US 2505428 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 25, 1950 J. K. POPE AIR GUN PROJECTILE HOLDER Filed March 51,1947
( M 9m mm 1 i; 5 v k .5 VI E 0 N M M 0 T T MK A S W I A J v 5 WT mm mm vm Patented Apr. 25, 1 950 1 Claims.
The present invention relates to an air gun 4 device and more particularly to a device of such character adapted to project a ball or other shaped projectile withconsiderable) force and with a relatively loud report. I
It is an object of the present invention to pro vide a device of the character described efiective to employ a projectile as a sealing means for an air pressure chamber and 'to retain the projectile until attainment of a very substantial and predetermined air pressure sufficient to eject the projectile from the chamber with considerable force. a 3 More specifically, it is an object of the present invention to provide a pneumatic projector comprising a chamber having an opening into which a projectile may be introduced and through which the projectile 'is expelled by air pressure characterized by the provision of diiferential resistance to passage of the projectile through the opening into and out of the chamber. i
It is a further object of the present invention to provide a toy of the class described including 2 and located directly above the arm I2, is a piston rod 14 which may be formed of a steel bar.
' The forward end of the bar I4 is provided with a pneumatically operated means for projecting a 1 ball or the like in combination with simplemanually contr'olledmeans effective to buildup the air pressure to the required amount by operation of a sliding element on the toy.
Other objects and features of the invention will become apparent as the description proceeds,
especially when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, wherein:
Figure 1 is'a side elevation partly in section of a preferred embodiment of the present invention;
Figure 2 is a side elevation of another preferred embodiment of the present invention;
Figures 3, 4 and 5 are axial sections through the projectile-receiving chamber illustrating the projectile in various positions relative thereto; I Figure 6 is a'front elevation of a flexible rin employed in the present invention; and
' Figure 7 is a fragmentary section on the line I 1-1 of Figure 6.
Referring first to Figure 1, I have illustrated the invention as embodied in a toy gun suitable for use by children- The gun comprises a stock lTwhich may be of wood or other suitable ma- 'terial shaped to provide a shoulder portion H and a forwardly projecting arm, l2. The forwardly projecting arm l2 of the gun is formed by cutting away the upper portion thereof so as to leave a forwardly facing shoulder I3 at the stock portion thereof. Rigidly secured to the shoulder l3 and extending forwardly, paralleling tional table tennis ball.
piston element l5 which, as shown, is intended to be double-acting. However, if preferred, the piston l5 may be single-acting, having a cupped leather disk of conventional type ,concavely presented toward the end of the gun so that the device will be'eifective only in one direction of movement relative to the cylinder now to be described.
A slidable cylinder 20 is provided, the interior diameter of which is selected to closely embrace the piston I5 so as to maintain a pumping relationship therewith. Conveniently, the cylinder 20 may be formed of a. metal tube closed at its rear end by a wooden block 2| secured in the open rear end of the tube 20 by suitable fastening elements such as indicated at 22. The forward end of the tube 20 has an inwardly projecting flange 23 which is interiorly threaded toreceive the hollow threaded end 30 of the cup 3| having a pressure chamber 3 la therein.
The tube or cylinder 20 is slidably supported relative to the stock I 0 by means of a strap 24 which overlies the forward end of the tube and which is secured at its lower end to a downwardly projecting handle 25 which may be formed of wood or the like. The, strap 24, as illustrated in Figure 1, may be riveted or otherwise secured to the handle 25 as indicated at 26. In order to eifect sliding movement of the tube or cylinder 20 relative to the fixed piston IS, a second handle 21 is provided to which is riveted or otherwise secured a strap 28 which embraces and is secured to the block 2|, as indicated at 29. It will accordingly be apparent that the tube or cylinder 20 may be shifted axially of the'rod I4 by the operator. In the operation of the device the handle 25 may conveniently be grasped by the left hand and the handle 21 by the right hand. If at this time the tube or cylinder 20 is in its extended position (to the right of that shown in Figure 1) pressure may be built up in the cylinder 20 forwardly of the piston l5 by drawing the handle 21 and hence the tube 20 rearwardly with respect to the handle 25.
The cup 3| secured to the forward end of the tube 20 is best illustrated in Figures 3, 4 and 5 and in these figures it is shown in conjunction with a spherical projectile which in a. preferred embodiment may take the form of a conven- It will be appreciated, of course, that the projectile may be of any size or shape desired or convenient, and further that its density may be substantially greater than that of a table tennis ball if desired. However, for a toy suitable for children the use of a relatively light projectile on the order of a table tennis ball is advantageous.
Referring now to Figure 3, the cup 3| is illustrated as provided adjacent its forward open end with an annular member 32 which may be secured thereto in any convenient manner, such for example as by threading thereon or by the use of fastening elements such as the bolts or screws 33. The cup 3| is preferably of cylindrical shape and its internal dimensions are not substantially greater than the projectile which it is adapted to receive, in order to facilitate the building up of substantial air pressure in the chamber with a minimum of movement of the piston relative to the cylinder. Immediately within the open end of the cylinder or cup 3|, the inner wall 34 of the cup is cut away to provide an annular groove 35. The annular member 32 is .adapted to clamp a resilient ring 36 against the forward face of the cup 3|. Attention is particularly directed to Figures 3, 4 and 5 which illustrate that the ring 36 engages an inwardly extending flange 37 formed on the annular member 32 which extends radially inwardly further than the inner wall or surface of the annular recess 35.
The ring 36 may conveniently be formed of rubber and the operating characteristics of the device are affected by the physical characteristics of the ring, as will be readily apparent. By virtue of the smaller inside diameter of the flange 31 as compared to the recess 35, the ring 36 will be effective to oppose a substantially greater resistance against movement of the ball or other projectile out of the chamber 3|a than into the chamber.
Located within the chamber 3|a is a compression spring 40. This spring is of relatively small strength and its function is to retain the ball or other projectile in sealed relation against the ring 36 when the ball or other projectile is located within the chamber 3 la.
Referring first to Figure 3, there is illustrated the relationship between the cup 3| andthe projectile 4| (which is there illustrated as a ball) during insertion of the ball into the chamber 3|a. At this time it will be observed that the inner edge of the' ring 36 i being bent rearwardly, this bending of the ring being permitted by virtue of the groove 35 or more generally by virtue of the fact that the ring 36 is not supported at a point close to its inner edge. In Figure 4 the projectile or ball 4| is illustrated as completely inserted within the chamber 3|a and as held by the compression spring 46 in sealed relation against the ring 36. At this time it will be observed that outward flexing of the inner edge of the ring 36 requires a greater force due to the fact that the flange 31 of the annular member 32 supports the outer surface of the ring more closelyadjacent to its inner edge. Accordingly, as will be readily appreciated, a substantially greater force is required to eject the ball or other projectile from the chamber 3 la than is required to insert it into the chamber.
According to the preferred embodiment of the invention, the preferred construction involves the provision of an even greater differential between the resistances to movement of the projectile into and out of the chamber. Referring now to Figure 5, there is illustrated the relationship of parts when the projectile i being ejected by pressure in the chamber 3|a. At this time it will be observed that the diameter of the ball 4|, the thickness of the ring 36, and the internal diameter of the flange 3'! are such that in order for the ball to move outwardly from the chamber 3| a, there must be an actual compression of the material of the ring 36. Thus at the point 42 it will be observed that the material of the ring 36 is of less than its normal thickness which is indicated at the point 43. By proper design it is thus possible to obtain within practical limits substantially any desired resistance to expulsion of the projectile from the chamber 3| a. K
In order further to facilitate insertion of the ball into the chamber 3|a, the resilient ring 36 may be further modified as illustrated in Figures 6 and 7. In this case there are illustrated a plurality of radially extending shallow groove 45 which extend from the inner edge of the ring radially outward therefrom for a substantial distance. The other side of the ring 36 is smooth and the grooves 45 are provided only on what is to be the outer surface of the ring when assembled in the device. With this construction, as the ball is forced inwardly through the sealing ring 36, the accumulation of air pressure as the result of displacement of air by the ball is prevented, this air escaping freely through the plurality of grooves thus provided between the surface of the ball and the outer surface of the ring 36. Since the inner surface of the ring 36 is smooth, no similar action takes place as th ball is being expelled by air pressure from the chamber.
In describing the modification of the device illustrated in Figure 1 it was stated that the piston I5 is illustrated as double-acting but could be single-acting if preferred. If the piston is double-acting it will be appreciated that a method of charging the toy or, in other words, inserting the projectile into the chamber 3|a may be simply to hold the projectile in contact with the exterior of the sealing ring 36, as for example in the relationship illustrated in Figure 3, and thereafter moving the tube or cylinder 20 to the right, thus creating a reduced pressure within the chamber 3| a which draws. the projectile thereinto. On the other hand, it is possibly a simpler construction to employ a single-acting piston, in which case the ball is merely pushed into the chamber 3|a against the resistance afforded by the ring 36 and the spring 46.
Referring now to Figure 2, there is illustrated a modified form of the device. In this case the cup 3| is similar to that'shown in Figure 1 and illustrated in detail in Figures 3 to 5. In this case, however, a charging chamber or reservoir 50 is provided which is closed at both ends and which at its rear end contains a pump 5| having a reciprocable piston 52 therein. A piston rod 53 extends from the piston 52 and has an operating handle (not shown) carried at the rear end of the toy. As illustrated in Figure 2, the rear end of the chamber 50 carries a threaded nut 54. The pump 5| is provided with an outlet valve 58 which communicates with the interior of the reservoir 50 and which includes means normally retaining the valve closed which comprises a compression spring 59. Means are provided for affording communication between the interior of the charging reservoir 50 and the cup 3|, and in Figure 2 I have illustrated a simple construction for achieving this result. Extending outwardly from the reservoir 56 is a short length of tube 55. Extending rearwardly from the cup 3| is a coupling 56 which in this case takes the place of the hollow threaded end 30 shown in Figure 1, and interconnecting the coupling 56 and the tube 55 is a rubber tube 51. Suitable means are provided for closing or pinching off the tube 51 so as to prevent passage of compressed air from the reservoir to the chamber 3la of the cup. This means in Figure 2 is illustrated as taking the form of a trigger 60 pivoted as by a pin 6| to side walls of a' housing structure 62. Extending forwardly from the trigger 60 is an upwardly projecting arm 63. Spring means are provided for projectile against the inner surface of said ring. 7
. said ring to oppose substantially greater resisbiasing'the trigger to the position shown inFigure 2. This means may conveniently take the form of aleaf spring Mrivetted or otherwise secured tothe housing 62 as indicated at Hand having a pivot point support for the pin 6| formed "by upwardly projectingarms 66 or the like. .IAccordingly, movement of the trigger to the left as seen in this figure'results in downward swinging movement of the arm 63, thus releasing the rubber tube 51 and permitting the 7 flow of compressed air into the chamber 3la. Thi motion also results in flexing of the leaf spring 64 about the pivot pin 6|, the rear end thereof being anchored by the rivet 65. Accordingly, upon release of the trigger the natural resilience of the leaf spring 64 returns the trigger to the position shown. Obviously other specific means could be provided for controlling the flow of air from the reservoir 50 to the chamber Ma.
The embodiment of the invention illustrated 'in Figure 2 is intended to simulate a pistol, and
accordingly the operating structure thus far described is supported from a pistol grip type handle 68 as by a strap 6 9 or the like.
While I have illustrated and described two preferred embodiments of the present invention, it will be understood that this has been done merely to enable those skilled in the art to practice the invention, the true scope of which is indicated by the appended claims.
What I claim as my invention is:
1. A projectile holder in the form of a receptacle constituting an air compression chamber and having a circular opening, a ring of resilient material concentric with and partially closing said opening, inner andouter rigid annular members concentric with said ring and engaging the opposite surfaces of said ring adjacent its outer periphery, said members having internal diameters larger than the internal diameter of said ring, the inner member having an internal diameter larger than the internal diameter of said outer member.
2. A projectile holder as defined in claim 1, in which the chamber is relatively small and air reliefmeans are provided for the escape of air as a projectile is introduced into said through said ring.
3. A projectile holder as defined in claim 2 in which said air relief means is in the form of generally radial grooves in the outer surface of said ring, said grooves extending to the inner edge of said ring.
4. A projectile holder as defined in claim 1 in which said outer rigid annular member is removable from said receptacle and serves to clamp said ring against the portion of said receptacle surrounding said opening.
V 5. A projectile holder as defined in claim 1 in which said receptacle is a generally cylindrical cup.
6. A projectile holder as defined in claim 1, includingmeans in said receptacle for urging a chamber urge the projectile into engagement with the inpression chamber and having a circular opening,
a substantially fiat ring of resilient material concentric with and partially closing said open ing, means cooperating with said ring to provide greater resistance to movement of the projectile out of said chamber than into said chamber through said opening comprising a rigid annular member engaging the outer surface of said ring, the inner diameter of said ring being less than the diameter ofthe projectile, the inner diameter of said annular member being greater than the diameter of said projectile by anamount less than twice the thickness of said ring.
11. A device as definedin claim 10, including a spring in said projectile holder engaged by a projectile inserted in said holder and operable to ner surface of said ring.
12. A device as defined in claim 10, including an inner rigid annular member engaging the inner surface of said ring adjacent its outer periphery, said inner annular member having an internal diameter greater than the internal diameter of said outer annular member.
13. In a toy comprising agun and a projectile in the form of a table tennis ball, a.projectile holder in the form of a receptacle constituting an air compression chamber and having a circular opening, a substantially flat ring of resilient material concentric with and partially closing said opening, means cooperating with said ring to provide greater resistance to movement of the projectile out of said chamber thandnto said chamber through said opening comprising a rigid annular member engaging the outer surface of said ring, the inner diameter of said ring being less than the diameter'of the projectile, the inner diameter of said annular member being greater than the diameter of said projectile by an amount less than twice the thickness of said ring.
14. In a projectile holder in the form of a receptacle constituting an air compression chamber and having a circular opening, means for opposing movement of a projectile out of said chamber through said opening with a greater resistance than movement of the projectile into said chamber comprising three concentric abutting rings concentric with and partially closing said opening, said rings being of difierent internal diameter, the internal diameter of the outer ring being intermediate in size to the internal diameters of the inner and intermediate .ring, the inner and outer rings being rigid and said intermediate ring being formed or substantially fiat resilient material.
15. A projectile holder in the form of a receptacle constituting an air compression chamber and having a circular opening, a ring of resilient material concentric with and partially closing said opening, first ring supporting means comprising a rigid annular member concentric with said ring and located adjacent its outer surface, said member having an internal diameter larger than the internal diameter of said ring, and second ring supporting means concentric with said ring and connected thereto throughout an annular zone of larger internal diameter than the internal diameter of said first supporting means.
JAMES K. POPE.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Number 15 36,376 419,936
' Name Date Mole Mar. 18, 1884 Jackson Aug. 7, 1888 Grobl Sept. 22, 1908 McCullough Nov. 14, 1916 McLain et a1. Apr. 19, 1921 Iles May 22, 1934 Boynton Sept, 29, 1942 Boynton Jan. 5, 1943 Wulfert May 8, 1945 FOREIGN PATENTS Country Date Austria Feb. 25, 1909 France Nov. 9, 1910