US 2501630 A
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M 395G J. M. GOULDING 2,501,630
METHOD OF MAKING PRINT ROLLS Original Filed June 15, 1944. s heets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. 7056 211011 Gouldzizg March 23, 1950 J, GQULDING 2,501,630
METHOD OF MAKING PRINT ROLLS Original Filed June 13, 1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR. Jir-se z'ahlil. 6011161122 March 21, 1950 J.- M. GOULDING fi fi METHOD OF MAKING PRINT ROLLS Origipal Filed June 15, 1944 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR. Josep hl'ifiouzdzin g Patented Mar. 21, 1950 METHOD OF MAKING PRINT ROLLS Joseph M. Goulding, Fairhaven, Mass, assignor to Revere Copper and Brass Incorporated, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Maryland Original application June 13, 1944, Serial No. 540,040. Divided and this application-October 31, 1945, Serial No. 625,846
3 Claims. (01. 29-448) My invention relates to methods of making print rolls, the present application being a division of my copending application Serial Number 540,040, filed June 13, 1944.
The invention, which has among its objects a method of making a print roll of lighter Weight, and less expensive construction and manufacture, than prior print rolls, will be best understood from the following description of several embodiments of the invention, while the scope of the.j
invention will be more particularly pointed out in the appended claims. 4. .In thedrawin Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section on the lines ll of Figs. 4 and 5, with parts in elevation, of a print roll made by a method according to the invention;
Fig. 2 is an end elevation of the print roll according to Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a more or less diagrammatic illustration of a step of a method according to the invention;
Figs. 4 and 5 are, respectively, sections on the lines 44 and 55 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 6 is a transverse section, corresponding to Fig. 4, of a modified form of print roll made by a method according to the invention;
Fig. '7 is a fragmentary transverse section, corresponding to Fig. 6, on an enlarged scale;
Fig. 8 is a transverse section, corresponding to Fig. 4, of a further modified form of print roll made by a method according to the invention;
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary transverse section, corresponding to Fig. 8, on an enlarged scale;
Fig. 10 is a plan of a lamination employed for the core of a still further modified form of print roll made by a method according to the invention;
Fig. 11 is an isometric View of a fragment of the length of a key employed in the print roll hav- Fig. 14 is a more or less diagrammatic fragmentary section on the line l4--M of Fig. 13;
Fig. 15 illustrates a step in a, method of making the core for a print roll to which the shell is applied in the Way illustrated by Fig. 3; and
Fig. lfiillustratesaste in a further modified 2 method of making a print roll according to the invention.
Heretofore print rolls, as a commercial proposition, have been almost exclusively made of a solid mass of copper pierced to receive the mandrel .on which the roll is mounted. Such rolls, although on the whole satisfactory, nevertheless have the defect of employing a large amount of the relatively expensive and strategic metal copper, which latter being the heaviest of common structural metals except lead causes the print roll to be of ob-jectionably great static weight, and, when rapidly rotatedin the printing machine, to be subject to objectionably large rotative inertia and frequently to objectionable dynamic unbalance. The manufacture of such prior rolls, in order to secure copper of structural characteristics permitting satisfactory engraving, and secure copper of sufliciently homogeneous density to minimize in so far as is possible dynamic balance, has heretofore involved hot forging a copper billet, piercing it, and then extruding it over an arbor to shape it and form a key or keyway for splining it to the mandrel. Such manufacture not only involves expensive operations, but requires the use of expensive equipment. Thus, because of high material and labor costs, and
high capital investment for specially designed equipment, and the cost of maintenance of the latter, print rolls have heretofore been produced only at a relatively high cost to the user. The present invention overcomes these defects and objections in the ways hereinafter set forth.
Referring particularly to Figs. ,1, 2, 4 and 5, the print roll illustrated comprises an outer shell I of copper or highcopper content copper base alloy, the shell preferably being constituted by a drawn or extruded seamless tube of requisite external diameter. This tube, which preferably comprises the only copper included in the roll, may have walls about inch thick. As shown, supporting the shell on the mandrel 3 is a core formed of a series of contacting laminations 5, each end of the core being provided with and disks 1, preferably of steel, which are connected by steel or other metallic tie rods 9 extending through the laminated core and the end disks.
The mandrel 3 is preferably tapered. to permit it readily to beremoved fromthe print roll and a new mandrel inserted. Such taper however need be very slight as, for example, that corresponding to a reduction of 0.0035 inch in diameter of the mandrel for each inch of length thereof.
Preferably also, the core but not the end disks, is keyed to the mandreL'the latter for this pur- 3 pose in the form of the invention illustrated by Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5 being provided with the longitudinally extending keyway ll, while the laminations of the core contacting the mandrel are each integrally formed with a. projecting tab-like portion l3 (Fig. 4) extending into the mandrel receiving bore of the lamination, the portions l3 of the series of adjacent laminations collectively,
forming a continuous longitudinally extending key fitting into the keyway of the mandrel.
As best illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5, all the laminations of the core need not contact the mandrel. To this end, as best illustratedin Fig. 1, groups of adjacent laminations may have a bore i4 larger than the diameter-off the mandrel to form annular recesses' I5 surrounding the mandrel, which laminations when such recesses are present are keyed to the mandrel only at the portions of the core between the recesses and between them and the end disks. The employment of these recesses lightens the core and simplifies its manufacture.
The core shown by. Figs. 1, 4 and 5 is provided adjacent its periphery with longitudinally extending openings I! of considerable angular. extent symmetrically spaced with relation to thetie rods 9. These openingsor slots serve further to reduce. the weight'of the core, and,,being positioned adjacent the periphery of the core, act to reduce the rotative inertia of the. print roll, and further actto. cause the shell to be secured to the core as will hereinafter be explained. The laminations may be: formed with slots of the cross-sectional shape of these. openings, and, when the laminationsare'assembled to form the core, the aligned slots collectively form such openings.
The laminations of which thecore is formed are of light weight material such as sheet aluminum. Cardboard also may be employed, which, although in some respects not perhaps as satisfactory a material as aluminum, is still lighter and less expensive. Sheet mild steel, whichv also is lighter than copper, may also be employed in some instances. The laminations preferably are thin, although their. thickness is not at all critical. When aluminum or mild steel is employed for the laminations a thickness of about inch. and when cardboard is employed a; thickness of about inch has been found to give. satisfactory results.
When aluminum or steel laminations are employed they are preferably keyed to the mandrel in the above described way illustrated by Figs. 1 and 4. However, when cardboard laminations are employed. it has beenfound that the. projecting portions I3 of the laminations, which in the assembled print roll collectively form keys, are liable to break during theLpunching operation for forming the laminations, or in assembling them. Con sequently, when cardboard laminations are employed, they are preferably keyed to the mandrel in'the way illustrated-by Figs. 10, 11 and 12, ,according to. which the mandrelreceiving bore l9 ofeach lamination contacting with the mandrel in theassembled roll is formed with a notch 2| preferably V-shaped, while inserted in the keyway- I [of the mandrel-.3.-is.a key 23 of such crosssectional. shape. and dimensions as to provide, when so inserted, a longitudinally extending V- shaped portion 25 projecting. from the mandrel, this. V.-shaped portion beingof shapev complementary. to the notch 2| and serving to key. the
laminated core to the mandrel in the assembled roll.
Preferably, in making the print roll according to Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 4, or the modified print roll according to Figs. 10, 11 and 12, the laminations are first stamped out to the shapes illustrated and the end disks 1 are formed and the tie rods 9 cut to the proper length. As formed*the end disks preferably are provided with bores 21 (Figs. 1 and 15) for receiving the tie rods, which bores at the outer faces of the disks are preferably countersunk'as illustrated at 29. With such construction the tie rods may be secured to the end disks by fusion welding which melts the projecting ends of the tielrods down into these countersinks, or the countersinks may be filled by a welding operation withseparate weld metal which unites the tie rods to the end disks.
According to one method of making the print roll,.one;end disk is placed on the upper horizontal face of the bed 3| (Fig. 15) of a hydraulic press, preliminary to which one of the ends of each tie rod'is secured to that end disk in one of the ways above explainedso that the tie rods project upwardly from said bed. Through the mandrel receiving bore 33 of this end disk is placed a vertically extending mandrel form 35, which is illustrated in Fig. 15 extends into and rests upon the bottom of a recess 31' in the bed 3! of the press. The mandrel form 35 is shown as provided with a keyway corresponding to the keyway H of the mandrelto be used with thefinished roll. This keyway in the mandrel form may contain a key corresponding to the key 23 (Fig. 11) or not depending upon which the waysabove described the mandrel is to be keyed to the-finished roll. Preferably, also, the mandrel form is slightly tapered upwardly as shown in Fig. 15 to correspond with the taper of the mandrel to be used with the print'roll. The laminations forming the core 5 are then slipped, say one by one, over the upper ends of the mandrel formand tie rods. When sufiicient' laminations are thus assembled to secure a core of the desired length the upper end disk I isslipped over the mandrel form and tie rods, and a sleeve 39 having a bore for receiving the mandrel form-is placed'on that end disk, whereupon the plunger head of the press is caused to descend upon the-upper end of the sleeve'39 and compress the laminations. While the laminations are thus-placed under pressure the head 4| of the press is locked in position and the upper projecting ends of the tie rods 9-are cut off and welded to the upper end disks in one of the ways above described, whereupon re moval of the pressure of the head M on the core the latter will be maintained under compression by the tie rods. When the length of the rollis suchas to make it necessary the laminations'on the mandrel form and tie rods may be subjected to pressure to compact them when the core is partiall built. up, and several such compacting operations may be necessary as the core is gradually built up and. before the upper end disk is placed. in.position and the core is subjected to the final compacting operation. These preliminary compacting operationsmay be readily performed by employing a dummy upper end disk 1 and sleeves 39 of requisitelength.
The core. end'.disks and mandrel form assembled as above described may then be removed from the press and the core turned in a lathe to removeall excess projections and preferably make it of the same diameter as the end disks, relative slipping. of the laminations transversely of the core being prevented by the compression under which the core is held'by the tle'rods. A shell 'l which at this stage has an inner diameter slightly greater than the outer diameter of the core, say about 0.05 inch greater, is then slipped over the core and the entire assembly pushed through an opening 43 of a suitably supported die 65, as illustrated diagrammatically in Fig. 3, to reduce the diameter of the shell and cause it intimately to contact with the core. For moving the assembly through the die opening a block 41 of suflicient diameter to engage both an end of the shell and the adjacent end disk is placed between the assembly and the head 49 of the hydraulic press which forces the assembly through the die opening. After the assembly is advanced for almost its entire length through the die opening a smaller diameter block may be substituted for the block 47 to permit the assembly to be entirely pushed through the die opening.
' The above described reducing operation on the shell somewhat compresses the laminations radially so that the outer diameter of the core between the end disks becomes slightly less than the outer diameter of those disks as illustrated in Fig. 1, the laminations being compressed against the mandrel form to cause them tightly to fit and conform with said form. When the core is keyed to the mandrel, as illustrated by Figs. 10, 11 and 12, this compression of the laminations causes the V-shaped notches in the laminations tightly to fit the key.
I To compensate for the taper of the mandrel 'form the laminations as placed on that form in the steps illustrated by Fig. 15 are preferably so formed that groups of adjacent laminations contacting the mandrel form in the finished roll have mandrel receiving bores of diameter corresponding to the maximum diameter of the portion of the mandrel form with which that group is to contact. The compressionof the core by the 1 reducing operation on the shell illustrated by Fig. 3 serves to cause all the laminations of each group to compress sufficiently to contact with the mandrel form. Thelength of the portion of the mandrel form with which each group contacts will depend upon the radial compressibility of the material of the core. This length may be shorter for aluminum laminations than for cardboard laminations, and may be still shorter for mild steel laminations.
When the openings I? are formed in the core those portions 5] (Figs. 4 and 13) of the laminations which lie between such openings and the peripheries of the laminations are slightly depressed inwardly as a result of the reducing operation on the shell, more than are those portions 53 of the laminations which lie between the op- The metal of the shell flows during the reducing operation so that the inner surface of the shell will conform to the outer surface of the core thus deformed, while its outer surface will be cylindrical as determined by the shape of the die opening' through which the assembly is forced. As a result of this operation the outer surface of the core is made roughlypolygonalin cross-section while the inner surface of the shell is made of complementary shape, which acts to insure against any possibility of angular slip between the shell and the core when the roll is in use, it being understood that when the roll is in use it is under very great pressure. Furthermore, in these respects, the various laminations are not deformed to the same extent due to variations in their thickness, temper, hardness, and the like. As a result, after the reducing operation the outer surface of the core, particularly the portions opposite the opening ll, will be more or less irregular as diagrammatically indicated in Fig. 14, which figure shows the outer surface of certain laminations forming recesses 59 relative to projections 6| formed by the outer surface of other laminations, while the shell is formed with recesses 63 in which these projections El fit and with projections 65 projecting into the recesses 59, as a result of which the shell is locked against movement of the core axially thereof.
If desired, the laminations of which the core is formed may take the form of those shown by Figs. 6 and 7, in which form the laminations 61 are so stamped out as to provide their peripheries, after the core is turned in the lathe, with a series of shallow recesses 69 and intervening projections 1!, illustrated on a larger scale in Fig. 7. When the laminations are assembled over the tie rods the core formed will be provided with spaced longitudinally extending grooves and projections corresponding to the recesses and projections of the laminations. When the shell is placed on the core and reduced the metal of the shell will flow as a result of the reducing operation and form projections I3 filling these longitudinal grooves in the core, thus acting to lock the core against angular slippage relative to the core. Otherwise the print roll may be constructed identically with those above described.
According to the modification of the invention shown by Figs. 8 and 9, the print roll is constructed identically with that described in connection with Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5 except that the laminations 15 are provided with a series of flattened portions ll on their peripheries, shown on an enlarged scale in Fig. 9. As a result, when the laminations are assembled on the tie rods, a core is formed with spaced longitudinally extending flattened outer surfaces, and, when the shell is placed over the core and reduced by passing the assembly through the die opening, the metal of the shell will flow and fill what in substance amount to recesses formed by these flattened surfaces, which will act to lock the shell against angular slippage relative to the core.
If desired, the core of the roll according to Figs. 6 and 7, and that according to Figs. 8 and 9, may also be formed with the openings I! hereinbefore described, which will lighten the core adjacent its periphery and secure the additional eifects described in connection with Figs. 13 and 14. Otherwise the roll according to both of these 'modifications may be constructed and manufactured the same way as the roll according to Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5.
The roll according to Figs. 1, 2, 4 and 5, and the roll according to Figs. 10, 11 and 12, particularly when the laminations are formed of cardboard, may also be formed by the method indicated by Fig. 16. According to this method, the lower end disk 1, with the tie rods 9 Welded to it in the manner hereinbefore described, is placed on the bed 3% of the press with the shell I surrounding that disk. The laminations 5, having a diameter slightly greater than the inner diameter of the shell,
are then successively pushed into theshell one at a time. Because ofztheirhaving a greater. diameter than the inner diameter of the shell thiswill cause the. laminationsto lie-slightly cupped as indicated at 79 (Fig; 16). After the shell is thus filled with laminations the upper end disk '5 may be placed inpositionas indicated in Fig. 16, and the press headifl by meansof a sleeve 39 placed between itandthat end disk may be caused-to descend to compress andfiatten the laminations to cause them to bind tightly against the shell, the mandrel form, and the key or keyway of the mandrel form. As hereinbefore described, the press head may then be locked and the upper projecting ends of the tie rods 9 welded to the upper end disk while the laminations are-under pressure. Insteadlof flattening; all the laminations at once, and particularly when the shell is of considerable length, a removable dummy end disk may be placed in the shell after about one-quarter of the laminations are placed in it, and, by use of a longer sleeve 39 than shown in Fig. 16, the dummyv end disk may be placed under pressure tog flatten the laminations and then be removed. This operation may be repeated until the final fraction of the laminations is placed in the shell, whereupon the end disk I to be used in the finished-roll may be placed in position and the laminations subjected to the final compressing and flattening operation. The pressure employed for forcing the upper end disk intoplace may be considerable, satisfactory results having been secured with a shell 12 inches internal diameter with a pressure of about 70 tons. pressure not only flattens the cup-shaped end disks, but actually tends to cause them to expand after they are flattened particularly when the laminations are formed of cardboard, aluminum, or other relatively soft material. As the upper end disk'is welded to the tie rods while the head of the press is locked to maintain this pressure the core formed by the laminations exerts such pressure against the shell-as to bind the core and shell together against relative movement when the roll is in use. The roll made according-to this-last described method preferably is formed with the openings I? for reducing the weight of its portions adjacent its periphery. Such openings also act to cause thelaminations at their peripheries opposite the openings to bear resiliently against the inner wall of the shell with great pressure, particularly when the laminationsa re of steel or other metal.
It will be understood that within the scope of theappended claims wide deviations may be made from the forms of the invention described without departing from the spirit of the invention.
1. The method of forming a print roll or the likeiwhich comprises building upon a mandrel orthelike a laminated core the laminations of which are positioned transversely of said mandrel, placing a metal shell over said core, and passing the assembly through a die opening to reduce the diameter of saidshell and cause-it intimately to engage said core under pressure, at least some of the laminations being formed with openings adjacent their peripheries providing angularly extending portions of reduced radial width between said openings and the peripheries ofv such laminations, the pressure of the shell against said portions when the diameter of the shell is reduced depressing said portions relative to the bodies of Such the laminations, thepassage of the assembly through .thedie opening causing the metal of'the shell to flow into the depressions so formed.
2. The method of forming a print rollor the like which comprises building up on a mandrel or the like, between rigid end members one at least of Which is movable longitudinally of said mandrel, a laminated core the laminations of which are positioned transversely of said mandrel; pressing the end-members relatively toward each other for compressing the core, and, while the core is under pressure, tying one end member to the'other; placing a metal shell over the. core; and passing the assembly through a die opening to reduce the diameter of said shell and cause it intimately to engage said core under pressure, at least some of the laminations being formed with openings adjacent their peripheries provid ing angularly extending portions of reduced radial width-between said openings and the peripheries of such laminations, the pressure of the shell against said portions when the diameter ofthe shell is reduced depressing said. portions relative to the bodies of the laminations, the passageofthe assembly through the die opening causing the metal of the shell to flow into the depressions so formed.
3. The method of forming a print roll or the like which comprises placing over amandrelor the like a rigid member having. an opening through which the mandrel extends and. providing tierods extending from said memberin parallel relation to said mandrel; threading laminations over said mandrel and tie rods'hfform a core which at one end thereof contacts said member; placing a second rigid member over said mandrel at the end of said core opposite the first mentioned rigid member; pressing one of said .rigid members toward the other for compressing the core, and, while the latter is under pressure, tying said rigid members to each other by use of said tie rods; placing a metal shell over said rigid members and the laminated core thus formed; and passing the assembly through a die opening to reduce the diameter of said shell and cause it intimately to engage said core under pressure, at least some of the laminations being formed with openings adjacent their peripheries providing angularly extending portions of reduced radial width between said openings and the peripheries of such laminations, the pressure .of the shell against said portions when the diameter of the shell is reduced depressing said portions relative to the bodies of the laminations, the passage of the assembly through the die opening causing the metal of the shell to flow into the depressions so-formed.
JOSEPH. M. GOULDING.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date- 508,696 Giacomini Nov. 14, 1893 1,763,124 Barber June 10, 1930 1,906,378 Carrol May 2, 1933 1,984,115 Cooper- Dec. 11, 1934 1,989,186 DeBats Jan. 29, 1935 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 177,626 Great Britain Apr. 6, 1922