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Publication numberUS2502499 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 4, 1950
Filing dateJun 2, 1945
Priority dateJun 2, 1945
Publication numberUS 2502499 A, US 2502499A, US-A-2502499, US2502499 A, US2502499A
InventorsRobert G Ames
Original AssigneeGeorge Williams, Stanley Ames
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Combined tape and mastic applicator
US 2502499 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

April 4, 1950 I R. G. AMEs COMBINED TAPE AND MASTIC APPLICATOR 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Q Filed June 2, 1945 HTTOQ/ E vs April 4, 1950 R. G. AMES COMBINED TAPE AND MASTIC APPLICATOR 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jpne 2, 1945 mmvrozc 19055276 flMES HTTOE/VEYS shownzoperativeiyzconnectedwto;a;'pcntabie: mastic 'pressureieedingzmeansw Patented Apr. 4, v195) .ZQOMBINEDLTAPE- AND MASTIC :APPLICATOR Rocert G.' Ames, Bui*1ingame,Calif., as'si'gnor-of rone ehalfa torGeorgeiwilliams; and one fourtlrto :Staniey z-Amesgboth of BurlingameKCalif. .-"Application.lun'2; 1945;Serial No, 5971345 313 Claims.

object-of :my invention is 'to provide ta'combineld tape "and "mastic applicatorwhich "is an improvement 'JOVEI the :Zform 'of my 'i-irrvention shown tin v:my Patent No. "2,300,398, issued November 1942. "In1'the-patenteddeviceI' show means for-feeding" a tapepast a nozzle" where a layermfma'stic is"a-pp]ied-" to" the tape'and'then meansfis'provi'ded for'appiying the" tape "with the mastic directly to the "wail-board. The patent further "shows" a* hand-actuated "mechanism for severing the' tape so that the device can-be used for applying tape and mastic to a joint inawaliboardpwhether the joint is" long or short.

TIn the presentform of my invention'I make use of-a*poi'ta'bleihopper'and mastic feeding means i so' thatmasticunder the de'siredpressurecan be fed to the tape as' required. The" portable mastic feeding means is=shown in my co-pen'dingepplication, Seria1""No.- 56'T, 826, T filed December 12', 1944, now Pat'.No22436',783.

In the present tooI I'showameW ty-peof m-u'dfeedin'g nozzle -whichwill apply a layer of "mud or mastic to the tape'ofthede'siredthickness-and 6f the desired-cross sectional s-hape =or contour. I furtherprovide ari=improved type of tape cutter. The tool also hasa" tape feedin'gmeans Which-will move the new =section of tape into a *pesitiomat the endof -the tool -to receive a layer of or mastic.

n still furtherrobjectofiimy invention is -to' provide a device of the "type described wvhich -has novel meane for applying-a pressure meniber to the'tape immediately-after the" tape with its layer of mastic has been -=applied #to '-the a Wall. "The pressure member -can' be' changed toa d sc like member for creasing the' tape atl' itscenter and for forcing the fold' into a-"corner joint when the device :is-use'd for sealing such'a joint. All of the levers Tor-actuating the various "mechanism' are "grouped together "so that the *operator "may manipulate, any*'one';of fthemfi'readiiy. Trprovide receptacles Z011. both sides of f" the ltoo1"'head for catching :any *excess mastic :and "for preventing this.masticfromidropping onto. the "floor.

i'Oither ,obj ects and advantages Wi11.. appear in the following specification; andthe .noveLfeatures of Lthei device will be; particularly; vpointed outv in the appended/claims. I v

y. invention; isii ilustnated int-"the:- accompanying drawingsaforming; 1a partuo'fathisa application,

inm-hich: I :Eigunel Lismschematicmiew;of:thezentire device "Figure? is=a iola nview of the "underside of the device;

Figure'S' is a- 'sideelevation of Figure 2;

"Figures' i -'and=35: shoW-'side' and plan vieWs,fre-- spectiveiy; of the-tape-feedingmeans;

Figure 6 iilu'strates' the mechanismTor -forcing the tape intoa' corner joint;

' Figures 7 and*-'8= show plan arid-side -vie'ws,"respec'tively, of the cutting blade carrier;

Figure 91s a Wiring diagram; @FigurelO is an isometric View of the" cutting bladeand associate *mechanismra nd Figure 11 shows-the pressure bladeforpressing the tape into pos'-ition -immediatelyafter the" tape has been applied" to :a' flat -Wa11-board"joint. While'I have shownofflythepreferred formsf my'invention, it 'should 1 be understood that various changes or modifications I may "be made within the scope 'ofthe appended-"claims without departing from thespiiitandscopeof the invention.

in carrying :outmy invention, I proVidea tool in whi'ch a -compai'tment A' is used for'holdinga roll of tape,-"the-'roli 'being iridicated at B. "The roilis mounted on a central hub l and ishoused Within the compartment or container- A. roilr'etaining strip ZT' eXt'ends'diametrically-across the open side 3 of the compartmentrand a wing screw 4,: see Figure 12. is inserted through a central opening in" the strip* and enters a" threaded opening'in thehubl. In this way' the tape "rollfis secured in place. 'It-is' obvious that a cover "may be used for ciosing the open 'end' '3'instead of' the st'rip,if desired.

"The compartmentA" communicates with a rectangular-shaped tube C""throug'h' which the tape 5" passes. f The tube may 'be 'of"anyf+1ength7desired and is generallyi'made long enoughrsoithat the operator can 'stand 'on the 'fiooriof :arroomrarrd tape "a ceiling joinththelztape being: fedsfromtthe free end oftheitubeiarid applied to'tthe' jointby a mechanism presently? to "be 'described. The: tube C has. a 'ha'n'diehti; see :JFigure 2, :that "can the grippedbythe operator-is'right hand.

Referring to T-Figure 5 3, zit wiiltberiseen that :a

mastic conveying pipeiDsextends' alongthe top' hOSBHlEEiIdiII t05-I8 portablezhopper indicatedegenerally at F and to be described hereinafter. The handle 6 is so placed on the tube that it is convenient for the operator to grip it with the right hand and to manipulate the valve 9 with the left. In this way the operator can open and close the valve 9 at will while still controlling the operation of the tool.

Again referring to Figure 2, it will be seen that the tape passes from theopen end III of the tube C into a housing indicated generally at G. Within the housing I dispose a tape feeding means and this is shown in detail in Figures 4 and 5. The tape 5 moves over a metal sheet H, which is a continuation of one wall of the tube C and the housing G has a partition l2 that parallels the wall H and is spaced therefrom so that the tape can pass therebetween. The partition l2 carries parallel guides l3 and these guides slidably support a carriage M. The partition !2 is slotted between the guides. An L-shaped trigger l5 pivoted at It has a pin l1 slidable in the partition slot and designed to be forced into the tape 5 when the trigger is moved forwardly or to the right in Figure 4. The other end. of the trigger is bifurcated at [8 and receives a pin l9 which in turn is carried by a rod 20. Figure 2 shows the rod 20 pivotally connected to a lever 2| which in turn is pivotally mounted on the tube C at 22. A spring 23 holds the rod in normally retracted position. 7

When the lever 2| is swung in a counter-clockwise direction when looking at Figure 2, the rod 20 will be moved forwardly and this initial movement will cause the pin H? to swing the trigger about its pivot for forcing the pin l1 into the tape 5. Further movement of the rod in the same direction will move the carrier [4 along the guides l3 and the pin will advance the tape toward the free end of the tool. When the lever 2| is released, the spring 23 will return it immediately to starting position. The initial return movement of the rod 28' will swing the trigger l5 about its pivot to free the pin I! from the tape and further rearward movement of the rod will carry the trigger and pin I1, now freed from the tape, back to a new position. Each time the lever 2| is manually actuated, the tape will be stepwise advanced.

The tape passes to the forward end of the housing G while still being confined between the wall H and the partition l2. At the free end of the housing, I provide a transversely extending knife guide indicated generally at H, see Figure 10. The guide may be of any shape desired and I have shown it channel-shaped and slidably receiving a block 24. The block slides in the channel and carries a cutting blade 25 of the shape shown in Figure 8. The blade 25 has an end 25a extending beyond the block 24 for a purpose hereinafter described. The blade has an inclined cutting edge 25b and a niche 26 for receiving a set screw 21. The block 21 has an insert 28 with a threaded opening for receiving the screw and in this way the blade is removably secured to the block. New blades may be substituted for worn'ones.

Figures 2, 7 and .8 showichain sections 29 connected to oppositeen'ds of the block 24 and one section is secured to a link'30, see Figure 2, which in turn is pivotally secured at 3| to an L-shaped handle 32. The handle slides in a sleeve 33 which is secured to the tube C. The other section of the chain 29 is connected to a spring 34 and the spring in turn is anchored to the tube C at 35.

A'movement of the handle 32 rearwardly or towards the handle 6 will actuate the chain 29 to move the blade holder 24 transversely from one end of the channel H to the other. The channel guides the blade transversely across the tape 5 and the cutting edge 25b will sever the tape. The chain sections 29 pass around rollers 36. The handle 32 can move the blade to the position shown in Figure 10 and the rear portion 25a of the blade will still engage with a portion of the tape end. As soon as the handle 32 is free, the spring 34 will return the blade to its starting position and since the edge 25a contacts with the free end of the tape 5, this return movement can be made without the blade crumpling the tape. The operator can actuate the blade at any time he desires so that any length of tape can be severed from the roll of tape.

It will be seen that parallel cars 31 extend beyond the housing G and the ears carry a shaft 38 on which are rotatably mounted a pair of toothed tape applying wheels 39. Between the toothed wheels I mount a grooved wheel 40 for a purpose hereinafter described. The tape as it emerges from between the partition l2 and the wall H passes over a spring blade 4| that bears against the underside of the tape and is for the purpose of scraping away any mud or mastic that might adhere to this side of the tape. The tape then passes around a portion of the toothed applying wheels 39 and Figure 3 shows the tape being applied by the wheels to a wall-board indicated at J.

The tube D has a nozzle end 42 for applying mastic to the side of the tape that will be pressed against the wall-board J. A gate 43, see Figure 3, is hinged at 44 and has an edge 45 that may be moved toward or away from the tape 5 by means of an adjusting screw 46. the gate edge 45 and the tape 5 determines the thickness of the mastic applied to the tape. Furthermore the edge 45 may be of different shapes so as to give a cross sectional shape to the layer of mastic of any desired contour.

From the device thus far described, it will be apparent that the tape with the layer of mud or mastic is applied to the wall-board joint by the toothed wheels 39. It is best now to describe the means for feeding the mastic under pressure to the pipe D. In Figure 1 I show a portable platform 41 mounted on caster rollers 48 and the platform carries the hopper shown at 49. The hopper 49 holds a quantity of mastic which may be sufficient for example for taping all of the wall-board joints in a six-room house. The hopper may be made larger or smaller as desired.

A gear pump 50 is operated by a pulley 5| which in turn is rotated by a motor 52 through the medium of a pulley 53 and a belt 54. The pump 50 draws mastic from the hopper 49 through a conduit 55 and forces the mastic under pressure through the hose E to the pipe D.

The platform 41 may carry its own source of elec-'. tric current, which is shown as comprising a stor-. age battery 56,:01' the motor may be connected to a source or current. The mechanism for turning the motor-' 52 on and off as the valve 3 isv opened and closed is shown in my co-pending application and is not'made a part of this case. Further description need not be given.

Referring to Figures 2 and 3, it will be noted that the grooved wheel 40 carries an arm 51: that has a circular edge 58. The arm may carry a'disc, which will be described later in connection with Figure 11,'and this disc takes the place of the arcuate edge. A spring 59'normally holds;-

The space between" eayeoawae theearmedownsupqnithe!housingQG. rAecabletill isezconnected'zto 1 .thezarm land"; is-ppassedearound fthsngroovedv wheel i llleandsis;connectedetweannhshapedearmzrlil2ata62. iTheaarmfih slides inaa bearings--63; that carriedlby rtheatubefl. 5A rearward movement of the arm 6| will cause the cable ,i eswingtheearnn 51:fontorcingtthecurved edge .58:against-;thetape; 5torafolding z'theetapeaalong aznmediumldine and for. forcing": thei fold intozla; 'cornerijointyloeing,taped; see Figure 6. Eigureallp,

under pressure -to-.the -';pipe:.D throughitheihose E. :They atedil will control thetthickness ofathe mastielayer on the tapesandtalso thel'crossesecti-onal shape of a mastic.

;The .tool is. .movedover a :groove 65,; fomned between .the .two wall-.boardosectionsn66. andolil. In-certain wall-.boardlconstructions,rnopgroove. is .providedaat'theg. joint, and innthistcaseethe tape and mastic' aresiappliedsidirectlyetoatheg joint '68. The toolmay be'movedlalong;theggrooreirreither direction .desired. -..Usual;ly where. the groove is verticaLgthe .tool is astarted from ithelr'ebottomeof thagrooveaand is movedupwardly. The tapeand mastic are. applied tonthergroovel.andethe'z operator may: manipulate the arm 6 If. for [moving the pressuregplatez fidw against the tape. slfra corner a joint is :beingi.tapd,;1the; pressuregplate; 64: -isrre-. moved and .thelcurved' edge-5'1 or. a .disc, ..the'- latter-beingclescribed later in the specification,:-takes the placezot the;:curved:edge :and creases the'itape longitudinallyzand iorcesitheifold intolthe roove as shown in Figure 6.

Afteritheuentirergroove has been covered with the mastic and tape, the operator actuates the handle 32 toseverthe tape. *As the same time the valve; 9 .is: closed and the motorfizwiszstopped. During the operation of therdevice, ifZEhBI'efiS any excessmmastic, -it ..will .dropinto;receptacles 69 and 16' provided'for' this purpose Before the operater starts taping another groove, he feeds the-cutend-"of the tape to the end of. the-tool: by manipulating the lever 2 I. The valve -9*'-ca*1flbe againopened and the-tool usedin the-manner already described.

In Figure? I show-a wiringdiagram.somewhat the" same as that'tdisclosed inimyco-pendingi'application.iSerial No. 567,826. iIn this 'WiringLidia.- "gram,;'the..motor' 52 is'de'signated'. M andaas'switch '1 his closedywhen the valve'filisopened. .Tmactual ,ipractice thelvalve aarm for the naive .9 twillcopen the switch H when'fthe valve is closed. The closing of the switch connects the battery 56 or other source of current to a solenoid 12 and the solenoid will close a motor switch [3 that connects the motor 52 with the current source 56. So long as the valve '9is kept open, the motor 52 will operate and will cause the pump 50 to deliver mastic under pressure to the device. The closing of the valve 9 will open the switch II and this will de-energize the solenoid 12 and cause the .motoreswitbh =1 132150: open,i:thusestopping iiurlther operationot the.motonamtpump. iiEnLEieure: 1 IZIL'iIidiCatBSLIhBl-Z arm- Shes. carrying arzdisc "randl'the discisrrotatably securedrtoathe arm at 75. In .actual ipractice thearmiflwvill Y either;thavezarbifurcatedeend". tor-receive. the .disc

14130173: pairzvofnarms" willl-zbe provided andcconnected togethenqbytheshaft l'ixthat'ialso; rotatably-supports .thiS\:diSC l4. .I.ihave" foundzithatsa rotatablezdisc will: crease or ield the tapemore readilyz-than a the .arcuate rend of thezzarmi-SI. When-the.:pressure:splate 64.. is used; clips; fidalwill .straddletthe: disc I hand .the'i'pair .iofliarms 1 and frictionally---engage with .the router surfaces of the two arms 51 so as to hold the plate inzposition.

It. fjST obvionstrlthat: the: handle: 32 :may, be actuatdeelectrically:sozt'that the::operator maywlose thec'switch"torcrcausing vthe cutter to' severzithe ;tape.

iltclaimz v ;1.. -.A* combined;tapexandimastimapplicatorccompial'singaa tapezfeedingz. means,';a :masticieeding 'meansnincludingz-amozzle foraapplyin z .alayertof xma'sticzonfthei tape,izanctan: adjustable {gatexassm ciated with the nozzle for varying therdepth-zof the layer:of:'imastic -;applied to thertape and'for givingza :zdesired contour etc :the :crossesectional shapeoofithe'rnastic.

. 2.2.;In :aic ombinedi tape and-mastic: applicatorra tape .guidingutubaixtapes' vfeedingcmeans:zlncluding a carriage-amovable' irr'thefzdirectionzofthe e'length ofiitheztubezaltriggerpivotallymarried by thescar riage and swingableaaboutzan axis thatzextendssiatr righieanglesztolthe tube elengthparod' for moving the :carriageninaa 'Idirection': tolfeed; thei tape 'beingmivotallyzconnected. to-"the. trigger :-so. that initialz forward rmovement willx rock :the trigger, .aztapeeengag-ingzpini carried 'abyi thei triggeriand engageableiwith the tape:.durirrgithelnitial.swinging: oftthectnigger, .the further: movementmf l the 'roldzzin the 1' same :Ldirectionrzmoving. the .1 carriage andztriggen'to advancei the tape,'r.and-spring:means for returningthe'rodtoastartingiposition, the initial 'returnfizmovementzrofi .hh rrod: swinging the triggerito' freethepin from the ta'pe, the remainder of the return movement'movinglthe carriage andztrigger intoanewfz-position.overithe tape.

33.L.In azconibine'ditape;.and2;masticrapplicator, .aitapezguiding tubeztape' feeding';means including acarriageimovable in thetdirectionzofjthe length ofithe tube;:a triggeripivotallycarriedxby; the: carriage and: swingable::about::an"axis zthat extends at rig-htaangles; tolthe tube ilength,'.za: rod. for movingcthe carriagexin'xwdirection to feed the v tape an'd beinglpivotally:zconnected toaftheiztriggerzso that irritial fortvard movement -wi1l' rockithettriggen-zatape-engaging pin :carrie'cl: by' the trigger and engageable with; the. tape v;during.ithei initial swingingof the trigger, the further. movementyo'f ithe'rro d the::same.idirectionimovingz the ,earnia'ge :.--ard l1trigger'tto .advanca athe tape, spring means iforrizeturningithez ro'd'i' to starting-position;

the. iuitialzrreturnsmovement 'ofiithe rod: swinging 'i the t-tr-igger -to free "the "from the '=-tape, tithe remainder of the return movement moving the carriage and trigger into a new position over the tape, a handle on the tape tube arranged to be grasped in an operators hand, and a movable handle positioned close to the first-named handle for permitting the operator to actuate the rod for feeding the tape with the same hand that grips the first-named handle.

4. In a combined tape and mastic applicator. manually-actuated means for positively projectplying the tape and mastic to a surface joint,

and means for pressing the tape against the joint immediately after itsapplication, said lastnamed means forming" a longitudinal fold in the".

tape for pressing the tape and mastic into a corner joint.

6. In a combined tape and mastic applicator, tape feeding means, means for applying a layer of mastic to the tape, means for applying the tape and mastic to a surface joint, and' means for pressing the tape against the joint immediately after its application, a handle for supporting the applicator, said last-named means including a handle positioned close to the firstnamed handle so" that the operator can operate the second-named handle while still gripping the first handle.

7. In a combined tape and mastic applicator, tape "feeding means, means for applying a layer of mastic to the tape, means for applying the tape 'and mastic to a'surface joint, atape folding member pivotally carried by the applicator, and manual means for swinging the member into a position to fold'the tape along its center and for forcing the fold into a corner joint. 8. In a combined tape and mastic applicator, tape feeding means, means for applying a layer of mastic to the tape, means for applying the tape and mastic to a surface joint,.a tape folding 9. In a combined tape and mastic applicator,

tape feeding means, means for applying a layer of mastic to the tape, means for applying the tape and mastic to a surface joint, an arm pivotally carried by the applicator, a tape pressing member removably carried-by the arm, and manual means for swinging the arm for pressing the member against the tape for smoothing it, said pressing member when removed from the arm after its application, said last-named means forming a longitudinal fold in the tape for pressing the tape and mastic into a corner joint, said tape pressing means including a rotatable disc for contacting with the tape to form a crease therein.

11. In a combined tape and mastic applicator, tape feeding means including a member for applying the tape to a wall surface, means for severing the tape, and means for applying a layer of mastic to the tape between the tape-severing means and the member for applying the tape to the wall surface, so that the mastic will not interfere with the tape-severing means.

12. In a combined tape and mastic applicator, tape feeding means including a member for appilying the tape to a wall surface, means for severing the tape, and means for applying a layer of mastic to the tape between the tape-severing means and the member for applying the tape to the wall surface so that the mastic will not interfere with the tape-severing means, said tape-severing means including a knife, manually controlled means for moving the knife, a guide for directing the knife transversely across the tape when the knife is moved, and yielding means for returning the knife after the tape has been cut.

- a member for applying the tape to a wall sur permitting the arm to be swung into contact 1 with the tape, said arm being shaped for forming a longitudinal fold in the tape for pressing it into a corner joint.

10. In a combined tape and mastic applicator,

face, means for severing the tape, and means for applying a layer of mastic to the tape between the tape-severingmean's and the member for applying the tape to the wall surface so that the'mastic will not interfere with the tape-severing means, said tape-severing means including a knife, manually controlled means for moving the knife, a guide for directing the knife transversely across the tape when the knife is moved, and yielding means for returning the knife after the tape has been cut, the manually controlled means including a lever positioned close to the handle so that the operator can actuate the lever for moving the knife with the same hand that grips the handle.


REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date -*381,644 Ries Apr. 24, 1888 1,161,850 Dixon Nov. 30, 1915 1,510,754 Walvatine Oct. '7, 1924 1,823,501 Messinger Sept.- 15, 1931 1,838,011 St. Peter Dec. 22, 1931 1,967,324 Powers July 24, 1934 2,098,159 Peiseler Nov. 2, 1937. 2,310,838 Helprin Feb. 9, 1943 2,323,963 Ames July 13, 1943 2,344,372 Sikstrom Mar. 1 1, 1944 2,366,674; Petty Jan. 2, l945

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2815142 *Sep 7, 1954Dec 3, 1957George W WilliamsSelf-contained dry wall taper
US3006495 *Dec 12, 1958Oct 31, 1961Clarcie J SeifertConstruction tape apparatus
US3116195 *Apr 27, 1960Dec 31, 1963Lathrop Castle Engerprises IncTape applicator
US3131108 *Aug 8, 1960Apr 28, 1964James E KennardDevice for mounting wallboard tape
US3260638 *May 29, 1962Jul 12, 1966Merrill D MuttartTaper and mastic applicator
US4086121 *Apr 26, 1977Apr 25, 1978Ames Robert GSelf-contained dry wall taper
US4090914 *Apr 4, 1977May 23, 1978Service Equipment Design Co., Inc.Apparatus for applying tape and adhesive to wallboard joints
US4208239 *Nov 4, 1977Jun 17, 1980Corban Industries, Inc.Dry wall taping machine having an improved applicator head
US4452663 *Apr 16, 1982Jun 5, 1984Heaton Wilbur LWall board taping apparatus
US5486394 *Aug 26, 1994Jan 23, 1996E-Z Taping System, Inc.Self-release self-adhesive drywall tape
US5687523 *Aug 10, 1995Nov 18, 1997E-Z Taping System, Inc.Drywall tape
US5711124 *Jul 5, 1996Jan 27, 1998E-Z Taping System, Inc.Drywall tape with removable absorbent layer covering
US5863146 *Jun 6, 1996Jan 26, 1999Apla-Tech, Inc.Apparatus for applying joint compound
US6226946Jan 22, 1998May 8, 2001E-Z Taping System, Inc.Self-adhesive drywall tape for fire wall
US6226957Apr 5, 1999May 8, 2001E-Z Taping System, Inc.Drywall joint system
US6874557Feb 14, 2003Apr 5, 2005Axia, Inc.Ergonomic and easily serviceable taper tool
US7314074Nov 17, 2004Jan 1, 2008Axia, Inc.Ergonomic and easily serviceable taper tool
US7624782Aug 26, 2005Dec 1, 2009Axia, Inc.Taper tool
US7798194Nov 16, 2007Sep 21, 2010Axia Acquisition CorporationErgonomic and easily serviceable taper tool
US7954535Feb 13, 2008Jun 7, 2011Simple Man Products, LlcDrywall joint compound and tape dispenser
US20040159406 *Feb 14, 2003Aug 19, 2004Axia, Inc.Ergonomic and easily serviceable taper tool
U.S. Classification156/461, 156/574, 156/578, 401/5, 52/416
International ClassificationE04F21/00
Cooperative ClassificationE04F21/00, E04F21/165
European ClassificationE04F21/165, E04F21/00