US 2503373 A
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APIE my 1950 J. w. BRowNlNG ns1-.ALl A2,503,373
ADJUSTABLE COUPLING Filed sept. 27, 194e 2 sheets-smet 1 l meemm INVENToRs L/U/v W @raw/1M@ J. W. BROWNING ETAL April 11, 195o- ADJUSTABLE COUPLING Filed sept. 27. 194s 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented pr. 11, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ADJUSTABLE COUPLING Application September 27, 1946, Serial No. 699,830
Our present invention relates to an improved adjustable coupling adapted for interchangeable use in turning nuts and bolts and equipped with angularly adjustable means which adapt the tool for use in places that are usually inaccessible to straightline wrenches. The primary object of the invention is the provision of a wrench of this type that is composed of a minimum number of parts that may be manufactured and assembled with facility; in which the parts are combined and arranged in compact manner so that adjustments may be made with facility and the tool handled with convenience; and to insure a reliable, durable, and effective tool of this t e.
ypThe invention consists essentially in certain novel combinations and arrangements of parts as will hereinafter be described, and more specifically set forth in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawings we have illustrated one complete example of the physical embodiment of our ratchet wrench in which the parts are combined and arranged in accord with one mode we have devised for the practical apwill, however, be understood that changes and alterations may be made in these exemplifying drawings, and mechanical structures, within the scope of our claims, without departing from the principles of our invention.
Figure 1 is a view in elevation of a ratchet wrench in which our invention is embodied, and showing the tool adjusted for operation at an angle.
Figure 2 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional View of the tool, in straight line position, and as at line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Figure 3 is a view in elevation of the housing portion of the tool, with its cover plate removed, showing the two pawls, with one pawl in co-acting engagement with one of the ratchet teeth.
Figure 4 is an enlarged detail sectional view of the holder for the ball of the universal joint of the angularly adjustable tool.
Figure 5 is a transverse sectional view, at line 5-5 of Fig. 3.
Figure 6 is a perspective view of either of the two pawls of the ratchet mechanism, enlarged and detached from the wrench.
Figure 7 is a partial sectional view at the free end of the housing, showing a retractible lever mechanism for turning the wrench.
Figure 8 is an enlarged detail view partly in section showing the universal joint of the angularly adjustable tool.
In carrying out our invention we employ a solid cylindrical shaft I upon which is rigidly mounted a lower bearing head 2, a spaced round collar 3, and a spaced long gear 4 of the ratchet mechanism. One end of the shaft is journaled to turn in a socket 5 drilled in the solid end of a cylindrical tubular housing 6 that may be employed as a handle or hand grip for the tool.
In the lower open end of the tubular housing 6 the bearing head 2 is mounted, and between the head and the spaced collar 3 a split or sectional thrust bearing ring 'I is interposed and secured in place by means of screws 8, one of which screws is employed for fastening an inset cover plate 9 to close a lateral opening in thetubular wall of the housing. The housing is thus rotatably mounted upon the shaft I, and it may be turned, as indicated in Figs. 1 and 7, by means of a retractible lever A that is pivoted at B in the solid end of the housing. The pivot end of the lever is fashioned with spaced notches C, C, for co-action with a spring pressed ball-detent D. In the drawings, the lever is shown in extended position for use in turning the housing, and the housing is provided with an exterior groove E into which the lever may be folded or retracted when not required for use.
Especially for heavy duty under varying conditions, the housing may be turned by means of a cross bar (not shown) passed through a transverse cylindrical bore I0 drilled in the solid end of the housing, or the housing may be turned by means of a crank-handle (not shown) applied to an angular socket II that is axially alined with the shaft of the tool.
Between the ratchet gear 4 and the cover plate 9 of the housing, two spring actuated pawls I6 and I1 are mounted, and manually controlled, in adjusting the wrench for right-hand turns, and for left-hand or reverse turns of the housing, involving a forward and backward movement of the lever or crank without removing the wrench from a bolt or nut. The pawls I6 and I1, as shown in the drawings, may rigidly connect the housing and shaft for a continuous one way turning movement of the wrench; and the pawls I6 and I1 may jointly be disconnected from the ratchet gear of the shaft.
For these operations the housing is provided with a longitudinally extending slot I2, and two longitudinally spaced transverse or arcuate recesses I3 and I4 in its wall, and the walls of 3 ranged and oppositely disposed pawls I6 and I1 that co-act with the teeth of the ratchet gear in transmitting movement from the housing to the shaft I.,
As indicated in the drawings the pawls I6 and I1 are each provided with a pivot member IS that is transversely arranged to occupy a recess, as I3 and I4, and the pivot member of each element is fashioned with angular faces I9 and 20 that meet to form a rib 2l that is adapted to serve as a pivotal bearing on the cam faces I5 of the recesses.
The positions of the pawls I6 and I1 are adjusted manually by use of push buttons 22 and 23 as best seen in Figures 1 and 2. Each of these buttons is equipped with a pin 24, projecting through and slidable in a slot of the cover plate 9, and a spring 25 mounted on the end of the pin within the opening of the housing. The springs are oppositely disposed, the upper one bearing against the member I8 of the paw] I1 and the lower one bearing against the member I8 of the pawl I6, In Figure 2, the pawl I1 is held in engagement with the ratchet gear, and the pawl I6 is held out of engagement from the ratchet gear. By an upward push on the buttons 22 and 23, the relative positions of the pawls I6 and I1 may be reversed as the pivot members I8 rock on their pivot edges 2|; and by manipulation of the buttons both the pawl I6 and the pawl I1 may be engaged with the ratchet gear; or both of these elements may be disengaged from the ratchet gear.
Below the housing, a hand grip or handle, in the form of a cylindrical sleeve 26 of molded plastic material or other suitable material is loosely mounted upon the shaft I between the bearing head 2 and an annular shoulder of an integral enlarged shank 21 of the shaft I. This shank, which is of tubular form, is provided with an integral, externally threaded boss 28 upon which a retaining chuck 29 is threaded, for holding the angularly adjustable and universally jointed socket head of the wrench.
The universal joint includes a spherical head or ball 30 which is retained within the chuck by an inner annular iiange 3|, and the ball is pivoted to swing in one plane on a pin 32 threaded through the chuck, through the spaces provided by opposed cavities 33 and 34 within the ball which merge at the center of the ball. The ball can swing about the pin 32 as an axis. Also, the ball can swing in the plane of the slot provided by the cavities 33 and 34, through an angle of about 90 degrees.
'Within the chuck a hemi-spherical holder 35 for the ball is mounted, and the stem 3G of the holder projects upwardly into the tubular bore of the shank 21 of the shaft I. The concavity or socket portion of the holder is fashioned with a series of arcuate grooves 35a with which a bead or lobe 31, in the nature of a key co-acts to lock the ball in adjusted relation within its holder.
The skirt of the chuck is fashioned with notch 23a and the skirt or circular edge of the holderI is also provided with a notch 38 to accommodate a stud 43 that is integral with the head or ball 30, and notches 39 to accommodate the pin 32, in adjusting the working end of the wrench.
The stud 40 has a squared end 4I that is adapted to be inserted in one socket head 42 of an. interchangeable series of socket heads or wrench jaws, andin Figure 2 a quick detachable spring pressed detent is indicated at F on the squared end for fastening the socket head on the stud.
For manual control in locking the exibly jointed socket head in adjusted position, a partially rotatable pin 43 is mounted in the tubular shank 21 above the stem 36 of the holder, and a transversely arranged push pin or handle 44 passes outwardly through a Z-shaped slot in the shank, indicated at 45 in Figure 1 to raise or elevate pin 43 against tension of a helical spring 46 and release the holder from the ball. In down or depressed position of the cross pin 44, the spring engages and locks the holder with the ball.
If the head 30 is turned about the pin 32 as an axis until the stud 40 is located in the slots 29a and38, the head 30 can then be turned by the handle 26, which will extend at about a right angle to the stud 40. However, if the stud 40 is at an angle of less than 45 degrees With respect to the handle 26 the head 30, the pin 32 and the retaining chuck 29 form a universal joint. Rotation of the handle 26 about its axis causes the pin 32 to turn the head 30 by pressing against the sides of the slots 33 and 34. The pin 32 rocks in the slots 33 and 34, as the handle 26 is rotated, to take care of the difference in angular position of the pin with respect to the stud 40.
The angle between the handle 26 and the stud 40 can be maintained constant by locking the holder 35 down against the head 30 with the bead 31 seated in one of the grooves 36a. The bead 31, which is diametrically opposite to the stud 40, follows a circular path around the inner surface of the holder 35 when thehandle 26 and the stud 40 are rotated about different axes intersecting at the center of the headl30. Thus, if the head 31 is held in one of the grooves 36a, the stud 40 will be maintained at the same angle to the handle 26 as the handle rotates.
Having thus fully described our invention, what we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patentis:
1. In a Wrench of the ratchet type, the combination with a shaft and means for turning the shaft, a tubularshank rigid with the shaft. and an enlarged boss rigid with the shank, of a cylindrical chuck threaded on the boss, a slotted ball pivotally mounted within the chuck and a socket-head carried by the ball, a hernispherical holder having interior grooves and mounted in the chuck, a bead on the ball for selected co-action witlrsaid grooves to lock the ball in angularly adjusted position, and a spring-pressed detent mounted in the shank forco-action with the Yholder to unlock the ball from its holder.
2. In a ratchet wrench, the combination with a shaft, an enlarged chuck on the shaft, a ball pivotally mounted within the chuck and having a stud projecting therefromthe stud having a socket-head thereon, said chuck and ball having a pin and slot connection within the chuck permitting the ball to rock -in a plane through the axis of the chuck, a holder in the chuck having a spherical seat for the ball, and coacting means on the holder and ball releasably maintaining the stud at a definite angle to the shaft, said means 'comprising grooves in the seat of vsaid holder and a bead on the ball.
JOHN W. BROWNING. JAMES B. ADAMS.
(References on following page) 5 REFERENCES CITED Number The following references are of record in the 8441356 le of this patent: UMTED STATES PA'I'ENTS 5 460:216 Number Name Date Re. 15,093 Fullenwder Apr. 26, 1921 130,671 Stein Aug. 20, 1872 Number 751,055 Contal Feb. 2, 1904 13,274 827,250 Measer July 31, 1906 10 563,460
Name Date Hegerhorst Feb. 19, '1907 Waldo Apr. 28, 1942 Kress Sept. 10, 194:6 Dalton Jan. 25, 1949 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date France 1910 France 1923