandrel on which the roll is mounted. Such rolls, although on the whole satisfactory, neverthelesss have the defect of employing a large amount of the relatively expensive and strategic metal copper, which latter being the heaviest of common structural metals except lead causes the print roll to be of objectionably great static weight, and, when rapidly rotated in the printing machine, to be subject to objectionably large rotative inertia and frequently to objectionable dynamic unbalance. The manufacture of such prior rolls, in order to secure copper of structural characteristics permitting satisfactory engraving, and secure copper of sumciently homogeneous density to minimize in so far as i possible dynamic balance, has heretofore involved hot forging a copper billet, piercing it, and then extruding it over an arbor to shape it and form a key or keyway for splining it to the mandrel. Such manufacture not only involves expensive operations, but requires the use of expensive equipment. Thus, because of high material and labor costs, and high capital investment for specially designed equipment, and the cost of maintenance of the latter, print rolls have heretofore been produced only at a relatively high cost to the user. The present invention overcomes these defects and objections in the ways hereinafter set forth.
Referring particularly to Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5, the print roll illustrated comprises an outer shell I of copper or high copper content copper base alloy, the shell preferably being constituted by a drawn or extruded seamless tube of requisite external diameter. This tube, which preferably comprises the only copper included in the roll, may have walls about inch thick. As shown, supporting the shell on the mandrel 3 is a core formed of a series of contacting laminations 5, each end of the core being provided with end disks 1, preferably of steel, which are connected by steel or other metallic tie rods 9 extending through the laminated core and the end discs.
The mandrel 3 is preferably tapered to permit it readily to be removed from the print roll and anew mandrel inserted. Such taper however need be very slight as, for example, that corresponding to a reduction of- 0.0035 inch in diameter of the mandrel for each inch of length thereof. Preferably also, the core, but not the end disks, is keyed to the mandrel, the latter for this purpose in the form of the invention illustrated by Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5 being provided with the longitudinally extending keyway l I, while the laminations of the core contacting the mandrel are each integrally formed with a projecting tab-like portion i3 (Fig. 4) extending into the mandrel receiving bore of the lamination, the portions l3 of the series of adjacent laminations collectively forming a continuous longitudinally extending key fitting into the keyway of the mandrel.
As best illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5, all the laminations of the core need not contact the mandrel. To this end, as best illustrated in Fig. 1,
groups of adjacent laminations may have a bore I4 larger than the diameter of the mandrel to form annular recesses I5 surrounding the mandrel, which laminations when such recesses are present are keyed to the mandrel only at the portions of the core between the recesses and between them and the end disks. The employment of these recesses lightens the core and simplifies its manufacture.
The core shown by Figs. 1, 4 and 5 is provided adjacent its periphery with longitudinally extending openings ll of considerable angular extent symmetrically spaced with relation to the tie rods 9. These openings or slots serve further to reduce the weight of the core, and, being positioned adjacent the periphery of the core, act to reduce the rotative inertia of the print roll, and further act to cause the shell to be secured to the core as will hereinafter be explained. The laminations may be formed with slots of the crosssectional shape of these openings, and, when the laminations are assembled to form the core, the aligned slots collectively form such openings.
The laminations of which the core is formed are of light weight material such as sheet aluminum. Cardboard also may be employed which, although in some respects not perhaps as satisfactory a material as aluminum, is still lighter and less expensive. Sheet mfld steel, which also is lighter than copper, may also be employed in some instances. The laminations preferably are thin, although their thickness is not at all critical. When aluminum or mild steel is employed for the laminations a thickness of about inch, and when cardboard is employed a thickness of about inch, has been found to give satisfactory results.
When aluminum or steel laminations are employed they are preferably keyed to the mandrel in the above described way illustrated by Figs. 1 and 4. However, when cardboard laminations are employed it has been found that the projecting portions iii of the laminations, which in the assembled print roll collectively form keys, are liable to break during the punching operation for forming the laminations, or in assembling them. Consequently, when cardboard laminations are employed, they are preferably keyed to the mandrel in the way illustrated by Figs. 10, 1 1 and 12, according to which the mandrel receiving bore I9 of each lamination contacting with the mandrel in the assembled roll is formed with a notch 2| preferably V-shaped, while inserted in the keyway ll of the mandrel 3 is a key 23 of such cross-sectional shape and dimensions as to provide, when so inserted, a longitudinally extending V-shaped portion 25 projecting from the mandrel, this V-shaped portion being of shape complementary to the notch 2| and serving to key the laminated core to the mandrel in the assembled roll.
Preferably, in making the print roll according to Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4, or the modified print roll according to Figs. l0, l1 and 12, the laminations are first stamped out to the shapes illustrated and the end disks 1 are formed and the tie rods 9 cut to the proper length. As formed the end (11 3.8
preferably are provided with bores 21 (Figs. 1 and 15) for receiving the tie rods, which bores at the outer faces of the disks are preferably countersunk as illustrated at 29. With such construction the tie rods may be secured to the end disks by fusion welding which melts the projecting ends of the tie rods down into these countersinks, or the countersinks may be filled by a welding operation with separate weld metal which unites the tie rods to the end disks.
According to one method of making the print roll, one end disk is placed on the upper horizontal face of the bed 3| (Fig. 15) of a hydraulic press, preliminary to which one of the ends of each tie rod is secured to that end disk in one of the ways above explained so that the tie rods project upwardly from said bed. Through the mandrel receiving bore 33 of this end disk is placed a vertically extending mandrel form 35, which as illustrated in Fig. 15 extends into and rests upon the bottom of a recess 31 in the bed 3| of the press. The mandrel form 35 is shown as provided with a keyway corresponding to the keyway ll of the mandrel to be used with the finished roll. This keyway in the mandrel form may contain a key corresponding to the key 23 (Fig. 11) or not depending upon which of the ways above described the mandrel is to be keyed to the finished roll. Preferably, also, the mandrel form is slightly tapered upwardly as shown in Fig. 15 to correspond with the taper of the mandrel to be used with the print roll. The laminations forming the core I are then slipped, say one by one, over the upper ends of the mandrel form and tie rods. When sufllcient laminations are thus assembled to secure a core of the desired length the upper end disk I is slipped over the mandrel form and tie rods, and a sleeve ll having a bore for receiving the mandrel form is placed on that end disk, whereupon the plunger head ll of the press is caused todescend upon the upper end of the sleeve 39 and compress the laminations. While the laminations are thus placed under pressure the head ll of the press is locked in position and the upper projecting ends of the tie rods 9 are cut off and welded to the upper end disks in one of the ways above described, whereupon upon removal of the pressure of the head ll on the core the latter will be maintained under compression by the tie rods. When the length of the roll is such as to make it necessary the laminations on the mandrel form and tie rods may be subjected to pressure to compact them when the core is partially built up, and several such compacting operations may be necessary as the core is gradually built up and before the upper end disk is placed in position and the core is subjected to the final compacting operation. These preliminary compacting operations may be readily performed by employing a dummy upper end disk I and sleeves I9 of requisite length.
The core, end disks and mandrel form assembled as above described may then be removed from the press and the core turned in a lathe to remove all excess projections and preferably make it of the same diameter as the end disks, relative slipping of the laminations transversely of the core being prevented by the compression under which the core is held by the tie rods. A shell I which at this stage has an inner diameter slightly greater than the outer diameter of the core, say about 0.05 inch greater, is then slipped over the core and the entire assembly pushed through an opening 43 of a suitably supported die 45, as illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 3, to reduce the diameter of the shell and cause it intimately to contact with the core. For moving the assembly through the die opening a block 41 of sufficient diameter to engage both an end of the shell and the adjacent end disk is placed between the assembly and the head 49 of the hydraulic press which forces the assembly through the die opening. After the assembly is advanced for almost its entire length through the die opening a smaller diameter block may besubstituted for the block 41 to permit the assembly to be entirely pushed through the die opening.
The above described reducing operation on the shell somewhat compresses the laminations radially so that the outer diameter of the core between the end disks becomes slightly less than the outer diameter of those disks as illustrated in Fig. 1, the laminations being compressed against the mandrel form to cause them tightl to fit and conform with said form. When the core is keyed to the mandrel, as illustrated by Figs. 10, 11 and 12, this compression of the laminations causes the V-shaped notches in the laminations tightly to fit the key.
To compensate for the taper of the mandrel form the laminations as placed on that form in the steps illustrated by Fig. 15 are preferably so formed that groups of adjacent laminations contacting the mandrel form in the finished roll have mandrel receiving bores of diameter corresponding to the maximum diameter of the portion of the mandrel form with which that group is to contact. The compression of the core by the reducing operation on the shell illustrated by Fig. 3
- serves to cause all the laminations of each group to compress sufiiciently to contact with the mandrel form. The length of the portion of the mandrel form with which each group contacts will depend upon the rad al compressibility of the material of the core. This length may be shorter for aluminum laminations than for cardboard laminations. and may be still shorter for mild steel laminations.
When the openings I! are formed in the core those portions 5| (Figs. 4 and 13) of the laminations which lie between such openings and the peripheries of the laminations are slightly depressed inwardly, as a result of the reducing operation on the shell, more than are those portions 53 of the laminations which lie between the opposed ends of adjacent openings. This is diagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 13 where, as a result of the reducing operation on the shell, the
outer walls of the openings I! are pressed inwardly from their dotted line positions 55 to their full line positions 51, causing the thickness T of the shell radially opposite the openings to be somewhat greater than the thickness t at points between the opposed ends of adjacent openings. The metal of the shell flows during the reducing operation 50 that the inner surface of the shell will conform to the outer surface of the core thus deformed, while its outer surface will be cylindrical as determined by the shape of the die opening through which the assembly is forced. As a result of this operation the outer surface of the core is made roughly polygonal in cross-section while the inner surface of the shell is made of complementary shape, which acts to insure against any possibility of angular slip between the shell and the core when the roll is in use, it being understood that when the roll is in use it is under very great pressure. Furthermore, in these respects, the various laminations are not deformed to the same extent due to varshell one at a time.
iations in their thickness, temper, hardness, and the like. As a result, after the reducing operation the outer surface of the core, particularly the portions opposite the opening II, will be more or less irregular as diagrammatically indicated in Fig. 14, which figure shows the outer surface of certain laminations forming recesses 59 relative to projections 6| formed by the outer surface of other laminations, while the shell is formed with recesses 63 in which these projections 6| fit and with projections 65 projecting into the recesses 59, as a result of which the shell is locked against movement of the core axially thereof.
If desired, the laminations of which the core is formed may take the form of those shown by Figs. 6 and '7, in which form the laminations 61 are so stamped out as to provide their peripheries, after the core is turned in the lathe, with a series of shallow recesses 69 and intervening projections 1|, illustrated on a larger scale in Fig. 7. When the laminations are assembled over the tie rods the core formed will be provided with spaced longitudinally extending grooves and projections corresponding to the recesses and projections of the laminations. When the shell is placed on the core and reduced the metal of the shell will fiow as a result of the reducing operation and form projections 13 filling these Iongitudinal grooves in the core, thus acting to lock the core against angular slippage relative to the core. Otherwise the print roll may be constructed identically with those above described;
According to the modification of the invention shown by Figs. 8 and 9, the print roll is constructed identically with that described in connection with Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5 except that the laminations 15 are provided with a series of flattened portions 11 on their peripheries, shown on an enlarged scale in Fig. 9. As a result, when the laminations are assembled on the tie rods, a core is formed with spaced longitudinally extending flattened outer surfaces, and, when the shell is placed over the core and reduced by passing the assembly through the die opening, the metal of the shell will flow and fill what in substance amount to recesses formed by these flattened surfaces, which will act to lock the shell against angular slippage relative to the core.
If desired, the core of the roll accordin to Figs. 6 and 7, and that according to Figs. 8 and 9, may also be formed with the openings I! hereinbefore described, which will lighten the core adjacent its periphery and secure the additional effects described in connection with Figs. 13 and 14. Otherwise the roll according to both of these modifications may be constructed and manufactured the same way as the roll according to Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5.
The roll according to Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5, and the roll according to Figs. 10, 11 and 12, particularly when the laminations are formed of cardboard, may also be formed by the method indicated by Fig. 16. According to this method, the lower end disk 1, with the tie rods 9 welded to it in the manner hereinbefore described, is placed on the bed 3| of the press with the shell I surrounding that disk. Thelaminations 5, having a diameter slightly greater than the inner diameter of the shell, are then successively pushed into the Because of their having a greater diameter than the inner diameter of the shell this will cause the laminations to be slightly cupped as indicated at 19 (Fig. 16). After the the shell, the mandrel form, and the key or keyway of the mandrel form. As hereinbefore described, the press head may then be locked and the upper projecting ends of the tie rods 9 welded to the upper end disk while the laminations are under pressure. Instead of flattening all the and end disks, presenting a longitudinally extending keying portion for adapting said bore removably to receive a tapered roll supporting mandrel having a longitudinally extending keying portion, at least a portion of the core constituted by a row of consecutively adjacent laminae being formed by openings in such lamlaminations at once, and particularly when the shell is of considerable length, a removable dummy end disk may be placed in the shell after about one-quarter of the laminations are placed in it, and, by use of a longer sleeve is than shown in Fig. 16, the dummy end disk may be placed under pressure to flatten the laminations and then be removed. This operation may be repeated until the final fraction of the lamina tions is placed in the shell, whereupon the end disk I to be used in the finished roll may be placed in position and the laminations subjected to the final compressing and flattening operation. The pressure employed for forcing the upper end disk into place may be considerable, satisfactory results having been secured with a shell 12 inches internal diameter with a pressure of about 70 tons. Such pressure not only flattens the cupshaped end disks, but actually tends to cause them to expand after they are flattened particu larly when the laminations are formed of cardboard, aluminum, or other relatively soft mate-' rial. As the upper end disk is welded to the tie rods while the head of the press is locked to maintain this pressure the core formed by the lamilaminations at their peripheries opposite the openings to bear resiliently against-the inner wall of the shell with great pressure, particularly when the laminations are of steel or other metal.
It will be understood that within the scope of the appended claims wide deviations may be made from the forms of the invention described a without departing from the spirit of the invention.
1. A print roll or the like having an outer metallic shell of copper or high copper content alloy, a core comprising a rigid end disk at each of the opposite ends of said shell, and, between said end disks, a series of radially compressible, inherently laterally bendable, transversely positioned, contacting disk-like laminae of relatively thin sheet material of lighter weight than the material of said shell, tie rods under initial longitudinal tension extending through said core and connected to said end disks acting to hold said laminae in intimate contact and mutually lateral supporting relation and the series of laminae under initial lonigtudinal compression independently 'of said shell, the shell intimately fitting the peripheries of the individual laminae throughout their extent and compressing them radially whereby the laminae engage the shell inae shaped to flt the tapered mandrel and to form at least part of the keying portion of said bore.
'2. A print roll or the like according to claim 1 in which at least some of the laminae have spaced angularly extending through openings to provide radially depressible portions between said openings and the peripheral edges of said laminae, the portions of the peripheral edges of said laminae opposite said openings being depressed by the shell in the assembled roll whereby those portions are of less distance radially from the axes of the laminae than the portions of those edges which are angular-1y between said openings, the shell fitting said edges of the laminae under radial pressure at both of said portions thereof. 3. A print roll or the like according to claim 1 in which at least some of the laminae have spaced angularly extending through openings to provide radially depressible portions between said openings and the peripheral edges of said laminae, the portions of the peripheral edges of said laminae opposite said openings being depressed by the shell in the assembled roll whereby those portions are of less distance radially from the axes of the laminae than the portions of those edges which are angularly between said openings, the shell fitting said edges of the laminae under radial pressure at both of said portions thereof, the through openings of some of the laminae being out of alignment with those of other laminae.
, 4. A print roll or the like according to claim 1 in which theperipheral edges of at least some of the laminae are formed with angularly spaced notches severally extending from one lateral side to the other of the laminae, the outer surface of the shell being cylindrical, and its inner surface fitting both the notched and unnotched portions of said edges under radial pressure.
5. A print roll or the like according to claim 1 in which the peripheral edges of at least some of the laminae are formed with angularly spaced notches severally extending from one lateral side to th other of the laminae, the notches of at least some of such laminae being unaligned with those of other of such laminae, the outer surface of the shell being cylindrical, and its inner surface fitting both the notched and unnotched portions of said edges under radial pressure.
6. A print roll or the likeaccording to claim 1 in which the peripheral edges of at least some of the laminae are formed with angularly spaced flattened portions to cause said edges to be roughly polygonal, the outer surface of the shell being cylindrical, and its inner surfac fitting all portions of said edges under radial pressure. '1. A print roll or the like according to claim .1 in which the peripheral edges of at least some of the laminae are formed with angularly spaced flattened portions'to cause said edges to be roughly polygonal, the flattened portions of shell being cylindrical, and its inner surface fitunder initial radial pressure, the core having an C axial bore, formed by openings in the laminae 7 ting all portions of said edges under radial pres- 8. A print roll or the like according to claim 1 in which th laminae are formed of relatively soft sheet material such as aluminum, cardboard or the like.
9. A print roll or the like according to claim 1 in which the row of consecutively adjacent laminae are formed with integral tab-like projections extending into the mandrel receiving bore, which projections collectively form a key for entry into a keyway in the mandrel.
10. A print roll or the like according to claim 1 in which the laminae are formed of cardboard or the like, the walls of the openings of the row of consecutively adjacent laminae being formed with substantially V-shaped notches which c01- lectively form a keyway for a key of complementary cross-section carried by the mandrel.
JOSEPH M. GOULDING,
10 REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 14,542 Webster et al May 25, 1856 508,696 Giaconini Nov. 14, 1893 1,763,124 Barber June 10, 1930 1,906,738 Carroll May 2, 1933 1,984,115 Cooper Dec. 11, 1934 2,046,503 Cooper July 7, 1936 2,046,504 Cooper July 7, 1936 2,127,824 Leuchter Aug. 23, 1938 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 177,626 Great Britain Aug. 6, 1922 583,480 Germany Sept. 4, 1933