US 2507450 A
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May 9, 1950 G. A. MiLLIKAN ET AL OXYGEN GENERATOR WITH INTEGRATED INITIATING DEVICE 3 SheetSfSheet 1 mi A e U. A
m @www P May 9, 1950 G. A. MILLIKAN ETAL OXYGEN GENERATOR WITH INTEGRATED INTTIATING DEVICE 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Jupe 12, 1947 May 9, 1950 G. A. MILLIKAN ETAL OXYGEN GENERATOR WITH INTEGRATED INITIATING DEVICE Filed June 12, 1947 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented May 9, 1950 ICE f GlennfA Milliken, Nashville, 'Tenn., and.Victor .=A Legallais;;glhiladelphia; Paw. assigner-s to :the
UnitedV States ntAmel-icaasrepresentedbyithe A i ,.SecretaryoflLWar :'Thez-inventionf describedehereinrmayfbe manufacturedzezand: usedlbytoif for thergovernment :for governmentalszpurposes' withoutfpaymentn to us of: any royalty. thereon;
" Thisi invention-relatesetoan oxygen generator andibreathingdeviceffnrziusei by. aviatorsf atzliigh altitudes.
'lIIty isfknown cthat:aviatcirsgfat altitudesmay be -sub'ectedzitoremergencies?such .as'thefruptnring-#ofwa .ipressnrizedzz-cabimzfsorithat they) @must have oxygen to breathe within .arfevilfi-seconds after theirmormal'fair supply is rtakensawayzfrom them. kUnder:suchaconditions, .itazisnnecessary forasurvivalitoziiavetanzoxygen; generatorywhich can-'Istartzf'suddenly and reliably-fand whichzirequires a minimum of affmanual :foperation f vto initiate.
Y "One :obj ect eef this'rinventionaisztoxfprovidev,an oxygen generator 1 of ff thefiquickczstarting ftype which'f willi not;A 4voidf-bxygenf funless'zz. itzisztfbeing breathed;
Another 'object S fis` :to: .f '.provide. integrated initiating- "I'devicies-f` for Afthe 'ffgenerator whichswi-ll simlil-taneouslyfopenthe'canisterfiseal, .thersbag seal',I and'ffinitiatefthe burningifofiithes-chlorate candle, which generates most of the.'oxygen;dur ing.theiirstthree minutes of operation.
:-.-Anoth`er object is to provide anv oxygen unit which will furnish a reserve ofusable, Oxygen after the generating chemicals are..exhaustedl f Another object is to providefan oxygen generator which is unusually compact and may be wornbeforeuse, without Athebreathenbag being;,nconvenieiitlmunfolded.'4
t In the drawings: A "i,
Eig. l is anioblique viewoijan .ayiatorvwearing ourdevice;
s. Eig. 2, is;a vertical 'sectionr of, our device-showingthegeneratorythe,closures thereof andthe breather.. bag. `therefor; I
Eiga 3 is` a@ perspectiyezview. of....the top of '.the generator while it .isi sti-1l, unactivated Fig-.-; 4,r isi, a;- perspective, .view` of` ,the `top of; the generatonraftertithasf,been opened, .i.fe.v, activated;
- Eig. 5-is a `perspective view .of thebottom offthe generator while it. isinprocess kof being activated 6,A is, a .rvertcal section ,7. of. an. exhalation valve, or..the;mask.ir-Thewalveiisshown open;
lEig@` 7 A.issansedge view-ofithe Asame valve;l closed;
',Eigr 8, is.y a;- plan---lview-v ofruthe .samer yalveclosed. s InI Eigal; the .fprincipaLpartsfof Ethei device., are
shown u segategether with affmaskr. LI l! .is an Qxygenzeenerator-:zntggeneraux cylindrical shape,v Y
L2. Haaiibreathing bag...attached thereto, vll-gis V,a flexible. fbreathiirlg rfimbe attachedetol a.mask-, or facepiece: :I 3.
. .In `1',ig2,.the generator. I -appears on-agreatly enlarged,scala-compared:to Fig; lfand .approximatesv actualisize. f I In isfa breathing :bag, ,which isextended.: The iexiblefrubber tube I2'is shown broken away.: I VOn Lthea-:left i-side offgenerator I 0 there-isfa cli-p ifi-Lion attachingV -the generator-to the aviatoidsV clothing: ont-harness: VvOnzthe right side v.(seei-also; ll'ige)nis.fatballjl 5s-of arsize which will t easily into the palm of thelhananda wireseable rliffor,initiatingythergenerator. As willebe-.seentfrom Figs 3, tlfiescable--l6fis; before initiation?. -lattachedmo -a-,starting-flever. .I FI which locks anVi yexit pipe.A -:I 8f to which .the rubber `:tube I2 is attached when the generator :is in use The startingn lever I 'Ifv has .a` mikey-shape andT is .-detaehablyhingedfto ntwef-lfugsd Brand -,I-,9a which are parts of. a shelf1-20-z-whichlieseunder the topffsurface-,off the fgenerator I 0-. -1A-:,stopper.2-I.;is`.at taehedntoithe uneieimside of startingleverdl.by a,-belt-22 and; a nut l23.' ,When-@the-leverwI1--is dowmvthestopper i.closes-.thery exit Apipee I 8.
v-fAn-finneilV metal canisters'zytogether with. vits contents; @comprises/anaoxidizing f cartridgef;v and eontainsactive-gmaterial. The ,entire generator unit is designed as@aacheapexpendablendevice which sientoA ,-be. diseardedlt,-whenV exhausted; An alternativen bute heavier, `design could utilize a replaceable cartridge. A evwallrf-portion pf.. :the canisterm .-isf,preferably"coveredfon Vthe outside with:v glass :cloth .-24 :ion-other. gthermal rinsulation which mayV exterid-ra1oundy and protect the 4rubber breathingfbagl -I:I.. Theeinsulation,24.fserwesito keep thefchemicalreactionfiirthe generatorafrom divinqfcut. fTl-iefbae'.-z Hs. ande aeprotective cover 24 caf-therefore areffintendedto y be fielded eand retained adjacent .to thedaottom oi?V the; generator I0. .Afipainm'springeopenedf doors 21i and=I 21a (Fig: =5)I ser-ve' the'fpurposefoffejecting thelfolded ri'agffrorn'fits,restingfV place' and largely: opening it; Ifla'tions :1prifnarily:"fcaused'ffbyfv the rapid production of gas by` a chloratejfeandlef-primer 'Before' the generator fis' fused@ there is a thin brass:seal-suffseer'igzz) which is thenintact but later, Ajupon"activation ofv the generator;I broken byA a smLlL guillotine' 61;. which has a, spadesliapedjknife' l6,2; '.Inli'ig 2g rvthe -knife 62 has `run-'- turedthe se'al 6B.`"`Both the guillotinelgandjthe double doorsland 21eme,aetuableK byia mousetrap. type ofcspring 63 wildernis woundoverv a mitvndrell.`- Afheisinneraendsdofrvspring' 6 il` are attached to the doors 21 and 21a while a loop 85 is attached to the guillotine.
Referring again to Figs. 3 and 4, 28 and 28a are reserve starting levers for additional chlorate candles. The candles are activated by a pull on a trigger wire 29 on the end of which is a small ball 39. The reserve starting levers 2S and 28a bear slots 3l which retain the balls 39 sufficiently long during a pull on the cords 29 to activate the candles. crums for the levers 28 and 28a. Extending from starting lever i1 and over the reserve levers 28 and 28a, there is a yoke 28h which fits under lugs I9 and I9a. It is provided with a slot 3| which holds the starting ball 30 of the middle chlorate candle. A tab 33 which is part of a guard 34 for reserve lever lifting rings and 35a extends upward through a slot in the bag release member 38. The guard 34 is in turn retained over the rings 35 and 35a by the pressure of a strap 36 which extends from a slot 31 in the rear end of a bag release member 38 which ts under the starting lever i1. Yoke 28h will clear lugs I 9 and I9a without a rearward motion because of the fact that there is enough give in the parts 38,
lifted, the valve 39 remains closed to prevent egress of oxygen until a suitable concentration of this gas has built up.
Inusing this invention, it is necessary that the mask I 3 contain al valve 4I of the kind shown in Figs. 6, 7 and 8. The purpose of this valve is to selectively shut off exhalation to the atmosphere from the mask so that the wearers breath must return to the bag II via the generator Ill. Its location is in the front of the mask in the exhalation port. The rubber side of the valve 4I faces theinterior of the mask. A loading of the mask interior to a pressure of about 5 cm. of water is desired.
42 isa cylindrical rubber body of valve 4I. Its section is shown in Fig. 6. 43 and 43a are two individuals of a plurality of openings extending entirely through the body 42. 44 is a circumferential channel on the body 42 by which the valve may be held in the mask i3. 45 is a screw which extends through the body 42 and retains between an inner nut 48 and an outer nut 41, a snap diaphragm 48 which loosely encloses by means of ears 49 a second snap diaphragm 50 and an actu# ator 5I therefor. Actuator 5I is centrally perforated at 52. Behind the diaphragms '48 and 59 is a rubber cap 53 which has very little thickness, thereby making it possible to overlie the beveled edges 54 of the valve body 42 and close the openings 43 and 43a.
When the valve is closed, as shown in Fig. 7, the diaphragm is straight and diaphragm 48 is bent backward over diaphragm 53. By grasping the edge of diaphragm 48 and pulling it away from the body 42, the diaphragm 48 will snap to the position shown in Fig. 6, allowing diaphragm 53 to lift from openings 43 and 43a thereby unsealing them.
Interiorly the generator IIl is divided by a wire gauze ypartition 10 into a guillotine operating space 1I; by two other such partitions 12 and 13,
Lugs 32 serve as fulupper and lower respectively, into an oxygen generating space and by another partition 15. Woven glass ber is incorporated in each partition to keep the KCl and other solids which are generated by candle combustion within the candle space by filter action. Woven glass fiber is also employed to hold the KO2 in place on the walls. In order to keep the temperature below 150 C., above which the ltration of chlorides through the woven glass fiber is hindered, some heatabsorbing substance such as hydrous copper sulfate CuSO4.5H2O or potassium-permanganate impregnated active carbon may be placed between the candle and the filtering partitions, as for example, at 81.
In the valve 39 there is a stem 'I6 which is vertically slidable in a tube which is held erect in holes in the gauze partitions 12 and 15 by solder. Below the diaphragm 40 of valve 39 there is a weak coil spring 18 which is depressible by any pressure in the tube I2 which is greater than 5 cm. of water. Therefore it is depressible by breathing pressure. The valve 39 is maintained in a fully open vposition while the device is being worn. The mask connector of the breathing tube I2 engages with the cross bar of the valve 39. Inhaled and exhaled air passes freely through this open valve. When the unit is disconnected and laid aside for a time the valve is closed, thus conserving the oxygen in the connector and bag.
The generating space between gauze diaphragms 12 and 13 is lined as to its vertical walls with a charge of potassium peroxide, KOz or X204 sometimes known by its commercial name KOXJ This substance will absorb CO2 and water and will liberate 11/2 mols of oxygen for each mol of carbon dioxide oiawaterA absorbed. Since this reaction demands that CO2 or water be furnished as starting material, it cannot furnish ready oxygen as soon as the mask is put on. Therefore three chlorate candles, of which two, 8I and 82 respectively, are shown in Fig. 2, are provided. Candles having the following composition are satisfactory as self-propagating oxygen generators:
Per cent by weight Sodium chlorate 81 Iron powder 10 Barium peroxide 3 Powdered glass fiber 6 On candle 8I there is shown a red phosphorousantimony trisulde-potassium chlorate igniter similar in principle to the well known Bickford pull-fuse or box-striking safety match. It comprises a case 83 to which is attached a second case 84. The latter contains a spring 85 of sheet material which is adapted Vto rotate a rough chemical-coated friction plate 85a on a composition 85h; friction between the plate 85a and composition 85b produces ignition. The lower end of pull wire 29 is adapted to trigger the spring 85. A vertical tube 8E is provided to guide the wire 29.
In operation, the ball handle I5 is pulled thereby lifting lever I1 through cable I6. The pull may be a single motion of one hand. Stopper 2l is lifted out of exit pipe I8. The same pull of lever I1 is exerted on wire 29 to trigger the coil spring 85 to rotate the friction plate 85a on the initiating chemical 85h. Friction between the chemicals initiates combustion of the chlorate candle 8I, thus generating oxygen. This effect is due to the heating of that excess chlorate in the 75 candle which does not react with the combustible engem/gsm candle constituents'. g-'Thewearer now inhales Oxygen- "Meanwhile the pull on leveril'lfhassrleased strap 36 which drops and releases "bag l l. The doors Z'Ifand-'Zla now-relieved*ofthe-pressure of the-bag, ly open under `the `rurging of springf`63. Guillotina rel simultaneously-.cuts theffs'eal 6U. .The chlorate candle immediatelyfrliberates oxygen :at 'a :rates-which completely lls the canistenand expandsthe bag in a few seconds. f Excess oxygen -;-is\ vented if the mask has--already'been connected, :.throughith-e loaded expiratory `valve inthe mask.
The three oxygen. candles. act only as one initial primer "and two "iinal reserves of oxygen. :JI-heyriiberateffenough-f; oxygen; to supplythilier for only iive to ten minutes, buttheyfdo itquiokly .-iand; positively. V .'The -KOX,=iwhich supplies: toxyw gen ini'accordance: withfneed'facoordirrgto" the! CO2 -and waterivaporrreaching it, provides anaa'dequate regular i' supply foffloxygen .to .thewearer-forzthe l-2 hour duration of the unit. The KOX is supplemented by the chlorate candles because (a) KOX starts sluggishly, especially in the cold, (b) a large excess of oxygen is needed at the start of operation to flush out the system with pure oxygen, and (c) a small reserve of oxygen should be instantly available after a collapse signals the wearer that the KOX has become exhausted.
Numerous changes and substitutions may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention as dened by the appended claims.
The invention claimed is:
1. In an oxygen generator, the combination which comprises a canister, oxygen generating means within said canister, an exit pipe on the top of said canister, a seal for the top of said exit pipeinitiatiiigfmeans for said oxygen-generating means, a lever attached to the top of said canister adapted to unseal the exit pipe, said initiating means being attached to and actuable by said lever, said generator having in addition a breathing bag foldedly Iattached to the bottom of said canister when the generator is not in use. bag-retaining means attached to the lever and extending around the folded bag, said bag-retaining means being releasable by the operation of said lever, a seal between the bottom of the canister and the bottom of the bag and means attached to the bottom of the canister for rupturing the seal upon release of the bag.
2. The combination recited in claim 1 in which the seal rupturing means comprises a mouse-trap type of spring, a guillotine carried on a loop thereof, and two downwardly opening doors movable by the spring ends to open the bag.
3. In an oxygen generator, a canister, thermal insulation around said canister, la breathing bag foldedly attached to the bottom of said canister when the generator is not in use, said insulation extending around said breathing bag to protect the latter, an exit tube for oxygen extending from the top oi the canister, unsealing means comprising a lever and a stopper attached theretosaid stopper being normally in .said exit pipe but removable therefrom by movement of said lever, bag-retaining means releasable by the same motion of said lever, a plurality of chlorate candles within said generator, initiating means for each candle, said initiating means being actuable from the top of the canister, the initiating means for one candle being actu-able by the movement of the lever to unseal the exit pipe and release the bag.
4. 'The combination set forth in claim 3 plus .6 meanscarriedfon'.th'ebottomrffthecanisterffor "s'imultaneously spreading *thefolded "bag *arid 'opening 'communication for gas between'fthe :ln- :terior of the canister and-"the4 interior ofA thelfbag.
generator, a breathing bag `fld'ed undersaid 'generator, exit' pipe for roxygemfrom thetop-of said"generat-orfa:sealiorrsaidA exit pipe; multiple oxygen' generating- Vcharges within said generator, a' seal *betwe'errsaid generator and said bag 1^below "said generating charges; means for 'igniting each 'generating 'charge from vthe toplof the "generator, i lever means for-- unsealingsai'd exit .pipe,"release'meanscontrclled'by sai'dlever means V"for dropping isaidbag' and 'rupturing said lower seal"` "one" igniting'means Lfor a generating icharge 'beingactuable byfzthe'move'ment of `saidilev'er `wltierebyitl'ie generator may beV put into-operation by one movement ofcneahand.
SLYThe. oombinationi'recited in claim 5 and in addition, ailling of potassium peroxide on the interior of the generator.
7. A rebreather oxygen supply unit comprising a generator, thermal insulation about said generator for promoting the chemical reactions taking place therein. a iilling of e, water and carbondioxide absorbing substance, a plurality of unit charges of a chemical mixture which generates oxygen upon initiation of combustion therein, separate means for initiating combustion in each unit charge, a breathing bag foldedly attached to the bottom ci the generator when the latter is not in use, spring actuated means for opening the bag and establishing gaseous communication between its interior and the interior of the generator, lever means hingedly fulcrumed on said generator for opening a top exit therefrom, a strap releasable by the operation of said lever means for releasing the bag and freeing the spring aci tuaied bag opening means, a wire connected to said lever means and to the combustion initiating means whereby actuation of the lever means will pull the wire and so initiate combustion of one oxygen generating charge.
8. In an oxygen supply unit, ya generator, an oxygen generating system in said generator comprising a plurality of ch-lorate candles, separate ignition means for each candle and a charge of a carbon dioxide and water-absorbing, oxygen-generating chemical arranged to have an extensive surface, a rebreather bag on said generator, an exit pipe from the top of said generator to a pressure mask, a valve in said exhaust pipe for connection to prevent loss of oxygen when the device is open but not in use, and for the accumulation of a reserve supply available for breathing from said bag after all of the chemicals in the generator have become exhausted.
9. The combination recited in claim 8 plus wire gauze partitions at the top and bottom of that space in the generator which contains the oxygen generating chemicals, said partitions comprising glass bers being adapted to lter solids from the gas generated by said chemicals, said partitions at least in part supporting the valve for preventing loss of oxygen when the device is open but not in use.
l0. In combination in an expendable oxygengenerating system, a generator, yoxygen generating means in said generator comprising a, filling of potassium peroxide arranged to have an extensive surface and capable of furnishing most of the oxygen, a plurality of chlorate candles mounted vertically within said generator, the rst candle being able to furnish oxygen sufl- .cient for breathing during approximately the rst three minutes of operation, filter means at the top and bottom of said generator, separate means for initiating combustion in each chlorate candle, a breathing bag foldedly attached to the bottom of the generator when the latter is not in use, spring-actuated means for opening the bag and establishing gaseous communication between its interior and the interior of the generator, lever means hingedly fulcrumed on said generator for opening a, top exit therefrom through the top filter, a strap releasable by the operation of said lever means for releasing the bag and freeing the spring-actuated bag-opening means, a wire connected to said lever means and to the combustion initiating means whereby the actuation of the llever means will pull the wire and so initiate the combustion of one chlorate candle.
GLENN A. MILLIKAN.
VICTOR A. LEGAILAIS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date '795,678 Bamberger July 25, 1905 1,517,810 Wiley Dec. 2, 1924 1,521,996 Ciano Jan. 6, 1925 10 2,004,243 mosh June 11, 1935 2,121,034 Hausmann June 21, 1938 2,396,064 Kamer Mar. 5, 1946 OTHER REFERENCES Development of Oxygen Candle Apparatus For Use in Aircraft.
Report of the Committee on Medical Research of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, June 1946. A copy is in the Library of Con- 20 gress, Washington, D. C. CAM #499 52 pgs.