US 2503680 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
v April ll, 1950 D. A. NEWMAN 2,503,680.
MANIFOLDING SHEET MATERIAL Filed Apri11946 Y ATTORNEYS Patented Apr. 11,., 1950 UNIT En STAT Es PATE. Nr Ao F Prc E MANIFQLDING; SHEET MATERIAL DWghSfANeWman, Port WashingtoniN: YL., asf-- Signor, to.. ColpmbiaRibbonandCarbon Manu,-`
faoturing Company, Inc., (3 rlle 1p1I Cove, l N.Y,., a, l corporation off'NewYorkj ApplicationApril 5, 1946; SeralNo. 660,011'
This invention relates to' improvementin manifolding, particularly to improvements iny transfer' sheets adapted to loe-'collated with record or copy4 sheets, including improved means for hold'- ingthe sheets? together4 to form a manifolding pack- Numerous proposalsI have been made heretofore for thefm'anuf'acture` of" manifold-ing packs wherein trans-fer sheets are I interleaved with record orf' copyA sheetsJ and means is provided for holding sheets together. Such= arrangements include varioussmeans for `fastening. collated. sheetsv orfcontinuous strips of,P` paper together; such ast mechanical elements; e; g; clipsorl staples',` or
the useof r adhesivesy applied to@ the edge` of: thev pack, orl to. the Imargin ofiv at least; some of the;
ShleiisrA A When; staplesf 01" clips:y are used;V al continuous, supply of'l blanksy: isA required,\ and? any;l failurein theisupply o`f= such blanksor infthefmachinery. forassemblingr them with. the. paper holds up production, with serious economicflosfs.'y Adhesivesare less. subjectto. such, failures; andl are more adaptable; for-uselwith variousztypesfoi stationery;y One. advantagek in theL use, ofsadhesive, lies.. in theV fact that theadhesive canbe applied to, remain in, inactive. form. until; used, so` that, the, sheetor strip, toewhich, it is4V appliedv can beI stored for futur-e collationwith. other.- sheets orstripsin any, desired. mannerl In. kfemmine almultiplply. Strip of` manifoldina stationerxit,4 is desirable to avoid'. an4 increase. thickness of.. the strip, at the place.4 where the. plies. are fastenedl together, since. such. thickened. portions may interierewith. stackingpacks of. the stationery or. termine the. collated` strips into a roll, and may likewise interfere with insertion. of a packy between, guide rollers ofv a, typewriter or similar business machine,.
A convenient methodV for securing collated sheets or strips together consists in applying a normally inactive, adhesive to. marginal portions or at least some of the strips' or sheets, for ex,- amplato oppositesides oi"` thefmarginsof carbon sheets` to. be interleavedwithn recordl sheets. 0.1', strips, coll'ating the sheets inthe desired' manner.. and activating the adhesivefto, secure` the. sheets or stripsy together. For instance, it hasl been Suggested to. provide a strip. of carbon.v paper. having. an uncarbonized margin at4 one side, the marginbeing coated on. both. suriaceswitha layer oi thermoplastic, adhesive, These stripsv are. then interleaved with strips of record paper and the superposed stripsA are secured` togetherby, activate lng the adhesive, e. g. by heating, and pressing the ladhesive-coated marginal'v portions together to,c form, a; multiple-ply.; strip; of ina-ni,iolding;y stationery- The ammint:A of: adhesive appliedw as; a coatingitothemarginal portions-oi the transiencoatedsheets;can;be,regulatedgsogthatlthe;amount depo siterdtheron` will be@ absorbed;l almost entirely byfthef unooatedf sheets: stripsI secured. thereto leaving- S-.ubstantiallyf no: separating layerof ade hesiiiebctween thelsheets-f. audit-nas avoiding de ablegthiokening of. thefipacko coliatcdistrips at,1 the mars-inl Aften applying the, adhesive;- to their. margina1--zportions the caiJoon` sheetsoarrbe Separately;Y storedv for subsequent use with; a: var rictp-ofctypesf ci record: strips;
In;` order;- to.- prepare: a: continuous: Strip` off. oarbonrpaperf for useasI af supplyA for.l continuous. oollationiwithflother strips oflstationeryithe Strip is:I Wound: into,- a roll: off substantial: diameten thickness; having: a: large numbeii of'.Y spponposedf plies.. The. thickness: off the carbonizing layer: is; ordinarily about 0.100,01 inchand-f generallyinot more?y than 0.0002y inch.H If" continuousv layers; ofY adhesive-Y are applied to:y opposite sidesv on an;` 1in.- earbonizedfmarginofztheatrip, andsaidflayeraare of;` a, thickness exceeding halfl the thickness; of the; oarboniaing-v layers, the marginal portion;y of; the Strip builds;l up faster; than the` oarbonized portion; ofthev stripfwhenfthe latter is wound into a, ron, causingbreaking,` wrinlsrli-ne; and. cracking of; thefweb, andvv thus-,rendering the operation. im?. practicable. Henao,- inV the case-off af carbonite@y strip Witn adneSive-coated` margin as'l heretoe fore suggested, the thickness o f the adhesive lay,. ers` on. the unca'rbonized marginV was limitedtto not .more thanv halt thethick'nesSQf thetcarbonizf, ing, layer.,l i., generally not, more than; 0.0001 inch.
With. layers: or adhesive no greater in thick?. nets. than 0.0001 inch,v av satiaiac,tory bondy is; it:v cared between Contiguous- Sheets in packonly Whoisk the pack. is. composed. of onlya` fewy plies (of. e. three pliesh and,4 then onli,7 iiiith utmost. care in controlling the activation and setting of, the, adhesive. This, renders the use of such. str-ips for their intended4 purpose highly. inconvenient.. When a, larger number of, plies anoto be.. Secured together ina pack., further difficulties arise, which render lms of adhesive of the aforesaidv dimens sionaunsuitable. Eor exampiawitn a thermoplastic adhesiva it Suiiicient. heat. is.. applied to activate tnefadbesive adiaoonttne oatcrfplies1 ci; the pack, the, inner, piies.` receive insufficient heat to, for-rn a, bond,l On thel other hand, if a larger amount of,r neat is applied; so. asy toA actirate the. adhesive on the inner plies of the pack, the adhesive on the outer plies melts and is absorbed by the paper so that no adequate bond is formed. The difculty in securing adequate adhesion can be overcome by providing a thicker layer of ad hesive on the margins of the strips, but as set out above, this prevents satisfactory winding of the carbonized strip into a roll.
It is an object of my invention to provide transfer-coated or carbonized strips or sheets, having a, transfer coating of the usual thickness over the major portion of one surface thereof, and a marginal portion free from such coating, and having layers of a normally inactive adhesive applied to both sides of the uncoated margin, in such a, manner that the strip can be formed into a roll of substantial thickness and diameter without building up at one end thereof so as to cause breakage of the strip; the thickness of the adhesive layer being nevertheless of sufficient magnitude to provide a satisfactory bond with contiguous sheets in a manifolding pack, even when the pack includes numerous plies.
The foregoing object is accomplished, in accordance with my invention, by applying the adhesive to localized areas on oppositesides of the uncoated margin of a transfer-coated strip or sheet of the aforesaid type having a non-textile foundation, the adhesive-coated areas on one surfaceof the margin being separate from (i. e. having no portions overlapping) the adhesivecoated areas on the opposite side of the margin. The thickness of the adhesive layer on such areas can be comparable with, or greater than, the thickness of the transfer coating on the remainder of the strip. The adhesive-coated areas on opposite sides of the margin are spaced from each other laterally or preferably longitudinally, or in both directions; the preferred spacing of longitudinally aligned adhesive-coated areas including uncoated intervals between them. The ratio of the length of the uncoated intervals to the length of the adhesive-coated areas longitudinallyalignedtherewith should exceed the proportional amount by which the thickness of the adhesive exceeds the thickness of the carbonizing layer. When a strip of this type is formed into a roll, the adhesive-bearing margin has no tendency to build up the diameter of the roll, since the adhesive-coated area on one ply at any point in the roll is in registry withuncoated areas on a sulcient proportion of overlying or underlying plies' to avoid build-up, even though the thickness of the adhesive-coated areas locally exceeds the thickness of the carbonized portion of the strip, and the margin accordingly has no tendency to set up tension causing wrinkling, cracking or breakage of the strip. Thus, a strip in accordance with my invention can be conveniently formed into a roll for storage, while at the same time, the amount of adhesive on the adhesivecoated parts of the margin can be made of sucient thickness` to provide a rm bond with a contiguous strip of record paper in a manifolding pack.
In they accompanying drawings are illustrated strips of carbon paper lprepared in accordance with my invention, methods for their manufacture, and the manner in which they are used. In the drawings,
Figure l is a perspective view of a roll of transfer paper prepared in accordance with my invention, the outer ply being partly unrolled to show the arrangement of the coatings thereon.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged transverse cross section of one ply of the strip shown in Fig. 1.,
Figs. 3 to 5 inclusive show alternate arrangements for the adhesive on opposite sides of the margin of a carbon-coated strip.
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic View of a machine employed for making the carbonized strips having an adhesive applied to the margin in accordance with my invention.
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic view of a machine for collating carbonized strips of my invention with record strips to form a multiple-ply strip of manifolding stationery fastened, in which the separate plies are fastened together with adhesive at the margin.
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view similar to Fig. 7 including alternative means for fastening the sheets together when a thermoplastic adhesive is used.
Fig. 9 is a perspective View of a manifolding set in which the record sheets are held together with interleaved carbon sheets by adhesive applied to the margin of the latter, in accordance with the invention.
- Fig. 10 is a fragmentary detail in cross section of the adhesive-coated margins of a number of plies of transfer strip of my invention, in a roll.
As shown in the accompanying drawings, a strip of carbon paper in accordance with my invention comprises a paper foundation I0 having on one surface thereof `a coating Il of transfer composition. Such compositions are ordinarily composed of wax, or a wax-like substance, coloring matter (i. e. a pigment or dyestuff), and various modifying ingredients such as softening oils, plasticizers, hardeners, and the like. The coating layer Il has a thickness, for example, of 0.0001 inch to 0.0002 inch. The transfer coating extends over the body 0f the strip but terminates short of one edge, leaving a marginal'portion I2 of the foundation l0 free of said coating, and on opposite sides of said marginal portion is formed a series of spots, patches or stripes of a normally inactive adhesive.
As shown in Fig. l, the spots i3 of adhesive on the opposite surfaces of the margin l 2 of the strip are arranged respectively in a pair of laterally offset longitudinal rows, so that they do not overlap. In addition, the longitudinally aligned spots of adhesive in each row are separated by intervals somewhat longer than the spots themselves.
As shown in Fig. 2, the thickness of the adhesive layers I4 is not limited to one-half the thickness ofthe carbonizing layer as strips heretofore proposed, but can approximate the total thickness of the carbonizing layer I I thus permitting the provision of an adequate amount of adhesive to form a satisfactory bond with a contiguous record sheet. y
Moreover by reason-of the provision of uncoated intervals between successive longitudinally aligned spots of adhesive, the thickness of said spots can exceed the thickness of the carbonizing layer without causing objectionable bui1dup at the end of a roll. For example, as shown in Fig. 10, the adhesive layers Ida can have a thickness about double the thickness of the carboniz'ing layer Ila on the paper l2a; but since the superposed marginal layers of adhesive along any radius of the roll include uncoated marginal portions I2b, corresponding to the intervals between the longitudinally aligned spots of adhesive. Such portions provide space for the excess thickness of the adhesive over the thickness of the carbonizing layer in proportion as the intervals between longitudinally aligned adhesive areincreased'With` reference to the length ofthe spots themseives.
Thus; by increasing the intervals between the longitudinally' aligned spots of` adhesive, the thickness' of the' lattercan be' increased to double-the thickness' of" the carbonizinglayer, oreven more, e; gv.' to 010003` or'01000'4 inch, Without causingl objectionable build-up of the diameter ofV a roll at the margin ofv the strip. The adhesive whenI activated is thus adapted' to provideA a secure -bond with the surface of a contiguous strip orsheet'of'paper'.
In Fig. 3` showing anV alternative arrangement. the adhesive spots |3a are arranged" inI a single longitudinal row, the spots on one sideVV of" the strip being longitudinally offset from, and alter'- nati-ng with, the spots' on the other sid-'e ofv the strip.
In'v 4 the adhesive is shown in two laterally offset longitudinal stripes I5 and l'E; applied: respectively to opposite surfaces of the margin t2 of thestrip. In this arrangement: however, because of the absence of uncoated intervalsv in the longitudinally alignedI adhesive-coated areas, the thickness of they adhesive layers I5 and |6- would" be substantially limited to the thickness of thecarboni'zing layer I I-.
IniFi'g. tlie adhesive-is applied in spots" Il distributed at' random overv the two surfaces of the margin I2 of the strip, but arranged sok that none of' thev spots on one surface overlaps a spot on the other surface of the margin. The intervals between longitudinally alignedspots of adhesive arev greater than in the other constructions, and* accordingly the thickness of the adhesive can be increased tov an extent suitable for forming manifolding packs of' any desired number of plies, Without` causing objectionable build-up at the margin when the strip is Wound intol a roll.
Thus, the adhesive-coated areas can be offset laterally or longitudinally, or preferablyy both', and arranged in spots or stripes, in a regular pattern or distributed at random over both surfaces of the-margin of the sheet or strip.
.As shown in Fig. 6 a strip of carbon paper can be manufactured in accordance with my invention by passing a strip of vfoundation froml a roll. 2`I between a pair of printing rollers 212 and 23; engaging the opposite marginal surfacey at one side of the strip. These rollers are supplied with an adhesive from fountains 24 and 2'5, by fountain rollers 26 and' 21 and ductors 2'8 andv 2,9, the printing rollers applying the adhesive in spots or stripes on opposite sides ofthe margin which are oiiset from each other as shown in Figs. 1i, 3, 4 or 5. The adhesive is 'permitted to 6 coated margin, and accordingly', Withoutitend encyto break'the strip.
The foundation HIY is ordinarily of'thin paper usually sized` orv otherwise treated. to render it relativelyvv impervious to the transfer composition'. However; other fabrics such as films of regenerated cellulose or of cellulose derivatives, or^f^abrics composed ofV fibre andv plastic, or laminated fabrics of paper and film, or paper coated with aI film-forming composition can be similarly employed,
The transfer composition may contain pigments suitable for making ordinary carbon copies, or dyestuffs suchv as Crystal violet suitable for making hectograph masters, the coloring matter being incorporatediwith Waxl or'wax-like materials containing the usual adj uvants to form a transfer coating. Moreover, the transfer composition may be non-pigmented,y if it is to be used`- for making master copies for planographic reproduction. These compositions are generally applied in fused condition, or, in conjunction with a volatile. liquid Which is subsequently evaporated, and if necessary, fused and-,solidified onthe surface of' the foundation, to form a pressureresponsive releasable coating of'substantial thick.- ness overlying the-foundation.
The adhesives which can be' employed for application to the uncoate'd marginal portions of transfer strips in accordance with my invention are ofV the type which are normally inactive, but whichV can be activated, for example, by heat;- ingJ or by moistening` with a suitable, liquidt.0. exert theirA adhesive effect. Such adhesives are hereinafter referred' to as normally inactive ad hesives. Oney type of adhesive comprises, for example, a thermoplastic-,resin or fusible plas tic, such as a vinyl resin, a cellulose ester or etherl (cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate', or ethyi cellulose). These adhesives can be applied by printing rollers, either in fusedl form or in solution in a Volatile solvent, to the marginal sur'- faces at one side of the transfer-coated strip or its foundation, and solidified by cooling or dry or harden to inactive condition as the strip passesI through a hardening zone 30. The strip 20 then passes over a coatingr roller 3| suppliedl With va transfer coating composition in liquid form from fountain 32- by means' of*- a roller 33, said coating being applied to the major portion ei one sidey of' the strip', .but notA to the marginal` portion bearing the adhesive applied by printing rollers 22 'and' 23. After passing through a hardeni'n'g or cooling zone 35 in whichV thev transfer coating is solidified: (for example, by evaporation of a solvent or by cooling to congeal the co-mposition) the transfer-coated strip is formed intov a. roll 36, similar to the roll shown in Fig. 1. By reason ofthe fact that the layers of adhesive are, applied to the opposite sides of the marginal portion of the sheet' in patches or areas which do not overlap, the roll 36 can be formed of any diameter without building up at the adhesivef evaporation of the solvent to renderv the adhethe materialI or to render itl tacky. Another typel of adhesive comprises materials activated by moistening with a suitable liquid, for example,
ordinary glue which can be applied in liquid condition, employing Water as a diluent, inactivated" by drying, andvv re-activated by moistening with Water. Cellulose derivatives or plastic compositions can also be used in this manner, such materials being activated by moistening with a suitable organic solvent such as alcohol', acetone, butyl acetate, etc., applied directlyv to thev adhesive orto a record sheetv which isl brought in contact with the adhesive-coated areas.
Figs. 'l and 8 illustrate the methods of employing continuous transfer strips, prepared' as described above, in the manufacture of continuous collated strips of manifolding stationery, which can beA cut or folded into manifoldinlg packs. `As shown in Fig. 7, three strips of record paper 3-1 are drawn from three rolls 38, and two stri-ps of transfer paper139'- having at the same lateral edge'.
an adhesive-bearing margin as described above are drawn from two rolls 40, intercalated with rolls 38, andr the superposed strips are passed together between a pair-oi pressure rollers 4 lf which apply pressure to the strips over the adhesivebearing margins of the transfer strips. Before reaching the pressure rollersy 44, the. adhesive-A coated margins of the transfer strips 39 are passed between activating rollers 42 which apply an activating solvent to the adhesive, adapted to render it tacky. Thus, when the strips are pressed together between pressure rollers 4l, the activated adhesive is forced into pressure contact with the contiguous margins of the interleaved record strips, forming a rm bond between each of the superposed strips at their margin. From the pressure rollers, the superposed strips are passed through a drying zone 43, to set the adhesive, whereupon they may be cut, for example, by a knife 44, or zig-zag folded into a series of manifolding packs 45.
When a thermoplastic adhesive isvused, record strips 31a and adhesive-bearing transfer strips 39a are drawn from rolls 38a and 40a respectively, shown in Fig. 8, and arranged in the same manner as in Fig. 7. The strips are brought together and passed between a series of pressure rollers 46 and interposed heating elements 41 whereby the adhesive-bearing marginal portions of the transfer strips are heated to fuse or soften the adhesive, and thus activating it so that it forms a rm bond with the contiguous record strip when pressed into contact therewith by rollers 46. The multiple-ply strip can then be severed into manifolding packs 45a by cutting means 44a.
Heating elements heretofore employed for activating a thermoplastic adhesive on marginal portions of superposed manifolding strips. or sheets were ordinarily heated by electric resistance coils, the heat being transmitted by conduction through the plies of the paper to be fastened together. This method of heating is ordinarily effective when no more than three plies of paper are to be secured together. However, when a greater number of plies of paper are used, ,application of sufficient heat to penetrate by conduction to the middle layers of the strip so as to activate the adhesive thereon to form a satisfactory bond, raises the outer layers to excessively high temperatures at which the adhesive is completely fused and absorbed by the layers of paper so that it no longer forms a satisfactory bond between the outer layers. On the other hand, if heating is so regulated that a suitable bond is formed between the outer layers, insufficient heat penetrates to the middle layers to activate the adhesive.
v In accordance with my invention, the heating elements 4'1 are preferably a pairvof plates or electrodes energized by a high-frequency alternating potential, whereby a uniform heating effect is simultaneously produced throughout the superposed layers of paper as they pass between the electrodes. In this way, a uniformly satisfactory bond is attained between each of the adhesive-coated marginal portions of the transfer sheets and the contiguous marginal portions of the record strips thus eliminating the difficulties encountered in using external heating elements which depend mainly on conduction for heating the inner layers.
A manifolding pack produced in accordance with my invention is illustrated in Fig. 9, and comprises a plurality of record sheets 50 with interposed transfer sheets having on one side thereof a transfer coating 52, and having marginal portions 53 which are free of the coating. The marginal portions 53 are secured to contiguous marginal portions of the record sheets 50 by a normally inactive adhesive 54 distributed on non-overlapping areas on the opposite surfaces respectively of the margin of each transfer sheet.
The marginal portions are firmly bonded together by the adhesive so that each of the superposed sheets remain in the desired collated position, while the fastened marginal portions have no greater thickness than the rest of the pack, thus facilitating insertion and feeding of the pack in a typewriter or similar business machine.
Variations and modifications may be made within the scope of this invention and portions of the improvements may be used Without others.
1. As an article of manufacture, a transfer strip comprising a foundation of non-textile fabric having a layer of transfer composition on the major portion of one surface thereof, and a marginal portion at one side of the strip which is free of said transfer composition; and layers of a normally inactive adhesive covering non-overlapping areas on opposite sides respectively of said marginal portion of the strip.
2. As an article of manufactura-.a transfer strip comprising a foundation of non-textile fabric having a layer of transfer composition on the major portion of one surface thereof, and a marginal portion at one side of the strip which is free of said transfer composition; and layers of a normally inactive adhesive covering non-overlapping areas on opposite sides respectively of said marginal portion of the strip, said layers of adhesive having a thickness substantially greater than half the thickness of said layer of transfer composition.
8. As an article of manufacture, a continuous strip of transfer paper having an uncarbonized margin at one side thereof; and spots of a normallyinactive adhesive on non-overlapping areas on opposite sides respectively of said uncarbonized margin of the strip, longitudinally aligned spots of adhesive being separated by uncoated intervals, and said spots of adhesive having a thickness exceeding the thickness of the transfer coating on the carbonized portion of said strip. i y i Y 4. As an article of manufacture, a continuous Strip of transfer paper having an uncarbonized margin at one side thereof; and layers of a normally inactive thermoplastic adhesive on nonoverlapping areas on opposite sides respectively of said uncarbonized margin of the strip, said layers of adhesive having a thickness, substantially greater than half the thickness of the transfer coating on the carbonized portion of said strip.
5. A continuous strip of carbon paperghaving an uncarbonized margin at one sidethereof and discrete spots of normally inactive adhesive on localized non-overlapping areas on opposite sides of said uncarbon-ized margin of said strip, said spots 0f adhesive having a thickness exceeding the thickness of the carbonizing layer onA the remainder of said strip. I
6. A continuous stripv of carbon paper having an uncarbonized margin at one side thereof; and a plurality of longitudinal transversely offset stripes of a normally inactive adhesive on opposite sides respectively of said uncarbonized margin of the strip, said stripes of adhesive havinga thickness greater than half but not substantially-exceeding the total thickness of the carbonizing layer on the remainder of said strip.
7. A continuous transfer strip in the form of a roll of substantial thickness, said strip comprising a foundation of non-textile fabricy having'a layer of transfer composition on the major portion of one surface thereof; and a marginal portionat one side of said strip which is free ofsaid transfer composition; and layers of a normally inactive adhesive covering non-overlapping areas on opposite sides respectively of said marginal portion of the strip, said layers o adhesive having a. thickness substantially greater than half the thickness of said layer of transfer composition.
8. A continuous strip of carbon paper in the form of a roll of substantial thickness, said strip having an uncarbonized margin at one side thereof and layers of normally inactive adhesive on non-overlapping discrete areas on opposite sides respectively of said uncarbonized margin oi the strip, longitudinally aligned adhesive-coated areas being separated by uncoated intervals, said layers of adhesive having a thickness exceeding the thickness of the carbonizing layer on the remainder of said strip.
9. A manifolding pack comprising a plurality of record sheets and a plurality of transfer sheets interleaved therewith, said transfer sheets having a marginal portion free of transfer coating, non-overlapping areas of said marginal portion of each transfer sheet being adhesively secured to the contiguous record sheets to hold the superposed sheets together along one margin.
10. A manifolding pack comprising a pluralityr of record sheets and a plurality of transfer sheets interleaved thereon, said transfer sheets having a marginal portion free of transfer coating, nonoverlapping areas of said marginal portion of each transfer sheet being secured by means o a the:n moplastic adhesive to the contiguous record sheets to hold the superposed sheets together along one margin.
11. A continuous strip of carbon paper having a carbonizing layer thereon and an uncarbonized margin at one side thereof; and discrete spots of normally inactive adhesive disposed in rows on opposite sides of the paper in the said uncar bonized margin of said strip, said spots of adhesive having a thickness exceeding the thickness of the carbonizing layer on the remainder oi said strip, one row of said spots being disposed in-l REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,085,331 Glen Jan. 27, 1914 2,096,352 Semonsen Oct. 19, 1937 2,142,463 Upson Jan. 3, 1939 2,260,601 Brenn Oct. 28, 1941