US 2504117 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April '18, 1950 A. H. DowNs METHOD oF SPRAYING MULTIcoLoRED coATINGs Filed Aug. 24, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet l ATTWRNEK April 18, 1950 A. H. DowNs METHOD oF SPRAYING MULTICoLoRED coA'rINGs Filed Aug. 24; 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 I N VEN TOR.
A as 'au/FZS BY AgToRNEY April 18, 1950 A. H. DOWNS METHOD oF SPRAYING MULTIcoLoRED coATINGs 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Aug. 24, 1945 INVENTOR.
A as /fz azvfz ATTORNEY |April 18, 1950 A. H. DowNs 2,504,117
METHOD OF SPRAYING MULTICOLORED COATINGS Filed Aug. 24, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 IN V EN TOR. A 115% tqzf/fzs 74, ff( am,
ATTORNEY April 18, 1950 A. H.l DOWNS METHOD OF lSRAYING MULTICOLORED COATINGS Filed Aug. 24, 1945 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 ATTORNEY atented pr. 18, 1950 UNITED METHOD OF SPRAYING MULTICOLORED SOATINGS Austin H. Downs, Glen Ridge, N. J., assignor to Eclipse Air Brush Co., Newark, N. J a corporation o New Jersey Application August 24, 1945, Serial No. 612,351
This invention relates to novel methods and apparatus for coating a surface of an object. More particularly, this invention is directed to novel methods and apparatus for providing attractive coatings of substantiallyT constant pattern or design by a single spraying operation. In one of its more speciiic aspects, the invention is directed to novel methods for providing with the same apparatus a wide variety of multi-colored designs or patterns without the necessity of more than one spraying operation for each particular pattern. By employing my novel method and apparatus, there is provided a practical method for spray application in the field to obtain uniform spattered surface coatings capable of being indenitely reproduced. Further, by employing the novel methods and apparatus, there may be obtained a wide range of color effects using the same materials and in a single spraying operation for each individual effect. In addition, all of these advantages may be obtained without sacrificing speed of spraying. According to this invention, a plurality of different coating media, preferably in liquid form, such as paints or the like are fed into a common fluid receiving chamber terminating in a. discharge orice. These coating media may differ in color and/or viscosity. Said liquids are fed into said chamber at different places and preferably along the length or longitudinal axis of said chamber which is preferably elongated. In the preferred form of this invention, said liquids are fed into said chamber through openings in said chamber which openings are spaced from each other. These liquids are preferably fed through said openings to said chamber as streams or free columns. By having the viscosity and color of the liquid of one of said streams or columns different from the correspondent characteristics of the liquid of another of said columns, I may obtain a two-tone effect; and by having the viscosity of these two liquids the same and having their colors diierent, I may obtain a three-tone eiect because in this case due to the viscosity being substantially the same, there is more blending, which blend forms the background, and the spatter thereon is a two-color combination on blended background. The inlet or place of entry of said columns of paint into said receiving chamber are preferably spaced from each other and said columns as they enter said chamber are disposed at an appreciable angle and preferably at approximately right angles to the longitudinal axis of the receiving chamber. When liquids of different viscosities are employed, I prefer that the liquid of greater viscosity be fed to said chamber at the opening closer to the orifice thereof than the :place of entry of said liquid of lower viscosity. By so controlling the position of entry of these liquids of different viscosities, I am able to obtain a substantially uniform pattern on the 4 Claims. (Cl. 117-104) object being coated. By employing this method, the higher viscosity or higher specific gravity coating medium travels in greater part along the normally lower longitudinal portion of said chamber in the course of its motion towards the discharge oriiice. The lesser viscosity or specific gravity paint in the course of its travel through the chamber to the discharge orifice iioats on the higher viscosity liquid and together with the higher viscosity or specic gravity material discharge as a single unitary composite stream through the free end of the orice Where it is acted upon by an annular or somewhat conical stream of air under pressure which breaks up said unitary stream into small particles which are deposited upon the surface to be coated. Besides atomizing said unitary stream into small particles, said air or other gaseous medium under pressure mixes said particles of discharge prior to their reaching the surface to be coated. The shape of this spray may .be controlled by a pair of opposite streams of air projected towards each other and into the spray or atomized discharge.
By practicing lmy novel methods, I have obtained unusual and unique multicolored surface coatings by employing a single spraying operation which coatings are capable of being applied at field spraying speed and are capable of being continuously reproduced. One of the outstanding characteristics of this invention is that by employing the invention multicolored coatings simulating hammered, pebbled, webbed, stipple or other type surfaces may be obtained by employing a single spraying operation.
An object of this invention is to provide a novel method for simultaneously spraying a mixture of atomized liquids on to a surface.
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel method for simultaneously spraying a mixture of different colored coating media on to the surface of an object to be coated.
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel spraying device.
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel spraying device for simultaneously spraying a mixture of diiierent colored coating media on to the surface of an object to be coated.
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel system or apparatus for spraying materials.v s
Another object of this invention is to provide a novel system or apparatus for simultaneously spraying a mixture of different colored paints on to the surface of an object to be coated.
These and otherobjects of this invention will be readily apparent from the following description and accompanying drawings, wherein;
Figure 1 represents a vertical longitudinal cross sectional view of a spraying device embodying the invention. v
Figure 2 is a horizontal longitudinal cross secarmani 3 tional view taken alongline II-II of Figure 1 in the direction'of the arrows.
Figure 3 is a view in iront elevation of the upper part of the spraying device shown in Figures 1 and 2, but with the pressure gage not shown.
Figure 4 is a cross sectional `view vtaken on line IV-IV of Figure 3 and in the direction of the arrows.
Figure 5 is a cross sectional .view of thenozzl'e shown in Figures 1 and 2.
Figure 6 is a cross sectional view or" the fluid tip shown in Figures l and 2.
Figure '7 is a View in side elevation of-a vsupply system adapted to be connected to the spraying device shown in Figuresl and 2.
Figure 8 is a'topplan viewof -apparatus shown inFigure 7.
Figures 9, l0 Aand 11 'are plan views "of housing and valveiin three `d'iierentposi'tions.
Figures 12,"13 and I4 are cross sectional views taken on line A--A o'f Figures 9, 10 and 11 respectively VFigures 15, l'and Y17 'are cross sectional'views taken Von lines B-"B of Figures 9, Vand 1'1 respectively.
Referring to the drawings the numeral i0 designates the body lof .a paint spraying device 'illustrating a'n embodiment of the invention. The "body I0 includes V'a'barrelportion II and a handle portion I2. The 1handle portion `I2 extends downwa'rdlyromthe barrel portion I vI and 'is 'inclined slightly 'to the rear thereof so that the body I'Dha's Somewhatthe appearance of an automatic revolver.
The lower end of thehandle portion i2 has an internally `threaded opening I3 therein. vThe opening I3 .communicates with 'a passage "I4 which extends upwardlythrough the interior of the handle Al2 'to an .air inlet valve chamber i5 in the rear part of the barrel portion of body Il. The chamber I5 communicates `with 'an air distributing chamber I6 disposed forwardly Ythereof lin barrel Aportion .I.I. The chamber I6 is of Ysmaller diameter than the .chamber 'I5 and .the shoulder at the `end of .the chamber l5 as it meets chamber IE acts `as a .valve-seat I'I. `A passageway YI8 -communicates with and extends from chamber I6 directly toa .passageway I9 :extending along the barrel portion I-I-from its crear towards the nozzle end ofthe device. Another passageway communicates with and .ex- -gtends from chamber .I6 directly-toa valve chamvberZI.
.Mounted in the valve chamber-I5 is :a suitable valve member 22 'having 'a -valve proper Y23 iadapted-to engage the valve :seat iIfI and having an operating rod or stem .24 zintegral therewith extending Vforwardly therefrom. The valve `stern :2li Vextends through a `suitable bearing open-- `ing v2.5 inithebarrelportionfand into an open -inverted approximately 'V Vshaped slot 26 Yin said fbarrel portion. ,The-rear 4end of the valvemem- -ber 23:is provided with a'stud-for projection 21 receiving one end of a coiled compression spring 28. The votherendof fsaidrsprings ispositioned inan exteriorly'threaded'socket 29 integralwith Yanddisposedat'tlie forward endof a securingiand tensioning adjusting nut 3d `secured to the inlter'iorly threaded rear end of V:the vvalve chamber YI 5. `By this meansthe valveproper 23'is normally held tight 'engagement with the valve seat I'I `sothat if air under pressure is admitted tothe Ychamber -I 5 -th'roug'hthe communicating passageways I3 and I4, no air under pressure is admitted 'through'thelpassages I`6,l8,-l9, 120 and 21.
The degree of force of the valve 22 in the direc# tionfof the valve seat Il is controlledby the compression spring 28 which in turn is controlled by the nut 3U.
The valve chamber 20 is provided with a valve seat ISI and communicates with and leads into a passageway 32 extending in the same direction as passageway Iii along the barrel interior and 'towards the nozzle -end ci the device. A needle valve 33 is mounted in the valve chamber 20 through an internally threaded portion of a 1-mountingnut fill. 'The outer end ci the valve 33 terminates in a knurled manipulating knob 35 by which the inner or valve end 3? may be adjusted relative to the valve seat 3| to regulate the flow Aof airlinto passage 3E as desired or to cut it off completely ii' required.
A trigger 33 has Aits upper end 'located at the apex `of the slot it and ispivotaliy connected at its upper end to the barrel portion II by Ya pivot pin or bolt til. The 'trigger 38 extends below the slot '28 and its downwardly extending Ylowerportion 4i! is curved to `provide a hand saddle'so it may be readily and positively engaged by certain ngers of the hand'of an operator. The rear face of 'thatiporticn or" the trigger '38 in the slot -26 has a rear bearing face il engaging'thefreefrontend of the valve-stem 2li. When the trigger S8 is swung rearwardly -about the pivot '39,1the valve stem''l and valve properls areforced rearwardly againstthe action `of vthe spring 2'8 whereupon the valve 23 is moved away from the valve seat il to permit the admission of air under -pressureirom .the chamber l5 into passageways I6, I3, I9, 2li ,andfl Vand if V.the needle valve33 is in openposition,.into passage 32.
The rearward movement of the itrigger 33 is limited 'by means of the abutment of the lower portion di) thereof against the external Vface .fof .the handleportion 1I?. vSpring 28 is of suilicient strength normally tohold the valve 22 .in closed vposition andthe trigger in itsfully extended open .position shown in full linesin Figure 1 and to causeltheseparts ,to assume these positions when 4the external pressureon the triggervis sufficiently reduced. Thus a very simple and delicate con .trolls provided `forcontrolling theadmission of air intozthe device and it is very easily regulated :by Lan operator without the necessity `of long training and experience. For additional ease of .manipulation and to insure a firm grip, the handle yportion l2 is provided witha nnger lug or guard Vi2.p1m`ec:ting froinsaid handle portion I2 directly .below/and adjacent the ylower end of the trigger.
The barrel portion I I, when thegun is held in a lnormalfposition, extends in a horizontalfdirection `forwardly from .the handle portion I2 and is pro- -vided with a curved -lugor hook 43 to .provide a convenient .hanging means :for the device when not in use. On its upper part and 'inthe rvicinity of the midlength of the barrel portion, there is-providedf-a-cut outiporti'on'fl. The barrel por- --tion vI I is bored'centrallyat its rear to provide a 'Valve operating chamber-d'5 interconnecting with the slot 25 in barrel II. Chamber E5 vis in- -ternaliy Athreaded and has Vthreadedly coupled thereto .a hollow lelongated nut 45 screwing :throughztherear end thereof. The nut ftlB has 'a :spring chamber '4l and a central opening 48 vat its rear end andaxially aligned therewith.
A valverod Eil, for-controlling the supply of liquid material, extends :into Ithe valve operat- "ing `chamber d 'through its `front `end and `is rrmovably mounted Awithin a `forward bearing part "l'f $1 of thef'central barrel bore. 'InsidefsaidchalrhI gcc4-,1.16:
5 ber 45 said rod 56 is enlarged in diameter at 52 and is provided with two spaced shoulders 53 and 54. A vertical slot 55 is provided in the rod 56 between shoulder 53 and 54 and the upper.-
portion of trigger 38 passes therethrough and is movable therein. The rear end of rod 56 is provided with an internally threaded bore 56 extending from said end through the rear end of slot 55. Threadedly engaged in said bore 56 is an operating rod 51 having a forward nose 58 projecting into said slot 55 and is adapted to be engaged by the trigger 38 when said trigger is moved rearwardly to operative position as hereinbefore described. Operating rod 51 may be of hexagonal or other polygon shape in section as at 59. A riveting collar 66 is slidably borne to the rear end of rod 56. This collar 66 has a flange 6| which engages the inner shoulder at the rear end of the nut 46. A rotatable knob 62 is flxedly mounted on collar 66 so that rotation of knob 62 will rotate collar 66 and in turn the rod 51.
Intermediate its ends rod 51 is provided with a slide ring 64. A coil spring 65 is mounted around the front part of rod 51, with one end of said spring abutting against shoulder 54 and its other end against one face of ring 64. A coiled spring 66 is mounted around the rear part of rod 51, with one end engaging the opposite face of the ring 64 and its other end abutting against the flange 6|. These springs 65 and 66 normally urge the rod 51 and consequently valve rod 56 forwardly.
The adjustable positioning of the nose 58 through the knob 6| by the parts above described so that it is nearer to or further away from the trigger 38 permits a fine variation of the relative movement of the valve rod 56 when the trigger is actuated, as well as a fine control of the relative time of opening of the air valve 23 and the fluid outlet valve when the trigger is moved. The time may be thus controlled to effect simultaneous operation of the air and uid outlet valves or later opening of the iiuid outlet valve with respect to the air valve 23. In Figure 1, the position of the nose 58 is such that the trigger 39 will rst engage the stem 24 to first open valve 23 and then engages nose 58 to actuate valve rod 56.
The forward end of the barrel portion isprovided with an internally smooth or threaded longitudinal bore forming a liquid receivingchamber 68. The lower part of the barrel portion is enlarged at its underside to provide an extension 69 having a plurality of, and as shown merely for the purposes of illustration two, supply passageways 69 and 16 communicating with the supply chamber 68. These passageways 69 and may be of the same or if different lengths and diameters and as illustratively shown are of the same dimensions. Each of said passageways is preferably disposed roughly at right angles to the chamber 68 and depends therefrom. The passageways 69 and 16 are preferably one behind the other in single le relationship and are roughly parallel to each other and are located in about the same plane. The passageways -69 and 16 may be cylindrical and terminate at their lower ends in respectively enlarged internally threaded coupling bores 1| and 12 whose diameters are the same and materially greater than the diameter of passageways 69 and 16.
Demountably mounted in each coupling bore 1| is a double nipple 13 having each of its ends 14 and 15 threaded. The hollow nipple 13 is internally threaded and has demountably mounted therein, an exteriorly threaded cylinder 16 having a central cylindrical bore or passageway 11. The dimensions of the bore or passageway 11 are preferably such that the length thereof is many times the diameter. In one of the preferred embodiments of the invention the length of passageway 11 is at least 5 times the diameter thereof. The diameter of the passageway 11 is much less than the diameter of passageways 69 and 16 and the length and diameter of the passageways 69 and 16 and the passageway 11 are so chosen.
that the fluid under pressure discharges substantiailyas a column from the passageway 1,1.
through passageway 69 or 16 and into chamber 68 without to any great extent striking the sides of the passageway 69 or 10. While the passageways 11 may be of the same diameter, I prefer to employ cylinders 16 having passageways 11 of.
different diameters. Instead of employing the cylinders 16 inv the demountable nipples 13, a lateral threaded opening 19 communicating with the opening 69 or 16 may be provided in the barrel portion I and in each of said openings 19 there may be provided a valve 86. The valve 86 extends into the passageway 69 or 16 and may be actuated by knob 8| to vary the opening 82 between passage 69 or 16 and valve 86 to control the ilow of material through the supply openings and into the chamber 68. These adjustable valves 86 may be associated with both of the openings 69 or 16 and are independently operable to vary the ow in either or both of said openings 69 or 16.
Extending through the upper part of the barrel is an opening accommodating a nipple 69 connected to a. pressure gage 16'. The longitudinal center line is parallel to the longitudinal centerA lines of .the passageways 69 and 16 and all three center lines are in the same plane. The nipple 69 is located approximately midway between the passageways 69 and 16 and the dial of the gage 16 faces towards the hook 43.
Receiving chamber 68 is in axial alignment with valve operating chamber 45 and valve rod 56 projects into said chamber and is slidably movable toward and away from the front end of the chamr ber 68, is slidably borne and guided in a packing nut 65 screwed to the rear of said chamber 68.
The rearwardly extending portion 86 ofnut 85 is externally threaded and a hollow clamping nut 81 is screwed thereon and serves to force and clamp packing material 88 tightly about the valve rod 56 and seal the rear end of said receiving chamber 68 against leakage while permitting slid-- ing movement of the said rod. The front end of chamber 68 is internally screw-threaded and ter-I greatest diameter of portion 94 being equal to the.
perpendicular distance between the faces of fiange 92. The forward end of tip is a short conical section 96 terminating in a small diameter cylin-4 drical nose. The forward end of conical opening 99 acts as .a `valve seat for the free forward end:- of valve rod 56. The nose has a small diameter opening 91 therein communicating with-a conicalopening 98 in cone 96 which in turn communicateg with a cylindrical opening -99 whose diamaktie-rrr eter le equal .tofthatLefthe basei loff cone-.- opening.-V
The harige 92'.; has; ashallowcylindrical recess.. |062 therein at about the midthickness thereof'. Equally spaced-'small cylindrical openings-lill .parallele to the opening Sai-'extencl-lthroughthe porV tion.v 94- to` provide-y communicatin'gf passageways l between the'openingl lillltan'cl"cleaning931.`l The.
portionll` hasta pli'irali-tyfdit''slotsV l 0lV throughouttheentire length-thereon' y These slots. |02 arelofri uniformde-ptli and length;- with: each-slot located--- on the-hypotenuse. The lower-'ends of the slots'v mz-ter-minate near the ends ofthe-fopeningsl The plunger or-fro'nt pon-tion ofthe Valve rod' U? is inthe form` roughly of `an elongated needle- Or rod having a rear-lpor-tionl-extndihgfromthe shoulder 531,- throughropeningilf, vnutil-I, packing-Biland'nut 85 and-'into chamber: 681,' and a front-portion |06- of smaller diameterv than rear portion |05 andterminating#fin a conical or valve tip-|01. When thelvaly'e-tip Ilseats in the con-- ical opening 98' and is normally in this position when-the trigger is not actuated byan'y outside force; thefluid receiving chamber is Vsealed toprevent the passage ofi fluid out oi theorice Sl. l
When-said 'valve |01- is opened by pressure'on the trigger as before-describedvdid passes-from the chamber E8 andout through'the-forw'ard end of the orifice 91 in the-nose;-
The air passages |-9and32 extendV horizontally nates in the nat front' face |'|2-'i`of`said-barrel'dii rectly adjacent1 and outsideoff the flange 92'.
A passagewa'yflfi 3 leads upwardly and: outward; ly in the-barrel I Ilfrom the'chamber IUS-andfalso terminates in the frontiiat facel'I-Z of saidbarrel at al diametrically oppositey point to terminus of said passageway |68. The'passagew'a'y' I |-3 communicates with the recess |00. The chambers |08 and |9- are-provided to facilitatefthevboring of the respective -passageways'f Bandi-|513' andi each is suitably sealed at 'its' lower `end by' the'res'pec tivesealing plugs lliV andA |16; Inthis'mannei; two continuous air passages` from the air dis#- tributlng chamber-I 6 tothe tip or forward end of" the barrel are provided, one offwhichis' inde` pendently valveV controlled through th"e`-'valve-321|` whereby; air through passageways' 32S, |09 and H3" may be adjustably restricted orcut off? entirely a'sl desired l Anozzle |20 maybe-applied 'over-the fluid 'tip 90'? and preferablyof the external or outside miic type. The nozzle- |26" is of generally'cylindricalexternal-'contourand has ai-lower portion offenlargedldiameter to provide a retaining shoulder-- |2|. The nozzleA IZB-'has a `front'-clcsure |22Y and? ishollow to provide a generally conical'internal* face |23. The closure |22 has acentral'circularv opening |2fitherethrough and thedi'ame'teroi-` this openingis somewhat larger than the external diameter of the nose of fluid Vtip 90, which nosee'xtends through opening- |2$"-ahdl slightly forward of-'the iront face of closure |22 tofpoyide an annular' openingbetween the -tip nose and the circular opening |211; Thev nozzle I2@ also'fih--- clud'es a pair of'air jet outlet members linv tegral with clos-ure |23 and longitudinally entend'- ing therefrom@ These members |25 are dialnet-'- ricallyl arranged at opposite-1sides'- of thew opening-l |241' Theupper kpartsciitnefracirigsldes1 l znofimezhbers. |25'l slanci upwardly outwardly may from.'
Each` of said members is providedeach other. with a-vpassage outlet '|282 disposed at labout. rightangles tolthe face |28` andl communicating:y withan opening |291 which extends. fromopening. |28. and extends through the lower or inner face-.ofi
the-nozzle |26. The nozzle |2lliis1mounted ontheiuid-tip 9B as shown in Figuresl and 2, with the. inner edgeof the lower part ofV nozzle |204 abut-` tingxv against the' inner edgel of -flange- 92. TheloWer-'f-ace ofi nozzle |20 extends outwardly beyond. flange 92 leaving 'exposedv the lower end of pas'- sag'ev'l'fays-lE- The-entire outermost -conicallfacesrf of-'pertions dil and 95 of' iluidtip 9I snugly abut. 1 againstthelo'we'r internal conical-.face |23. The
noseof the-'fluid tipStl-extendsithrough the opening |25? andits'outer extremity-is located-beyond the f-ront face oft-'closure |22; Between the inner" face-of closure |1512-4 andv the-upperend of the coni` cal portion-@dis an aifr-Y chamber |327. A tllreaded` collar or clamping-nat 33 is threadedly-connectedto their-ent endoibarrel? and-has-a flange |34 abutting against shoulder 4|2| to demountably lock-the iiuid tip deliri' position. The desiredian 1' gular position of the members |25 may be varied by merely loosening the--nut |33' and rotatingy thenozzle the proper amount.
Air under pressure passes out' ofpas'sageway l 'l 3; into annular recess |00 and then through the-L equally spaced openings |0|. From-the-openin'gs itl; the travels through into annular recess- 93, through the slots |02, into the chamber |32;V through the portion-of theipa'ssag'e-lZ-around the circumference of the projecting noseof uidf upto.
Thefaii' as `it passes'beyond the front face of the closure i2? sets upv ank eddy current' effect atthe dischargeterminus-of said-nose' of tip Sli). These eddycurrent elects serveA to-atomize and the fluid as it passesout of said nose and towards the surface to be coated; y
Air under pressure from the passageway H0 enters the chamber |41] whoseone side is formed by thelock nut |33; then passes'throug'h the'passage'ways |25, then through |28 and project to'- Wards each other to further mix'and control the shape and dimensions ofi the spray asit leavesv thenozzle |20.
A compact and'relatively simple novel unit may be coupled with the aforedescrlbed spraydevice for my purposes. As shown in Figures 7' and 8' it'may comprise` a cylindrical pressure tank |50 having located therein a pair of removable semicylindrical paint carrying tanks l 5 land |52. Piv`l otally secured to the` upper end 'of said tank |50 cally disposed'openings therethrough and mount;V
edinone of said openingsis a hollow pipe |60 depending therefrom and into tank |51 and below Vthe upper level of paint therein. Also ymount-'- i ed in said opening and communicating with pipe Iiidlis a conduit lihavingah ordinary twoway valve l' coupled thereto'.
The valvel 2`is coupled to a nipple |63 in turn coupled with the nipple 'I3 fior passage 6:9 hy means" of a ilexible hose or other type of conduit |65.- A pipe lll`v` is mounted in said'other'opehingin the'top |56l and depends from saidtop and into the tank |52 with its lower end located belowthe. upper'leirel of f the-'paint cont'air'ied therein. A`v
conduit |55 having-anV ordinaryitwo waywalv* |51 therein is in communication with pipe |61 and by flexible hose I 58 is connected to the passageway 10.
A safety pressure valve |68 is mounted in an opening extending through the top |56 and is supported thereby. An air inlet |68 is connected to a source (not shown) of air under pressure. The air inlet |68 is connected to an air filter |69 connected to a conduit connected to a cross conduit |1| having its ends connected to conduits |12 and |13 having respective reducing or regulating valves |14 and |15 therein. The conduit |12 has a pressure gage 11 connected thereto on the outlet side of valve |14. The conduit |13 is connected to the T housing |80 having a hollow chamber valve |8| therein. The housing |80 has the stem inlet |82 thereof communicating with a central conical portion or valve seat |83 having a slot |84 therein communicating with inlet |82.
Outlets |85 and |86 are at right angles to said inlet |82 and are in the same straight line. The portion |84 has slots |81 and |88 communicating with respect to outlets |85 and |86. The central conical portion has a small opening |89 extend.-
ing through a side thereof. The conical valve 18| has an actuating handle |9| located in the conical portion |83 and is secured to housing |80 by a nut |92 and washer |93 arrangement secured to a projecting thread portion of the valve |90 extending outside of said housing.
The conduit |13 is connected to the stem inlet |82, the upper outlet |83 is connected to a pressure gage |95 and the lower outlet |84 is connected to the tank |58. The valve |8| has three slot openings 96 and a pair of circular openings |91 therein. When the handle |9| is in the position shown in Figure 12, the three slot openings |66 are in registry with the openings |84, |81 and |88 so that the air under pressure passes to the pressure gage |95 and to the tank |50. The pressure within the tank |50 may be regulated by actuating the handle of the regulating valve |15. When the pressure of the 4liquid in the tanks |5| and |52 is properly adjusted as indicated by the the iiuid receiving chamber 68. The cross arm conduit |1| has a two way valve at the inlet side of regulating valve |14 and when this Valve is open the air under pressure is regulated by the valve |14 to the proper pressure as shown by gage 11 and is conducted to the passageway |4 by a hose |98 connected to the enlargement |3 at the lower end of handle I3 and to the discharge side of valve |11. With the handle in the position shown in Figure 13, the slot |88 is blocked, only the slots |84 and |81 are in registry with two of slots |96 and one of the openings |89 is in registry with one of the openings |91. With the handle in the position shown in Fg ure 14, the slot |84 is blocked so noair under pressure reaches either thegage |95 or the tank and an opening |91 is in registry with opening |89 so that air in the tank can escape.
In operation, after the pressure in the" tank has been properly adjusted and pressure in' the air supply line to the spraying device has been properly adjusted, and the spraying device has been connected to said air supply line and 4to the uid supply lines from said tank, the operator is ready to spray coat. In the practice of this invention, it is preferable to employ lpaints of diiferent viscositiesv in the tanks |5| and |52 and I prefer that the higher viscosity paint be in tank |5| connected to the passageway 69. Since both paints are located in separate tanks |5| and |52, they are both at the same pressure since they are in the same pressure tank. The paint from tank |5| is conveyed under pressure through piping |160, lili, valve |82, hose |65, front passageway 11 from which it discharges as a free column through the passagewayiii and into the -chamber 68. The paint from the tank |52 is conveyed under pressure through piping |61, |55, valve |56, hose |58, rear passageway 11 from which it discharges as a free column through passageway 11 and into chamber 68. The air under pressure is conveyed through hose |98 to the passageway I3 into chamber i5. With the valve 33 set in the open position shown in Figure 2, the spraying device is ready for operation. It is to be understood that if desired the valve may be completely eliminated if desired and are employed only if adjustable means for regulating the ow of fluids in passageways 69 and 18 are desired. The chamber as shown has an internal diameter of about .375" and the diameters of the openings 11 may Vary preferably between about `.025" and .10 and are at least .5 long, and the inserts 16 are preferably located as close to the receiving chamber 68 as is practical.
The operator forces the trigger 38 towards the handle I3. The trigger 38 rst strikes the rod 2.4 to unseat valve 23 whereupon the air passes into chamber I6, through passages I8, i9, |88, i8 into chamber |40 and through passages |29 and |28; and also from chamber I8 through passages 28, chamber 33, passages, 32, |09, H3, slot |88, openings |0I, slots 93, |02, chamber |32 and then between the outside of the nose of fluid tip and the orice |24.
While the air continues following the aforementioned path, the trigger strikes the nose 58 and retracts the valve rod 50 to open the uid or paint discharge orifice 91 at the end of the common paint receiving chamber formed by the aligned -chamber 68, and the chamber in said uid tip 00. The different colored paints discharge out of said orice 91 and are atomized and mixed by the eddy currents created by the discharge of air through orice |211 and as the atomized paint mixture in its course of travel towards the surface to be painted passes between the air jets from openings |28, it is further mixed and the configuration of the spray is modied. When the trigger 38 is released, the orifice 91 is rst closed by the valve rod 50 and then the valve i5 assumes its closed position.
With the trigger 3s in its rearmost or operative position, the liquids which enter the chamber 68 and pass out of the discharge orifice thereof are in contact with each other in said chamber for such a very short period of time that they discharge out of said chamber before they become blended into a vhomogeneous blend. Thus it does not matter in the practice of this invention whether the liquids are miscible, or immiscible. It may be practiced with either of these two types oi materials. VWhen the liquids are immiscible very little, if any, blending occurs. When they are highly miscible and easily blendable, liquids are employed, a certain proportion -of these liquids blend together. And, .it is by virtue of this that a three colored spattered surface may be obtained by using but two different colored liquids.
`:aardenrrr In the practice of Vthis invention; the `pressure on the liquids inthe tank is preferably maintained in the range of about 15 to 5o pounds per square 'inch and more preferably in the range of 18 to -32 pounds per square inch while the air pressure reading at gage Il? is preferably maintained Yin the range of 20 to 50 pounds per square inch and more preferably in the range between 34 Aand v46 pounds per square inch. The needle valve 5B may be adjusted to any desired setting and after the setting is made, the operator obtains the particular pattern that he desires, noting the air pressure at 'gage ill, the uid tank pressure at gage it with the trigger in inoperative position and the pressure at gage lil' `with the trigger swung to its rearmost position.
In order to duplicate the same pattern in the ield all he need do is to use the same constitu- 'ents or paints in the respective tanks and employ the particular air and tank pressures and adjust the valve 5B until the pressure on gage l0' during discharge corresponds to that in making Athe original pattern. For example, it has been found that an attractive pattern may be produced by employing paints `of different colors and viscosities with the paint of vheavy viscosity fed to vthe chamber through conduit 65 and lighter viscosity paint through conduit i525. The fluid tank pressure was maintained in the range of about 22 to 28 pounds per square inch land the air pressure Awas maintained at about 35 to 45 pounds per lsquare inch and the valve E@ was so adjusted that the pressure gage reading when the trigger vwas in its .rearmost position was about .2 to 8 pounds per square inch. Of course, with my apparatus it is feasible even in the iield to maintain any of these pressure readkv'ings within il and bysomaintaining them the patterns `may be reproduced in detail. By following the above procedure the ratio of the rate of discharge through the discharge orifice of the lower viscosity liquids 'to that of `the higher viscosity material 'is maintained between 1.5 to .1 'and 3 'to 1 and preferably between 2 to 1 and 2.5 to l.
The foregoing system and spray device may be employed by even 'an unskilled workman and may be employed to carry out my novel methods for obtaining unique spray coatings of different colors. Although the invention has been described in detail, it is not to be 'limited thereby because many changes and modications may be made without departing therefrom.
This application is a continuation in part of my co-pending application 'Serial No. 557,955 and iiled October 10, 1944.
1. The method of spraying a surface comprising feeding a plurality of differently colored liquids into a common fluid receiving chamber having a discharge orifice, discharging said liquids in a unitarystream from said chamber before said liquids are homogeneously blended, said liquids being fed separately through openings located one entirely behind the other with respect to v'said orice and-along the length of .said chamber, ap-
2. Thefmethod of'spraying aisuraceoomprisingl feeding a Yplurality of fdifferently colored liquids of substantially the same viscosity-into :a common 'u'id receiving chamber having Ia disvvcharge orince, discharging said liquids' in a unitary stream from'said chamber before said liquids arehomogeneously blended, said liquidsrbeing fed 'separately through :openings located one entirely behind Athe other with respect to said orifice and along the length lof lsaid. chamber, applying gas "under pressure to saidfstream 'inthe substantially immediate vicinity of said orifice lto convert said stream into Ya-spray, subjecting saidspray to gas under pressure-to modify the shape `of said spray and then depositing said spray onto a sur- -jface to be coated.
3. The method of spraying a surface-comprising feeding a plurality of fdiferently colored liquids-of substantially diiferent viscosities into a common uid receiving chamber having a discharge oriiice, discharging 'said liquids in a unitary Vstream from said chamber before said` liquids -arehomogeneously'blended vsaid liquids .being 'fed 'separately through openings located one entirely behind the other with respect to ysaid lorifice and 'along'the length of said chamber, `said liquid of :greater viscosity being fed into said chamber through said opening located closer to said orice thanfanot'her of said-'op'enin'gsthrough which said liquid of lower viscosity is fed, applying Agas under Ypressure to said stream in the substantially immediate vicinity `of 'said orifice to convert said stream into a spray, subjectingsaid spray'to gas under pressure tomodify the shape of said spray Vand then depositingsaid'fspray vonto a surface to 4. The 'method Aof spraying `a lsuriaoe lcomprising Vfeeding :a plurality vof differently Acolored vvliquids of substantially different viscosties into a common fluid 'receiving chamber 'having a discharge orifice, vdischarging said liquids in a unitary stream from said chamberbe'fore said liquids are homogeneously'blended said liquids being fed separately through openings 'located one entirely immediate vicinity of `said Iorifice tov convert said stream into a spray, subjecting said 'spray to gas under pressure to modify the lshape of saidspray and then depositing said spray onto a surface to be coated.
AUSTIN l-I. IDOWNS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are `of record inthe Yfile of this ppatent':
Number Name Date 1,185344 Philbert May30, 1916 1,774,694. 'Bateman Sept. 2, 1930 .1,863,782 Young June 21, 1932 1,981,405 Wrede Nov, A.2, 1934 2,214,476 .Peacock Sept. 110, 1940