US 2508286 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
H. C. OTIS RETRIEVING TOCL May 16, 195o 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Deo. 15, 1945 ATTORNEY May 16, 1950 H. oTls 2,508,286V
RETRIEVING TOOL Patented May 16, 1950 RETRIEVING TOOL Herbert C. Otis, Dallas, Tex., assignor to Otis Engineering Corporation, Dallas, Tex., a corporation of Texas Application December 175, 1945, Serial No. 635,235
(Cl. 16S-1) Claims.
This invention relates to new and useful improvements in retrieving tools.
In wells wherein removable subsurface flow controls have been installed in the flow conductor, and more particularly in Wells wherein more than one producing zone is present and in which flow controls of the type illustrated in the patent to Herbert C. Otis, No. 2,246,811, issued June 24, 1941, are installed, it is frequently difficult to safely remove the flow control because of unbalanced pressure conditions. Such conditions of unbalanced pressure may result in the ow control being blown up the well flow conductor as it is initially moved from its position within the conductor, thus causing the flexible steel line used in removing the control to become tangled or balled up. In such event, the tangled line must first be "fished out of the well before the flow control can be fully removed from the conductor.
Further, other types of subsurface well tools frequently are difllcult to remove by means of a small flexible steel line and it is necessary to utilize some other means for applying the force necessary toretrieve such tools.
It is, therefore, one object of the invention to provide an improved retrieving tool which is des signed to utilize the natural well pressure or an injected fluid pressure for extracting well devices from a well conductor.
A particular object of the invention is to provide an improved retrieving tool having sealing means which is arranged to be expanded to sealing position prior to applying fluid pressure ther-- against to remove the well tool.
A further object of the invention is to provide a retrieving tool of the character described which iiow conductor, which has a plurality of sealing elements incorporated therein, whereby the retrieving tool will successfully maintain its seal as Vcouplings are passed, so that if one of the sealing elements is positionedV opposite the recess betweenthe ends of joints of pipe at a coupling the other sealing element will engage the wall of the pipe to permit proper functioning of the de- Y vice.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a retrieving tool of the character described which is adapted to be run into a well conductor upon a flexible steel line or dropped into the well conductor to engage a well device to be removed from such conductor.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a retrieving tool of the character described which is so arranged that fluid may be pumped downwardly through the conductor but which prevents upward flow of fluid therepast.
Additional objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the reading of the following description of devices constructed in accordance with the invention, and reference to the accompanying drawings thereof, wherein:
Figure 1 is a view, in elevation, of a retrieving tool constructed in accordance with the invention and showing the same engaging a well device in a well flow conductor,
Figure 2 is an enlarged view, partly in elevation and partly in section, illustrating the packing assembly of the retrieving tool, and showing the vpacking unexpanded,
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2, illustrating the packing in its expanded position,
Figure 4 is a View, partly in elevation and partly in section, of a modified form of the packing element of the retrieving tool and showing the packing unexpanded,
Figure 5 is .a View similar to Figure 4, showing the packing in expanded sealing position,
Figures 6, 7, 8 and 9 are horizontal cross-sectional views taken on the lines 66, 1 1, 8 8 and 9-9 of Figure 4.
In the drawings the numeral Ill designates an elongate tubular mandrel having an external annular shoulder II formed at its mid-portion. A sealing element I2, such as an inverted pump cup, is supported on said shoulder, and a wear ring I3, having an auxiliary packing ring Ill for sealing between lsaid wear ring and mandrel, is
,mounted on the mandrel above the pump cup and is held in place thereon by means of a packing nut I5 which is threaded onto the upper end of said mandrel.
An elongate retrieving member I6 is also screw .threaded onto the upper end of the mandrel and has its upper portion reduced above a shoulder Ia. This reduced portion has a retrieving conn nection Il formed at its upper end. The bore of the retrieving member is also reduced to form a valve seat I8 which is arranged to have a valve U i9 seat thereon to close the bore of the retrieving member against upward fluid flow.
The valve has a reduced elongate stem Isa which extends substantially above the upper end of the retrieving member, as clearly shown in Figure 2, and an enlarged head or cap member is threaded onto the upper end of the valve stem. The lower portion of the valve is provided with external guide fins 2! for guiding its longitudinal motion in the bore of the mandrel. A helical coiled spring 22 engaging the lower ends of the fins 2l is supported at its lower end upon an internal shoulder 23 formed in 3, housing 25. which is screw threaded into the lower end of the mandrel l0. Therefore, the spring exerts its force to maintain the valve I9 seated against the seat I8 in the retrieving member.
An external annular ange 25 is formed at the lower end of the housing kand an elongate packing expandingv sleeve 20, having an internal annular flange 2 which is slidably conned between the lower end of the mandrel and the annular flange 25 on the spring housing, is slidable with relation to the mandrel l0. The packing expanding sleeve is provided with an upwardly convergingor wedge surface 28Vat its upper end which is adapted to engage the lower end of the pump cup or packing l2 to force the same radially outward in to sealing engagement with the wall of a well tubing T in which the device is adapted to be used.
A cylindrical box or connecting member 29 is screw threaded into the lower 'end of the packing expanding sleeve and is provided with internal screw threads 30 at itslower end for receiving the screw threaded pin 3l at the upper end of a retrieving to'ol P.V Laterallyy extending fluid courses '32 provide for flow of iluid from the exterior of the box into the bore of the same and upwardly through the spring housing and mandrel to the valve and seat at the upper end of the packing element S.
The retrieving tool P may be oi any suitable type, but the tool illustrated is similar to that shown in the patent to Herbert C. Otis, No. 1,898,261, issued February 21, V1933.
The tool P includes a sub 34 which is provided with the upstanding screw threaded pin 3l at its upper end, and has an elongate cylindrical housing 35 surrounding a core 36 on which supporting elements or dogs 3l are swingably mounted. The dogs are adapted to engage over a, retrieving connection i0 on the upper end ofnthe well device D which is desired to be removed from the well.
In use, the packing assembly S is connected to the retrieving tool P, as shown in Figure l, and either dropped directly into the well tubing or lowered slowly therein with a suitable running tool until the supporting elements or dogs 3T at the lower end of the retrieving tool P engage the retrieving connection of the device which is desired to be removed from the well tubing;
It is preferable that the assembly be lowered into the well tubing by means of a lowering mechanism Aoperable by means of a flexible wire line (not shown). A running tool having a downwardly facing cylindrical bowl 46 formed thereon is connected to the lowering mechanism and has its lower end riveted, or otherwise releaisably secured, to the upper end of the retrieving member of the packing assembly, as clearly shown in Figure 2. In this position the cap 29 at the upper end of the valve stem engages the closed upper end of thebowl of the running tool and is depressed to 'maintain the valve in open position whereby well fluid may flow past the packing assembly S. Rivets or shear pins 41 extending through radial openings formed in the skirt of the bowl and in the retrieving connection support the assembly as it is lowered into the well tubing.
When the retrieving tool P has engaged the well device D which is desired to be removed from the well, application of downward force to the running tool will shear the pins 41 and permit the bowl to further telescope the upper end of the retrieving member so that the lower end of the running tool will engage the shoulder Ilia on the retrieving member. When the running tool engages the shoulder, further application of a downward force to the running tool transmits A a downward force to the mandrel It and the packing means or pump cup I2 carried thereby to move the same downwardly with respect to the packing expanding sleeve 26. As the mandrel moves downwardly, the packingexpanding sur-- face 22 engages the lower end of the pump cup I2 and moves the same radially outward into 'contact with the wall of the well tubing, as clearly shown in Figure 3. Since the shear pin has been fractured, the running tool may be'removed from the well by means of the flexible line lowering mechanism, and the retrieving tool is left in the position shown in Figure 3, wherein the valve closes the bore of the mandrel and the pump cup is exapnded to initial sealing position.
Now, if the well surface connections (not shown) are opened to permit a now of well iluid upwardly through the well tubing, such well fluid will be sealed off by the pump cup packing elementV and cannot pass through the bore of the mandrel because valve vI9 is closed. Therefore, the well nuid will exert its pressure upwardly against the cup and mandrel to lift the same and, the packing cup having been mechanically initially forced to sealing position, the mandrel and vthe spring housing connected thereto will be moved upwardly with respect to the expanding sleeve 2S until the interna-l ange 21 on the expanding sleeve engages the external flange 25 on the lower end of the spring housing and thereby lifts the expanding sleeve 26 and the retrieving tool P to which it is connected byl means of the box member 29. Continued application of the well fluid pressure will move the mandrel and the retrieving tool carried thereby upwardly to lift the well device from its position within the well tubing.
Since the flexible line lowering mechanism has been previously removed from the well tubing,
it is obvious that any upward movement of the retrieving tool and the packing assembly, as the well device D is released from its position, will not cause the balling up or tangling of the flexible line which might occur had the line been connected to the retrieving tool in the customary manner.
Also, considerable force maybe applied to the retrieving tool in this manner, since the well pressure is acting against the entire area of the sealing or packing Vassembly S. It will readily be seen that a well pressure of 2000 pounds per square inch acting against a 3 square inch 'area will exert an upward force 'of approximately 6000 pounds. This force may be in excess of the force which could be applied by means of a small ilexible steel line such as is commonly used in retrieving removable subsurface well devices.
When lowering Athe packing assembly S by means of the running tool 45, it may be desirable s to 'prevent movement of the packing expanding sleeve 26 with relation to the pump cup I2 to prevent premature expansion of said cup into sealing position. Such movement of the packing expanding sleeve may be prevented by providing a frangible pin 49 in a transverse opening formed in both the sleeve and spring housing 24. Obviously, when the running tool is jarred downwardly to apply a downward force to the mandrel I and the spring housing carried thereby, the frangible pin 49 will be sheared to permit relative motion between said sleeve and mandrel. The'strength of the frangible pin, however, will normally be such that premature relative mo.
tion between such members will be prevented.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that an improved retrieving mechanism has been provided for removing well devices from well tubing, which includes a retrieving tool P and packing `assembly S designed to utilize the pressure of the well iiuid to release the well device.
` It will further be seen that the packing assembly is provided with sealing means which may be initially mechanically expanded to sealing position prior to the application of fluid pressure thereagainst. Such initial mechanical expansion permits application of iiuid pressure against the sealing member without unduly flowing the well to set the sealing member. It will also be seen that the packing assembly is provided with means for by-passing iiuid past the sealing means as the device is lowered into the well to prevent premature expansion of the sealing means to sealing position. Fluid may also be pumped downwardly past the packing assembly, if desired, since the valve I9 opens downwardly. Further, means is provided for preventing actuation of the pack ing expanding member prematurely. Also, the device may be run into the well on a iiexible line lowering mechanism and the sealing element expanded to sealing position mechanically to permit utilizing iiuid pressure to remove the well device; and, the wire line lowering mechanism may be removed from the well to prevent balling up or tangling the iiexible line as the well device is released.
Once the well device has been loosened from its position within the tubing, a suitable retrieving tool, similary to the retrieving tool P, may be .lowered into the well tubing upon the flexible line lowering mechanism (not shown) to engage the retrieving connection I1 at the upper end of the retrieving member, and the entire assembly may be lifted out of thevwell tubing by means of the wire line mechanism.
A modiiied form of packing assembly is illustrated in Figures 4 and 5. This type of packing assembly is particularly adapted to assure that a sealing member is expanded into engagement with the wall of the well pipe even though one of the sealing elements be positioned opposite the recess at a coupling between two joints of pipe. It is also adapted for use in deep high pressure wells within the retrieving assem-.
an inverted pump cup,'positioned thereon andy confined between said shoulder and a wear ring end. A packing element 59, such as an inverted pump cup, is coniined between said flange and a Wear ring 60 having an auxiliary packing ring 6|, similar to the ring 53 and packing 54. The
wear ring is held on said support by a packing nut 62 threaded onto the upper end thereof.
The packing support 51 is slidable toward and from the expander member 63 which is threaded onto the mandrel 50 and has an upwardly converging packing expanding surface or wedge 64 at its upper end. The packing element or cup 59 on the support is adapted to engage said ex-4 pander member, and downward motion of the support toward the expander will cause the lower end of the packing element or pump cup to be moved radially outward into initial sealing engagement with the wall of the well pipe.
An elongated packing gland member 65 having a plurality of rings of chevron type packing 66 conned therein for sealing between said gland and the mandrel neck 56 is screw threaded onto the upper end of the packing support member 51 and is conned on the mandrel neck 56 by a retaining nut 61 which is threaded onto the upper end of said mandrel neck and engages the upper end of the packing gland member.
threaded onto the upper end of the packing gland member. The upper end of the retrieving member is reduced to provide a shoulder 69 and a retrieving'connection 10 is -formed at the extreme'upper end of the reduced portion of the retrieving member.
The bore o-f the mandrel 50 is enlarged below the neck portion 56 to provide a valve seat 1l which is adapted to have a valve member 12 seat thereon to close the bore of the mandrel against upward fluid ow. The valve member is provided with external guide iins 13 for guiding its longitudinal motion in the bore of the mandrel, and a helical coiled spring 14, engaging the lower ends of the ns 13, has its lower end supported upon an internal shoulder 15 formed in a spring housing 16 which is screw threaded'into the lower end of the mandrel 50. It will be seen that the spring exerts its force to normally maintain the valve seated against the seat in the bore of the mandrel.
An external annular ilange 11 is formed at the lower end of the spring housing and an elongate packing expanding sleeve 18, having an internal annular flange 19 which is slidably confined between the lower end of the mandrel 50 and the annular iiange 11 on the spring housing, is slidable longitudinally with relation to the mandrel 50. The packing expanding sleeve is provided at its upper end with an upwardly converging or wedge surface 8U which is adapted to engage the lower end of the pump cup or sealing element 52 to force the same radially outward into sealing engagement with the wall of thel `well tubing in which the device is used.
A cylindrical Iboxcr connecting member 8| is l aaosgesc screw; threaded..- into the lower. end. of vthe pack:-
ingv expanding. sleeve; andi is provided; with irr-Y ternal screw threads 8.21 at itslower endA for receiving` thefscrew threaded; pin 3l at, the upper end. ofy the retrieving tool P. Laterallyv extending fluid courseszprovide. 'for flowl of fluid from the exterior ofrthe box into thevbore ofthe same and upwardly through theV spring housing andi mandrel to the valve and seat therein.
The valve- 'l2 has anzelongate stem 12a..formedi integrally therewith which extends upwardlyA throughv the bore-o themandrelneck :'56 and substantially above the yupper end ofthe retrievingV memberV 6,3; asclearlyshown in Figure 4.
This stem isrguidedlinits-longitudinal motion in. the imandrel 'neckby means of radial ns IMV which are arranged'to'slide inthe bore of said neck. Anenlarged head or capmember 851s threadedV ontothe upper end of the valve stem for. engagement by a running tool in the same manner as has been previously explained.
If: desired, a frangib-le-.pin 8E may be provided inr a transverse hole formed in the packing expanding sleeve and-the lower end of the spring housing Tl; for preventing premature movement of `the packing `expanding sleeve relative to the mandrelxand the packing or cup ,52 'carried' thereby. A .similar shear member. or rivet 8lY may be Vinserted into a. radial opening,` extending throughqthe retrievingmember 68 andinto an annular groove formedV inthe retaining nutr 6T, for preventing :premature movement'o-f the pack ingdsupport 51 with'relation to the expander' member 63. In this manner premature mechanical expansion oi" the packing element'or cup to sealing position may bel prevented. The
strength of. the fragible pin andrivet will normally be such thatl premature relative motion of the packing Yexpanding sleeve 18A and the packing supportV T will be prevented, but the.A
pin and rivet may be readily sheared uponthe application cia downwardV force` to the' shoulderv 69,1' as has4 fbeenprevious'ly explained; Further, the-size. of vthe pin and; the rivet may beso chosen that one or the other willshearrst toY permit initial Setting of leither packing element or cup, as desired; Obviously, the shear -pin B6. or the rivet. 8?; or bot-h may be omitted; if desired.V
In use, the running to'ol 45'is releasablyconnected to the upper end of the retrieving memtion oft downward /forceftof' the running; too1- willrelease the connection of the:v lowering llme'chanism to the retrievingl member, whereupon further application ofdownward'forc'el to the'ru'n-Y ning toolfof the lowering, mechanism-.willrtransmitr a downward'force to the"shoulder69"on'thef retrieving member to move the same downwardly. Asv the retrieving member is: moved downwardly,
the `packing support 5l is moved towardftheqex panding member- 63 and thev packing element:
59- is engaged by the expanding Y surface S4 f to move the lower endofjthe-packing element or cup radially outward into contact with the wall` of thewell tubi-ng, as; clearly shownA in Figure 5;
Further applicationv offdownward force willcause. the mandrel-'501 to move downwardly -relativeftothe pack-ingA expanding sleeve 'I- and= thereby- V bring the cup 52: intengagement with-.the expanding surface tosmechan-ically expand- -said cupi into.sealingengagementI with., the :well tubing` in, the same manner-'f as inthe` previously describedA f ormof the invention..
Since. the runningtoolzof the wire line v.lowering mechanism has. been disconnected from the retrieving -member 6.8, the lowering mechanism and yrunning;too1: may; be. removed from. the well,
leaving the-retrieving toolassembly inthepositionv illustrated: inLEigure. 5, wherein the valve closes the bore Vof the mandrel and the pump cupsare expandedito initial sealing position.
Now, opening the well surface ilow'controls (notV shown) to permit anl .upward ow of Well iiuidv throughthe. Well tubing will cause the well'uid to exert its pressure upwardlyV against the. cup4 packing assembly, the other cup will still seal between the tubing andthe packing assembly to permit proper functioningof the retrieving aS- sembly. Other functions and advantages of this form of the invention are the same as those enumeratedA for the form` first described.
Obviously,1 thepa'ckingA element S may be used with other well` tools, if-'de-sired, to provide for aninitial'mechani'cal expansion of cup vtype sealing elements to sealing position in a well ow conductor.
The above description of the invention is explanatory only, and changes in details of the constructions illustrated may be made by those skilled in theY art, withinthe scope of the appended claims, Witlioutidepartingv-from the spirit of the invention.
WhatV I claim-Sandl desire-to secure-by Letters Patent is:
1. A retrieving tool for engaging andl'elevating removable well devices-withina wellflow conductor and including, a tubular mandrel, expansible packing meansmountedexternally on the mandrel andinitially unexpanded, an expander sleeve slidab-le on thel mandrel-below the packing means for engaging and expanding the packing to initial` sealinglengagement with the bore Ywall-of a well conductor', valve means in the 'mandrel normally closingthe bore of -the mandrel against upward Huid flow. therethrough, an engaging andsupporting device connected to the lower endof the expander sleeve and having dependingsupporting` means for'engaging and supportinga wellidevice: in the flow conductor, and means operableV from the well surface for moving the mandrel. and packing downwardly relative to the expander' sleevey to=expandthe packing into sealing. engagement with theborewall of the "flow conductor to close'. the boreV ofv such conductor againstupward fluid `ilow whereby Well fluid pressureA belowth'e.: retrieving tool will force the same upwardly to liftthe removable well device inthe conductor'.
2. A retrieving tool including, a mandrel, an initially -unexpand'edexpansible downwardly facing sealing cup-'mountedon theV exteriorofthe mandrel', an expanderI sleeve having'a' wedge'sur'- face`4 at itsY upper endA :and slidable longitudinally on :the` mandrel below the :sealing cup, Areleasalole;
means initially holding said sleeve against movement longitudinally of the mandrel and spaced from the sealing cup, an engaging and supportlng device connected with the lower end of the sleeve and having depending yieldably mounted supporting elements disposed to engage and support a well device in a well flow conductor, the mandrel and sealing cup being movable downwardly with respect to the expander sleeve when the releasable means is released to move the cup into engagement with the wedge surface on the sleeve to expand the cup into sealing engagement with the bore wall of the flow conductor to close the bore of the conductor against upward flow whereby well fluid pressure below the retrieving tool will force the same upwardly to lift a removable well device in the conductor.
3. As a sub-combination in arretrieving tool, a packing assembly including, an elongate tubular mandrel, a downwardly facing initially unexpanded expansible sealing cup mounted exteriorly on the mandrel, an elongate expander sleeve slidable on the mandrel below the cup and having an expander wedge at its upper end engageable by the downwardly facing cup to expand the cup into initial sealing engagement with the bore wall of a well iiow conductor, a frangible connection between the sleeve and mandrel initially holding said sleeve in a position on the mandrel spaced below the cup, a valve member in the bore of the mandrel normally closing the bore of the mandrel against upward fluid flow therethrough, and a connecting member connected with the lower end of the expander sleeve and providing for connection of an engaging and supporting device with said sleeve.
4. As a sub-combination in a retrieving tool, a packing assembly including, an elongate tubular mandrel, valve means normally closing the bore of the mandrel against upward fluid now therethrough, a first downwardly facing initially unexpanded expansible sealing cup mounted exteriorly on the mandrel, an expander sleeve having an expander Wedge at its upper end slidable longitudinally on the mandrel below the cup, first frangible means initially holding said expander sleeve in a position spaced-from the sealing cup, an expander wedge fixed on the mandrel above the sealing cup, a packing sleeve slidable on the mandrel above the expander wedge, f
a second downwardly facing initially unexpanded expansible sealing cup carried by said packing sleeve and arranged to engage the expander wedge on the mandrel to be moved to initial sealing engagement with the bore wall of a Well flow conductor when the packing sleeve is moved downwardly toward the expander wedge, second frangible means connecting the packing sleeve with the mandrel to prevent movement of the sleeve toward the expander wedge and having greater strength than said iirst frangible means connecting the expander sleeve and mandrel, said packing sleeve extending above the upper end of the mandrel and arranged to be engaged by a downwardly acting jarring device, whereby the iirst frangible connection between the expander sleeve and mandrel is initially sheared to permit the mandrel to move downwardly with respect to the expander sleeve to expand the first packing cup into initial sealing engagement with the bore wall of the well now conductor and to limit further downward movement of the mandrel, the second frangible means being frangible to permit the packing sleeve and cup to move downwardly toward the expander wedge on the mandrel to expand said second cup into initial seal-l ing engagement with the bore wall of the flow conductor whereby the bore of the conductor is closed against upward fluid flow and well uid pressure from below the packing assembly will force the same upwardly in the conductor.
5. A retrieving tool adapted to be lowered by means of a flexible line lowering mechanism into a well flow conductor for engaging and retrieving a well device removably mounted in said well flow conductor and including, a tubular mandrel, an initially unexpanded expansible downwardly facing packing cup mounted exteriorly on the mandrel, an expander sleeve having a Wedge surface at its upper end slidable longitudinally on the mandrel below the cup and engageable by the packing cup upon downward movement of the mandrel and cup with respect to the expander sleeve, a releasable connection between the mandrel and expander sleeve initially holding the wedge surface of the sleeve spaced from the packing cup and releasable by downward force applied to the mandrel by the flexible line lowering mechanism to permit the mandrel and cup to move downwardly until the cup engages the expander wedge on the sleeve and is moved by said expander wedge into initial sealing engagement with the bore wall of a well ow conductor for sealing between the mandrel and said flow conductor, valve means normally closing the bore of the mandrel against upward fluid ow therethrough whereby the bore of the conductor is closed by the retrieving tool and uid pressure in the conductor below the retrieving tool acts upwardly against the retrieving tool to lift the same, and an engaging and supporting device connected with the expander sleeve and having depending supporting members for engaging and supporting a removable well device.
HERBERT C. OTIS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the ile of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 886,114 Collingwood Apr. 28, 1908 1,496,985 Gray June 10, 1924 1,711,125 Owen Apr. 30, 1929 1,815,376 Jones July 21, 1931 1,842,780 Guiberson Jan. 26, 1932 1,898,261 Otis Feb. 21, 1933 2,190,442 Costello Feb. 13, 1940 2,305,062 Church et al. Dec. 15, 1942