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Publication numberUS2508788 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 23, 1950
Filing dateDec 4, 1946
Priority dateDec 4, 1946
Publication numberUS 2508788 A, US 2508788A, US-A-2508788, US2508788 A, US2508788A
InventorsHallinan William W
Original AssigneeHallinan William W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Thermostatically controlled atomizing nozzle
US 2508788 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

May 23, 1950 w. w. HALLINAN 2,508,788

THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED ATOMIZING NOZZLE Filed Dec. 4, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet l ver BY MHz/@mr May 23, 1950 w. w. HALLINAN 2,508,788

THERMOSTATICALLY coNTRoLLED ATOMIZING NQzzLE Filed Dec. 4, 1946 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 faz /25 /24 /Z/ /70 IN VEN TOR.

May 23, 1950 w. w. HALLINAN 2,508,788

THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED ATOMIZING NOZZLE Filed Deo. 4, 1946 L Zil- 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR.

Patented May 23, 1950 THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED ATOMIZING NOZZLE William W. Hallinan, Racine, Wis.

Application December 4, 1946, Serial No. 713,857

23 Claims.

The present invention relates to atomizing nozzles, and is .particularly concerned with atomizing nozzles of the type adapted to be employed in oil burners.

One of the objects of the present invention is the provision of an improved atomizing nozzle for oil burners that is adapted to be manually adjusted as to its capacity within the range of the maximum and minimum burning rates of the oil burner, and which also may be employed for automatically controlling the flow through the nozzle responsive to certain variable factors, such as, for example, the temperature f the liquid, the temperature of the air in the furnace bonnet, the temperature of the water of the boiler, the pressure of the steam or vapor in the boiler, or the pressure of the liquid fuel supplied to the nozzle.

Such manually adjustable nozzles of the prior art of which I am aware are only adapted to be used on large burners, such as those having burning rates of ten gallons per hour or more. In the nozzles of the prior art which have a burning rate or less than ten gallons per hour, the atomizing feeder grooves and whirling chambers are so small that all the adjustable nozzles of the prior art have proved unsatisfactory; and so far as I am aware. none are in use at this time.

The xed capacity nozzles of the .prior art which are now being manufactured have the atomizer feeder grooves larger than they should be for perfect oil rotation in the whirling chamber. Due to the clogging of the grooves in these atomizing nozzles of the prior art, the manufacturers f'lnd it necessary to make the grooves fewer in number and larger in size so as to pass, without clogging, particles of dirt which are as large as possible.

The whirling chamber is also made longer and larger than it should be, and is .provided with a relatively small discharge orifice, to place a back pressure on the grooves; and this naturally reduces the whirling velocity in the whirling chamber. When this is done with nozzles of less than one gallon per hour capacity, there is a failure of atomization; and the result is that nozzles of less than one gallon per hour capacity are few in number, and they are very fragile in structure and not at all adjustable.

The smallest nozzle for residence burners of the high .pressure type made today, of which I am aware, is approximately three-fourths of a gallon per hour, although there are some others which are marked one-half gallon capacity: but when they are tested, their flow rate is found to be about one gallon per hour.

One of the objects of the invention is the provision of an improved adjustable nozzle in which the feed grooves may be made smaller and increased in number and provided with a taper from the inlet to the outlet so as to produce a nozzle effect at each feed groove. discharging into the whirling chamber, to increase the rotating velocity in that chamber.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved atomizing nozzle having lfeed grooves discharging into a whirling chamber, in which the feed grooves .produce a nozzle effect, and the whirling chamber communicates with an enlarged discharge orice having a greater capacity than the feed groove nozzles, whereby the atomization is produced at the feed groove nozzles, and the whirling chamber and orifice serve to guide the atomized liquid by the action of centrifugal force into a conical spray.

Another object of the invention is' the pro vision of a nozzle or atomizer for liquids or air, the discharge spray of which is adjustable as to its flow capacity to the .proper flow for a predetermined number of different sizes of combustion chambers or furnaces, whereby the same nozzle may be used upon installations of different sizes, and it is not necessary to keep in stock nozzles of different capacities.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved atomizing nozzle for oil burners. the rate of flow capacity of which is automatically adjustable according to the temperature of the furnace, so that the temperature of the furnace or boiler or the supply of heat may be maintained substantially constant, or may be provided in accordance with the withdrawal of heat from the furnace.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved atomizing nozzle for oil burners or the like which is adapted to adjust its flow automatically according to the temperature of the liquid flowing through the nozzle, so that it may increase its capacity as the temperature of the liquid fuel increases and the liquid -fuel expands in volume, Yin order to maintain a substantially constant flow of a predetermined number of pounds of fuel per hour, instead of the rate of flow decreasing as it does in the devices of the prior art, when the temperature of the oil increases.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved nozzle by means of which the flow of oil through the nozzlein pounds of oil per hour may be automatically maintained substantially constant, even though the temperature of the oil flowing through the nozzle increases or decreases throughout a predetermined range.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved atomizing nozzle, the housing parts of which may be provided with interchangeable parts for doubling or changing the discharge capacity of the nozzle by merely substituting one part for another.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved atomizer or nozzle in which the amount of machine work and, threading is reduced to a minimum, thereby reducing the cost of manufacture.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved atomizing nozzle, with which it is not necessary to use tools to assure the proper tightness between the nozzle tip and the plug, this condition being automatically maintained by the structure of the nozzle.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved atomizing nozzle which has included in it as a unit a rigid strainer or lter of such ne mesh, the passages of which are formed t/o a size approximately one-half of the size of the smallest oil groove, to assure the filtering out of all solid matter that might tend to clog the feeder grooves, the strainer being made in single ormultiple stages. as desired.

Another object of the invention is the provision of an improved atomizing nozzle unit which includes as apart of it a relatively ne mesh strainer adapted to assure the straining out of all particles that might clog the nozzle and also adapted to perform the function of a thermostat for regulating the oil discharge capacity of the nomic.

A further object of the invention is the provision of an improved atomlzing nozzle, the oil feed grooves of which are of such characteristics that they are adapted to be made nner and to act as nozzles discharging into the whirling chamber. whereby a more perfect atomization and a more rapid rotation of the spray is secured, resulting in the formation of a perfect spreading spray at the discharge of the nozzle.

Another object of the invention is the provision ofk a plurality of improved forms of atomizing nozzles, which are simple in structure, adapted to be manufactured economically, with a minimum number of machine operations, interchangeable as to their parts, manually or automatically adjustable in flow capacity, and adapted to be used for a long period of time without necessity for repair or cleaning operations.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description and the accompanying drawings, in which similar characters of reference indicate similar parts throughout the several views.

Referring to'the drawings accompanying this specication,

Fig. 1 is an axial sectional view, taken through an atomizing nozzle embodying the invention, which is adapted to maintain a constant capacity of oil flow in pounds per hour, even though the temperature of the liquid owing through the nozzle may increase or decrease, the nozzle being shown in the position of minimum flow capacity;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged view of the inner face nient 23.

of the nozzle tip of Figs. 1 and 4. taken on the A liquid through the nozzle;

Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view, taken on theplaneof the line 5 5 ofFig. 3;

Fig. 6 is a side elevational view of a nozzle installation in an oil burner system, in which the l may be varied according to the temperature of the furnace. such as the air in the bonnet of a hot air furnace or the temperature of the water. or the pressure of steam in water boilers or steam boilers;

Fig. 7 is a fragmentary end elevational view of the mechanism employed, taken on the plane of the line l-'I of Fig. 6;

Fig. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view, similar to Fig. 1, of a modified form c! nozzle structure:

Fig. 9 is a view, similar to Fig. 8, of another modification;

Fig. 10 is a view. similar to Fig. 1. of another modified form of nozzle, in which the oil feed grooves are formed inthe plugs instead of the nozzle tip;

Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 1 of the modication shown in Fig. 6.

Referring to Fig. l, 2li indicates the improved nozzle in its entirety, which is shown in section along a plane passing through the axis of the nozzle. The nozzle may include a housing 2i and a cap 22 made of any suitable metal, such as brass.

The cap 22 comprises a substantially cylindrical member provided with a noncircular portion 23' for engagement with a wrench and a reduced threaded portion 24 for engagement with threads 25 in a counterbore in the housing 2l.

The housing 2| has its end 26 threaded home against the annular shoulder 21 on the enlarge- The housing 2i comprises a substantially cylindrical tubular metal member formed 'with a cylindrical bore 23 for housing a lter.

and4 with an axially threaded bore 29 serving as an inlet for liquid fuel.

The cap 22 has an inwardly extending annular ange 30, the outer surface of which is frusto-conieal at 3| and provided with an aperture 32 large enough to clear any spray which is thrown by the nozzle tip 33. The cap 22 has a cylindrical bore 34 for receiving a nozzle tip 33 which engages the annular shoulder 35 on the inside of the flange 30.

The nozzle tip 33 comprises a metal disc of substantially cylindrical form, the outer cylindrical surface 36 having a sliding fit in the bore 34. Its outer face 31 may be plane, and it is provided with a cylindrical through bore 38, which terminates in a frusto-conical aperture 39 at the outer face 3l.

The angularity of the frustn-conical portion 33 of the aperture determines the direction in which the spray is thrown and determines the angle of the conical spray. The inner face 4i! of the nozzle tip 33 is frusta-conical in shape and complementary also in shape to the frusto-conical end surface 4I of a fixed plug 42 and the frustoconical surface 43 of an adjustable plug 44, except for the fact that the inner surface of the tip 33 is provided with a plurality of oil feed grooves 45, 46. These oil feed grooves are preferably of the same cross sectional shape throughout, but they taper in depth from the outer end or opening 41 of each groove to the inner end or opening 43 of each groove (Fig. 2).' Thus the feed grooves 45, 43 are adapted to act as'nozzles,

Ythe grooves being smallest at their inner ends,

where they discharge liquid fuel into a whirling chamber, indicated at 4l (Fig. 1).

The cross sectional shape of the grooves 43, 43 may be varied, but they are preferably formed in such manner that the grooves are uniformly smooth and without burrs. and provided with rate of flow of the liquid through the nozzle Il rounded corners so that they are adapted to be l kept clean more readily. For example, the grooves 46, 46 may be substantially rectangular in cross section or they may be half cylindrical, half hexagonal, or V-shaped in cross section;

but in any case they taper toward their inner discharging ends so that they are adapted to permit an adjustment of the rate of flow and to act as nozzles, as will be further described.

At the point 58 in the nozzle tip bore 38 the corner is rounded from the bore 38 to the frustoconical surface 4|, forming a gradually streamlined tapering opening at this point. The surface 50 is a. leading surface of the whirling chamber 49, which directs the atomized liquid toward the discharge orifice 38.

The plug 42 is adapted to hom the nozzle up 33 in proper position in the cap 22 and to provide an annular manifold chamber 5| adapted to feed the liquid fuel into the grooves 45, 46. The plug 42 is a substantially cylindrical member provided with an enlarged threaded portion 52 and a reduced cylindrical portion 53.

The threaded portion 52 engages complementary threads 54 inside the right end of the cap 22. In order to drive the plug 42 on its threads it may have a plurality of radially extending sockets 55 on the projecting portion of the plug 42 for receiving the pins of a spanner wrench.

In order to permit the fluid to ilow into the cap 22 past plug 42, the plug 42 is provided with a plurality of axially extending grooves 56 located in its periphery and interrupting the threads 52.

Grooves 56 may be substantially rectangular in cross section, and they provide communication between the annular space 51 at the right end of the plug 42 and the annular chamber 5| at the left end (Fig. 1). At its left end the plug 42 is provided with the frusto-conical surface 4| adapted to engage the complementary frustoconical surface 40 on the nozzle tip 33 to effect a closure or cut-oi between the space 5| and the whirling chamber 49, except at the grooves 45, 46.

When the plug 42 is threaded home, these frusto-conical surfaces 4|, 40 engage each other, and the nozzle tip 33 is secured against the annular flange 35. The maximum opening of the grooves 45, 46 is the depth of these grooves at the cut-oil edge of the plug 42, which is the inside of a cylindrical bore 58.

The cylindrical bore 58 is adapted to receive the adjustable plug 44, which comprises a substantially cylindrical metal member slidably mounted in the bore 58 and formed at its left end with the frusta-conical surface 43 and the partially spherical depression 59.

The frusto-conical surface 43 is complementary to the frusta-conical surface 40 on the nozzle tip 33, and these two surfaces also effect a cut-olf of the iluid coming in at the grooves 45, 46, and the rim 60 of the spherical depression 59 is the cut-off edge ofthe movable plug 44, determining the depth of the grooves 45, 46 which are feeding liquid into the whirling chamber 49.

When the frusto-conical surfaces 43 and 40 are engaging each other, the adjustable plug 44 is in the position of minimum rate of feed, which is the position of Figs. 1 and 3; but when the adjustable plug 44 is retracted, as shown in Fig. 4, thecut-off edge 68 is retracted from the nozzle tip 33, effectively makingthe grooves 45 and 46 deeper at this point and increasing the amount of feed to the maximum shown in Fig. 4.

At intermediate positionsl the rate of feed of the nozzle may be quite accurately metered by means of the movable plug 44. The right end of the movable plug 44 may be providedlwith a supporting disc 6| for attachment to a tubular metal member 62, which may be mounted upon a reduced cylindrical portion 63 of the disc 6| and welded in place.

The other end of the tubular member 62 may be mounted upon a reduced cylindrical portion 64 of the ixed plug 42 and welded in place. The external surface of the tubular metal member 62 may be provided with cut threads 65, preferably of such small size that the size of opening between the threads is less than one-half of the minimum size of opening of the feeder grooves 45, 46.

The size of the threaded external surface 65 of the tube 62 is preferably such that it has a sliding t inside the bore 28 of the housing 2|, and the threaded surface 65 is provided with a plurality of longitudinally extending rectangular grooves 66, which interrupt the threads 65 and serve as filter conduits for conducting the liquid fuel from the space 61 in the housing 2| into communication with a multiplicity of the grooves between the threads 65.

The longitudinal slots or grooves 66 terminate short of the left end of the threaded member 62, and this threaded member is also provided with a plurality of longitudinally extending slots 68, which extend inwardly from the left end and terminate short of the right end of the threaded portion 65.

The grooves or slots 68 serve as iiltrate conduits for conducting the liquid, which has been iilter'ed by passing through the fine cut grooves between the threads, into the space 51 at the left end of the lter. Thus the tubular member 62 may serve as a rigid filter which entraps all of the particles of solid matter in the liquid fuel which are larger than .one-half the minimum size of the feeder grooves.

The capacity of this filter, with its multiplicity of thread grooves, is such that it may be used for a very long period of time without clogging, while still having sumcient residual capacity to feed liquid to the nozzle.

It may also be removed and cleaned by means of a wire brush, and used over and over again.

The same lter member 62 is in this embodiment of the invention adapted to serve as a part of a thermostat for controlling the nozzle adjustment. The adjustment plug 44 may be made of some metal, such as steel, which has a low coeflicient of expansion, while the tubular supporting member 62, which serves also as a filter, may be made of some metal, such as copper or aluminum, which has a high coefficient of thermal expansion.

Thus the tube 62, being xedly welded or soldered to the fixed plug 42 at its left end and also xedly welded or soldered to the disc 6| at its right end expansion of the tube 62, tends to withtdrag/3 the adjustment plug 44 from the nozzle The amount of movement of the adjustment plug depends upon the diierential between the expansion of the tube 62 and the expansion of the adjustable plug or rod 44; but this differential of expansion is suillcient so that the nozzle ilow capacity is adjusted responsive to the temperature of the oil flowing through the nozzle.

The operation of this type of nozzle is as follows: Oil passes in the nozzle housing 2| at its 7| inlet at the right end of Fig. 1 and from the space 81 passes into thelongitudinal slot 6B and peripherally of the threaded filter 65 through the grooves between the threads into the longitudinal slot 68. Here all solids which are larger than one-half as big as the minimum feed groove size are entrapped; and thus the danger of clogging of the feed grooves is reduced to a minimum.

From the filtrate conduits 88 the liquid passes into the space 51 and through the slots 56 into the annular manifold space l. From here it passes into the larger outer ends of the feed grooves 45, 45, and is conducted by these feed grooves toward their smaller nozzle ends, indicated at 48, which extend tangentially of the whirling chamber 49.

The size of the discharge orifice 38 is large enough to pass the maximum iiow capactybf the grooves 45, 46; and therefore there is no restriction placed upon the flow at the discharge orifice 38.

The nozzle restriction is at the small ends of the grooves 45, 48, which act as nozzles-discharging the atomized lliquid into the whirling chamber 49, where centrifugal force causes the atomized liquid to engage the outer surface and the surface 38 of the discharge bore;

The atomized liquid then continues out the t discharge bore and follows thefrusto-conical surface 39. which guides it into a perfect hollow conical atomized spray or mist; and this takes place at all of the diierent adjustments of the nozzle.

When the adjustable plug 44 is retracted, the effective groove opening at the cut-off point Il is increased; and at the same time an annular dish-like space is provided at the frusto-conical surface 43 of the adjustable plug 44, which is filled with rotating atomized liquid fuel and fed into the whirling chamber 49 to augment the flow from the discharge orifice 3l.

vThus the speed of rotation in the whirling chamber is greatly increased and more effective atomization secured by the nozzle action of the feed grooves than in any of the devices of the prior art where larger feed grooves had to be employed on account of the tendency toward clogging in the feed grooves.

It should be understood that. while only two feed grooves 45 and 46 are shown, three or four or more may be used, and such nozzles may be constructed for extremely small flow capacities, such as one-half gallon per hour.

The present nozzle may be constructed in types which have the adjustable plug 44 threaded so that one size of nozzle may be use'd for various sizes of burners by merely adjusting the position of the plug 44. The thermostatic control of this plug operates as follows:

With the devices of the prior art the nozzles are initially adjusted or constructed for a predeterminednunber of gallons per hour; but, as the liquid fuel heats up with the heating of the parts of the nozzle, several effects take place.

The heat may cause the parts of the nozzle to expand, increasing slightlythe size of some apertures, etc.; but this effect is of minor importance, and is, in fact, negligible. A more important effect is that which is caused by the heating of the fuel itself.

The fuel is'expanded by heat and, as the nozzle will only take care of a certain volume of fuel. as the nozzle and the fuel heat up, the number of pounds of fuel used per hour are reduced considerably. For example, a nozzle which discharges twenty-nine pounds per hour at 'l0 degrecs F., roomtemperature, may have its ow rate in pounds per hour decreased from 29 pounds to 213/4 pounds per hour, which is 25 percent less.

When this is reflected in B. t. u.'s per hour. this means a drop of from 564,000 to 423,000 B. t. u.s per hour, which renders the fixed adjustment nozzles of the prior art very inemcient. Such an arrangement is inefficientbecause the air delivered to the combustion chamber is the correct amount to burn the 29 pounds of oil per hour and to produce the 564,000 B. t. u.s because the combustion air is adjusted and fixed to burn properly the 29 pounds of oil contemplated to be discharged by the nozzle.

When this poundage of oil delivery is reduced to 21% pounds, there is present in the combustion chamber a great amount of excess air which reduces the temperature of the combustion gases. This air also absorbs a large portion of the B. t. u.s produced by combustion, and carries them out of the flue, greatly reducing the efficiency of the furnace. i

The reduced poundage in ow is due in part to turbulence, which is created in the nozzle feeder grooves and in the whirling chamber in the devices of the prior art; but the drop in output is due mostly to the swelling of the oil, which is caused by increasing its temperature.

As the oil is heated it requires a larger container, but in the nozzle the grooves, the whirling chamber, and the orifice do not increase in dimension with an increase of temperature. Therefore, less oil in pounds per hour can flow through the nozzle upon on increase in temperature in the devices of xed adjustment.

The present nozzle is adapted to increase the volume of ow in such manner as to maintain a constant flow in pounds per hour with an increase in temperature. The thermostat B2 so regulates the position of the adjustable plug 44 that as the temperature of the fuel increases, the opening of the nozzle increases; and although the fuel expands, 'the nozzle opening is so increased as to maintaina substantially constant rate of flow of liquid fuel in pounds per hour, irrespective of an increase in temperature within a certain range.

Thus, when my nozzle is properly adjusted and provided with a thermostat, the amount of fuel being burned every hour, while the nozzle is being supplied, is substantially constant, and the air adjustment may be made constant, while stili maintaining a high efficiency.

'I'he supply of excess air, which absorbs heat and carries it out of the flue, is substantially eliminated, and at the Sametime `a. perfect atomization is accomplished at all adjustments of the nozzle.

Referring to Fig. 6, this is a view showing a modification in which the nozzle is controlled responsive to pressure, which may be the pressure generated in a bulb that is heated by the air in the furnace bonnet, or it may be the pressure generated by the vapor or steam in a boiler, or the pressure generated in a bulb which is heated responsive to the temperature of water in a boiler.

The nozzle which forms the subject of this modification is shown in Fig. 11. This nozzle corresponds in many of its details to the one just described, and similar parts have been given similar numerals. For example, it may include the same cap 22 of similar structure in every respect, and the same nozzle tip Il.

The housing 2l is similar in structure, but is provided with a laterally projecting portion 'Il atomes having an inlet conduit 1| threaded at 12 to receive a pipe. The fixed plug 42 may be similar in structure to the one previously described, except that the smooth bore 58 for the movable adjustable plug 44 communicates with a counterbore 13 provided with threads 14 for receiving gland member 15.

The gland member -has an external thread 16 for engaging the threads 14 and has a radially projecting noncircular flange 11 for engagement with a wrench, used to tighten the gland 15. 18 indicates a drop of solder which has a melting point above that of the temperatures encountered here, and which holds the gland 15 from turning or becoming loose after it has been tightened. At its left end the gland member 15 has a tapered conical surface 19 for engaging in a complementary conical socket 80 in the fixed plug 42. The wedging engagement between these two surfaces causes the sharp end of the gland member 15 to effect a fluid-tight seal with the cylindrical adjustment plug 44.

` The housing 2| again contains a rigid filter member 8| similar in structure to the rigid filter 52; but is merely frictionally held in the housing 2|, receiving the fixed plug 42 in its left end. Thus the liquid is compelled to go through the small apertures provided between the fine threads 82, which present apertures of smaller size than any part of the feed grooves.

'I'he adjustable plug 44 has an elongated cylindrical shank 83, which projects from the housing 2| through a packing gland 84, and is provided with a xed crank arm 85.

'I'he crank arm 85 has an aperture 86 for pivotal connection to the end of a connecting rod 81, which may be secured in place by any suitable thrust bearing member, such as a Cotter-pin 88.

y The connecting rod 81 (Fig. 6) is slidably mounted in the aperture 89 in a U -shaped bracket 90, the other end of which supports the fixed end of a pressure responsive bellows 9|. A spring 92 is interposed between the lower flange of the bracket 90 and the bellows 9|, aiding in positively returning the bellows to its initial position upon reduction in pressure.

The bellows may be connected by means of a tube 93 with a suitable bulb 94, which is mounted in the bonnet 95 of a furnace casing 96. Thus, when the bellows is filled with a suitable volatile fluid, such as a refrigerant, vaporizing between the temperatures desired, the bellows will expand responsive to the temperature of the air in the furnace bonnet 95.

In other embodiments of the invention the bellows may be sealed and itself located to be responsive to temperature, or it may have its bulb located in the upper part of a steam boiler or in the water of a water boiler to be responsive to the temperature of the steam, the temperature of the water, or it may have the tube 93 connected to the steam boiler to be responsive to steam pressure.

Thus the adjustable plug 44 may be retracted and adv nced responsive to the temperature of the air i` the hot air furnace, to the pressure of the steam in the boiler, or to the temperature of the Water of a hot water system.

Referring to Fig. 8, this is a fragmentary sectional view, 1ike Fig. 1, of a modification employing the same type of cap 22 and housing 2|. In this case the nozzle tip |00 is of substantially the same shape and construction, but the feed grooves are in the end of the fixed plug |0|, and therefore the nozzle tip |00 has a simple frustro-conical surface |02 without grooves.

The fixed plug |0| comprises a cylindrical threaded member provided with the threads |03 for engaging threads |04 in the cap 22. Threads |03 have longitudinal slcts |05 to provide oil passages to the annular manifold |06 around thel, reduced cylindrical portion |01.

At its left end the plug |0| h-as a frusto-conical surface |08 provided with the tapered slots |09, here formed in the plug instead of the nozzle tip. The plug |0| also has a threaded bore ||0 for receiving an adjustable plug threaded into the bore I0 and provided with longitudinal slots ||2 connecting the threads and-providing communication between an end space |I3 and the tapered slots ||4 in the end of plug Plug may have a slot ||5 in its end for adjustment by means of a screwdriver to adjust the effective depth of slots |4. The space ||8 communicates with a through bore H6, which may be engaged by a needle valve ||1 having a conical point ||8. The needle valve is threaded into a bore ||9 in the rear'end of the fixed plug |0|.

Radial ports |20 provide communication between the space |2| surrounding the needle valve point ||8 and the annular space |22. The right end of the fixed plug 0| may also have the rela'- tively ne cut threads 128 adapted to serve as a iixed lter, after the manner of the filter member 62 of Fig. 1.

The same channels 88 serve to carry liquid to the lterlng grooves and channels 68 carry ltrate out of the lter.

The operation of this nozzle, in so far as the grooves |09 and |'|4 are concerned, is substantially the same as Fig. 1, although the grooves are cut in the plug instead of in the nozzle tip. Here the rate of flow may be adjusted by adjusting the adjustable plug to determine the effective size of the grooves 4 and the whirling chamber 49, shown in Fig. 1.

An additional feature included in this nozzle is the supply of liquid from the annular space |22, radial ports |20, annular space I2 I', and bore ||6, past the needle valve ||8. The adjustable needle valve ||1 may be actuated responsive to thermostatic or pressure responsive devices, as shown in Fig. 6, while the adjustable plug ||4 permits an adjustment of the initial flow rate of the nozzle.

Referring to Fig. 9, this ls a view similar to Fig. 8, of another modiiication. In this case the nozzle has the saine nozzle cap 22 and a nozzle tip |00, similar to Fig. 8. 'I'he housing 2| is the same as previously described, and the fixed plug |24 is similar to that shown in Fig. 1, except that this plug is provided with the feed grooves instead of the grooves being in the nozzle tip |00, which has a simple frusto-conical surface, |02.

The threads 52 of the iixed plug 24 have the longitudinally extending slots 58 leading to the annular space 5|, which communicates with the tapered grooves |09 in the conical end surface |08 of the fixed plug |24. The adjustable plug |25 is intended to be manually adjusted by inserting a, screwdriver in the slot |28 and rotating this adjustable plug in the threads |21.

rljhe engaging threads |28 on the adjustable plug |25 will cause it to progress in its bore and to adjust the distance of its conical end surface |29 from the nozzle tip surface |02.

The adjustable plug |25 has a cylindrical portion |30, having a sliding fit in the bore |3|, and

a reduced cylindrical portion m, thus providing `an annular space |33. 'I'he annular space |33 communicates with the ends of the slots |03 at the end of the `xed plug |24 and also communicates with the tapered slots |34 located in the conical surface |35 on the end of the adjustable plus |25.

It should be noted that in Figs. 8 and 9 the adjustable plugs both have the partially spherical depression l, which forms the rear end of the whirling chamber. The right end of the threaded bore |21 may be closed by a screw plug |36.

Annular chamber |32 distributes the liquid nowing from the grooves |03. among the srooves |34, when the adjustable plug has been rotated to a position which throws the 'grooves |34 and i out of alignment with each other.

When the nozzle is adjusted for minimum now,

the grooves |34 are the only ones which discharge into the whirling chamber; when additional now is being used, up to the maximum, thenthe grooves |l3 supply the whirling chamber with additional liquid, this chamber being increased in size due to the retraction of the adjustable plug.

Referring to Fig. 9, the operation of this type of noule is as follows: It may be provided with a nlter of the same type Vas shown in Fig. 1, which would be located tow'ard the right of the nozzle structure shown in Fig. 9. The construction shown is one in which the nozzle is adjusted and maintained at a iixed adjustment, which depends upon the position of the adjustment plug |25. The oil enters the cap 22 through the grooves 55 which lead to the annular chamber 5|. This chamber acts as a manifold, feeding into the grooves |33 of the nxed plug |24, irrespective of its position in the cap 22.

The liquid passing radially inward through the grooves |03 enters the ring chamber |33 which acts as a manifold for distributing the liquid to all of the grooves |34, even though the adjustable plug |25 has been so rotated that the grooves |34 are out of alignment with the grooves |33. The grooves |34 are preferably tapered inwardly toward the axis of the nozzle and are adapted to act like nozzles which discharge substantially tangentially of the whirl? ing chamber |35 and cause a rapid rotation of the atomlzed liquid in that chamber.

Here, again, the discharge orifice is of greater capacity than the maximum groove openings or maximum nozzle adjustment. and the atomized liquid is thrown to the outside of the discharge bore by centrifugal force, which bore it follows until it comes to the conical outer portion of the bore which guides the spray into a conical form.

when the adjustable plug |25 is retracted toward the right, the ring chamber |33 is then adapted to permit a saucer-like body of liquid to now into the whirling chamber |35 which augmenta the volume and rotation of the liquid so that a high rate of rotation is maintained at all adjustments of the nozzle.

Referring to Fig. 10, this is a view, similar to the same external threads 52, longitudinal slots 5B. frusta-conical end surface 4|, and through bore 53, and may carry a fixed lter of fine cut threads 35, similar to that described in Fig. I1.

The conical surface of the xed Aplug |33 adjacent the nozzle tip |31 is provided with the tangentially located oil feed grooves |33, carrying liquid from the annular space |40 to the similar tapered grooves |4| in the conical end surface |42 of the adjustable plug |43.

The adjustable plug |43 again has the partially spherical end cavity 59 forming the rear wall of the whirling chamber 49; and to assure the communication between the grooves |39 of the fixed plug |38 and the grooves |4| of the adjustable plug |43, means is provided for preventing relative rotation between these two plugs.

For this purpose the plug |38 may carry a rearwardly extending guide pin |44 for slidably engaging in a bore |45 of a disc |46 carried by the adjustable plug |43.

In this case adjustment of the plug I 38, which is thereafter to remain fixed, determines the effective depth of the grooves 46 and grooves |39 in the nozzle tip |31 and ilxed plug |33: that is,

the maximum rate of flow is determined by this adjustment.

The axial movement of the adjustable plug |43, which may be responsive to pressure means or thermostatic means, such as disclosed in Fig. 6. increases or decreases the rate of ow by means of the position of the cutoif 6l on the adjustable plug |43 with respect to the conical surface 43, and also by adjusting the eifective depth of the grooves |4| in the adjustable plug |43.

The operation of this type of nozzleis substantially the same as the operation of the one described with respect to Fig. l; but it will be evident that the oil feed grooves may be located in the nozzle tip in the fixed or adjustable plugs or in all three of these members.

It will thus be observed that I have invented an adjustable atomizer or nomle for liquids or air. the discharge spray of which is adjustable as to its iiow capacity, and which may also be constructed in nozzles of extremely small capacity, such as, for example, one-half gallon per hour.

The present nozzles may have their rate of flow adjusted to a predetermined amount to suit the specific size of combustion chamber or furnace, so that only one size of nozzle need be kept in stock to be used with oil burner installations of different sizes. l

The present nozzle is alsol adapted to have its flow automatically adjusted according to furnace temperature, according to the temperature of water in a hot water boiler, or the steam pressure in a steam boiler. When provided with thermostatic means. subjected to the temperature of the oil flowing through the nomle, my nozzle is adapted to maintain automatically a constant flow of oil through the nozzle in pounds of oil per hour. irrespective of any increase or decrease in the oil temperature flowing through the nozzle.

The parts ofmy nozzle, such as nozzle tips, fixed and adjustable plugs, caps, and housings may be made interchangeable so that the internal parts of a nozzle may be changed to double or vary the discharge capacity by merely substituting a part having larger grooves or passages.

The machine work and threading required is reduced to a minimum. The clogging of the nozzle is reduced to a minimum and substantially eliminted by 'utilizing a. ilne mesh rigid strainer or filter, the grooves of which are about half the size of the smallest oil grooves used in the nozzle; and in one embodiment of the invention the strainer performs the dual function of straining Vthe fuel, while at the same time acting as a thermostat to regulate the oil discharge capacity of the nozzle. l

While I have illustrated preferred embodiments of my invention, many modications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and I do not wish to be limited to the precise details of construction set forth, but desire to avail myself of all' changes within the scope of the appended claims.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire toV secure byv Letters Patent of the United States, is:

1. In an atomizing nozzle, the combination of an elongated housing provided with a cap, said cap having a socket for a nozzle tip, a nozzle tip located in said socket and having a centrally located discharge orifice located to discharge through an aperture in said cap, means for holding said nozzle tip in its socket, and an adjustable member slidably mounted in said latter means and constructed of a metal of a low coefficient of thermal expansion, said nozzle tip and member having complementary surfaces engaging each other and provided with tapered feed grooves between said surfaces, a tubular member of a metal of high thermal coefficient of expansion secured to the end of said adjustable member opposite to said nozzle tip and having its opposite end iixedly secured to said housing, there being fluid conduits extending longitudinally of said housing between said tubular member and housing and communicating with said tapered grooves, whereby upon increase of temperature of the oil due to the flame and expansion of the oil, due to its increase of temperature, the tubular member will expand to withdraw said adjustable member and increase the effective size of said grooves to increase the rate ofilow through said nozzle and to maintain a rate of iiow substantially proportional to the change of temperature, in pounds of uid per hour.

2. In an atomizing nozzle for oil burners or the like, the combination of an enclosure with a nozzle tip member having a discharge orifice located at an opening in said enclosure, with an adjustable member movable toward and away from said nozzle tip member and movably mounted in said enclosure, there being a whirling chamber located between said adjustable member and said nozzle tip member, and there being a plurality of oil feed grooves located between said members and extending tangentially with respect to said whirling chamber, and thermostatic means for adjusting the position of said adjustable member with respect to said nozzle tip, whereby the'effective depth of said grooves may be adjusted by the position of said adjustable member responsive to the temperature to which said thermostatic means is subjected, said.

thermostatic means being located in said enclosure to be subjected to the temperature of the oil flowing through said nozzle, whereby the rate of flow of the nozzle increases as the temperature of the oil increases and causing the whirling chamber to expand to maintain a substantially constant' flow through said nozzle in pounds of oil per hour.

3. In an atomizing nozzle of variable discharge volume controlled by the temperature of liquid passing through the nozzle, the combination of outlet formed in an end wall member in the other end, said nozzle outlet comprising a substantially cylindrical bore, said end wall member being formed with an inner frustoconical surface surrounding said bore and with a convexly curved annular surface flaring outwardly on the inner end of said bore to said frusto-conical surface, said convexly curved surface forming the front annular wall of a whirl chamber, said frusto-conical surface having a plurality of tapered grooves extending substantially tangentially of said whirl chamber and terminating at zero depth at said convexly curved surface, a fixed plug secured in said housing and having an end frusto-conical surface engaging the first-mentioned frusto-conical surface at its outer portion thereof, there being an annular feed chamber between said plug and housing communicating with said tapered grooves at their outer ends, said plug having a centrally located cylindrical bore, an adjustable member of cylindrical shape and constructed of a metal of low thermal expansion coefficient, but slidably mounted in said latter bore, said adjustable member being provided on its end adjacent the end wall with a complementary frusta-conical surface engaging the frusto-conical surface on the end wall at minimum volume position, and sealing the space between the end wall and said adjustable member except at said grooves in said position, and an elongated metal member constructed of metal of high coefficient of thermal expansion having one end secured to said plug. and having the other end secured to the other end of said adjustable member, said-housing having channels for the flow of liquid to said distribution chamber between the housing and said elongated metal member, the expansion of said elongated metal member differentially with respect to the adjustable member, withdrawing the adjustable member from the end wall to increase the effective depth of the discharge end of the tapered grooves and to increase the size of the whirl chamber by separation of the adjacent frusto-conical surfaces, the outerportions of the grooves continuing to direct liquid tangentially of the enlarged whirl chamber at increased volume due to the diminishing of resistance to flow through said grooves, the liquid rotating at high speed in the whirl chamber at substantially all positions of said adjustable member and following the wall of said discharge bore in its rotating motion until it discharges from the nozzle in a thin ne'ly atomized conical spray of uniform characteristics, while the volume of discharge is varied responsive to the temperature of the liquid in the nozzle.

4. In an atomizing nozzle of variable discharge volume controlled by the temperature of liquid passing through the nozzle, the combination of an elongated metal housing member having an inlet for liquid at one end and having a nozzle outlet formed in an end wall member in the other end, said nozzle outlet comprising a substantially cylindrical bore, said end wall member being formed with an inner frusto-conical surface surrounding said bore and with a convexly curved annular surface flaring outwardly on the inner end of said bore to said frusto-conical surface, said convexly curved surface forming the front annular wall of a, whirl chamber, said lfrustoconical surface having a plurality ofy tapered grooves extending substantially tangentially of I said whirl chamber and terminating at aero depth at said convexly curved surface, a fixed plug secured in said housing and having an end frustoconical surface engaging the mst-mentioned frust-conical surface at its outer portion thereof. there being an annular feed chamber between structed of a metal of low thermal expansion,

coefficient, but slidably mounted in said latter bore, said adjustable member being provided on its end adjacent the end wall with a complementary frusta-conical surface engaging the frusto-conicaisurface on the end wall at minimum volume position. and sealing the space between the end wall and said adjustable member except at said grooves in said position, and an elongated metal member constructed of metal of high coefficient of thermal expansion having one end secured to said plug, and having the other end secured to the other end ofV said adjustable member, said housing having channels for the flow of liquid to said distribution chamber between the housing and said elongated metal member. the expansion of said elongated metal member differentially with respect to the adjustable member, withdrawing the adjustable member from the end wall to increase the effective depth of the discharge end of the tapered grooves and to increase the size of the' whirl chamber by separation of the adjacent frusto-conical surfaces, the outer portions of the grooves continuing to direct liquid tangentially of the enlarged whirl chamber at increased volume due to the diminishing of resistance to iiow through said grooves, the liquid rotating at high speed in the whirl chamber at substantially allpositions of said adjustable member and following the wall of said discharge bore in its rotating motion until it discharges from the nozzle in a thin finely atomized conical spray of uniform characteristics. while the volume of discharge is varied responsive to the temperature of the liquid in the nozzle. the said end wall member comprising a metal disc engaging an annular-shoulder in the end of said housing against which it is' secured by engagement with said plug.

5. In anatomizing nozzle of variable discharge volume controlled by the temperature of liquid passing through the nozzle, the combination of an elongated metal housing member having an inlet for liquid at one end and having a nozzle outlet formed in an end wall member in the other end, said nozzle outlet comprising a substantially cylindrical bore, said end wall member being formed with an inner frusto-conical surface surrounding said bore and with a convexly curved annular surface flaring outwardly on the inner end of said bore to said truste-conical surface, said convexly curved surface forming the front annular wall oi' a whirl chamber, said frustoconical surface having a plurality of tapered grooves extending substantially tangentiaily of said whirl chamber and terminating at zero depth at said convexly curved surface, a fixed plug secured in said housing and having an end frusto-conical surface engaging the first-mentioned truste-conical surface at its outer portion thereof, there being an annular feed chamber between said plug and housing communicating with said tapered grooves at their outer ends, said plug having a centrally located cylindrical bore, an

structed ofa metal of low thermal expansionesefiicient, but slldably molmted in said latter bore, sa'id` adjustable member being provided on its end adjacent the end wall with a complementary frusta-conical surface engaging the frusto-conical surface on the end wall at minimum volume position, and sealing the space between the end wall and said adjustable member except at said grooves in said position, and an elongated metal member constructed ot\metal of high `coeilicient of thermal expansion having one end secured to said plug, and having the other end secured to the other end of said adjustable member, said housing having channels for the flow of liquid to said distribution chamber between the housing and said elongated metal member, the expansion of` said elongated metal member diierentially with respect to the adjustable member. withdrawing the adjustable member from the end wallto increase the effective depth of the discharge end oi the tapered grooves and to increase the size of the whirl chamber by separation of the adjacent frusto-conical surfaces, the outer portions of the grooves continuing to direct liquid tangentially oi' the enlarged whirl chamber at increased volume due to the diminishing of resistance to ilow through said grooves, the liquid rotating at high speed in the whirl chamber at substantially all positions of said adjustable.

A wallmember comprising a metal disc engaging an against which it is secured by engagement with annular shoulder in the end of said housing said plug. and the said grooves in said end wall comprising smooth indentations in the frustoconical surface of said disc, free of burrs or roughness which might entrap solid particles.

6. In an atomizing nozzle of variable discharge volume ,controlled by the temperature of liquid passing through the nozzle, the combination of an elongated metal lhousing member having an inlet for liquid at one end and having a nozzle outlet formed in an end wall member in the other end, said nozzle outlet comprising a substantially cylindrical bore, said end wall member being formed with an inner frusta-conical surface surrounding said bore and with a convexly curved annular surface flaring outwardly on the inner end of said bore to said frusto-conical surface, said convexly curved surface forming the front annular wall of a whirl chamber, said frusta-conical surface having a plurality of tapered grooves extending substantially tangentially of said whirl chamber and terminating at zero depth at said convexly curved surface, a fixed plug secured in said housing and having an end frusta-conical surface engaging the firstmentioned frusto-conical surface at its outer portion thereof, there being an annular feed chamber between said plug and housin'g ccmmunicating with said tapered groove.` at their outer ends, said plug having a centrally located cylindrical bore, an adjustable member of cylindrical shape and constructed of ametal of low thermal expansion coefiicient, but slidably mounted in said latter bore, said adjustable member being provided on its end adjacent the end wall with a complementary frusto-conical surface engaging the frusto-conical surface on the adjustable member of cylindrical shape and con- Il end wall at minimum volume position, and seal- 17 ing the space between the end wall and said adjustable member except at said grooves in said position, and an elongated metal member constructed of metal of high coefficient of thermal expansion having one end secured to said plug, and having thev other end secured to the other end `of said adjustable member, 'said housing having channels for the flow of liquid to said distribution chamber between the housing and said elongated metal member. the expansion of said elongated metal member differentially with respect to the adjustable member, withdrawing the adjustable member from' the end wall to increase the eifective depth of the discharge end of the tapered grooves and to increase the size of the whirl chamber by separation of the adjacent frusta-conical surfaces, the outer portions of the grooves continuing to direct liquid tangentially of the enlarged whirl chamber at increased volurne due to the diminishing of resistance to iiow through said grooves, the liquid rotating at high speed in the whirl chamber at substantially all positions of said adjustable member and following the wall of said discharge bore in its rotating motion until it discharges from the nozzle in a thin finely atomized conical spray of uniform characteristics, while the volume of discharge is varied responsive to the temperature of the liquid in the nozzle, the said end wall member comprising a. metal disc engaging an annular shoulder in the end of said housing against which it is secured by engagem'ent with said plug, the said plug comprising a threaded cylindrical member threaded. into said housing and formed with longitudinally extending slots traversing the threads to communicate with said distribution chamber.

'7. In an atomizing nozzle of variable discharge volume controlled by the temperature of liquid passing through the nozzle, the combination of an elongated metal housing member having an inlet for liquid at one end and having a nozzle outlet formed in an end wall member in the other end, said nozzle outlet comprising a substantially cylindrical bore, said end wall member being formed with an inner frusto-conical surface surrounding said bore and with a convexly curved annular surface flaring outwardly on the inner end of said bore to said frusto-conical surface, said convexly curved surface forming the front annular wall of a whirl chamber, said frusto-conical surface having a plurality of tapered grooves extending substantially tangentially of said whirl chamber and terminating at zero depth at said convexly curved surface, a fixed plug secured in said housing and having an end frusto-conical surface engaging the first-mentioned frusto-conical surface at its outer portion thereof, there being an annular feed chamber between said plug and housing communicating with said tapered grooves at their outer ends, said plug having a centrally located cylindrical bore, an adjustable member of cylindrical shape and constructed of a metal of low thermal expansion coefiicient, but slidably mountfor the flow of liquid to said distribution chamber between the housing and said elongated metal member, the expansion of said elongated metal member differentially with respect to the adjustable member, withdrawing the adjustable member from the end wall to increase the effective depth of the discharge end of the tapered grooves and to increase the size of the whirl chamber by separation of the adjacent frusto-conical surfaces, the outer portions of the grooves continuing to direct liquid tangentially of the enlarged whirl chamber at increased volume due to the diminishing of resistance to flow through said grooves, the liquid rotating at high speed in the whirl chamber at substantially all positions of said adjustable member and following the wall of said vdischargeV bore in its rotating motion until it discharges from the nozzle in a thin finely atomized conical spray of uniform characteristics, while the volume of discharge is varied responsive to the temperature o f the liquid in the nozzle, the said end wall member comprising a metal disc engaging an -annular shoulder in the end of said housing against which it is secured by engagement with said plug, the said elongated metal member comprising a sleeve secured to said plug at one end and secured to an enlargement on said adjustable member at the other end.

8. In an atomizing nozzle of variable discharge volume controlled by the temperature of liquid passing through the nozzle, the combination of an elongated metal housing member having an inlet for liquid at one end and having a nozzle outlet formed in an end wall member lin the other end, said nozzle outlet comprising a substantially cylindrical bore, said end Wall member being formed with an inner frusto-conical surface surrounding said bore and with a convexly curved annular surface flaring outwardly on the inner end of said bore to said frusta-conical surface, said convexly curved surface forming the front annular wall of a whirl chamber, said frustoconical surface having a plurality of tapered grooves extending substantially tangentially of said whirl chamber and terminating at zero depth at said convexly curved surface, a fixed plug secured in said housing and having an end frusto-conical surface engaging the first-mentioned frusta-conical surface at its outer portion thereof, there being an annular feed chamber between said plug and housing communicating with said tapered grooves at their outer ends, said plughaving a centrally located cylindrical bore, an adjustable member of cylindrical shape and constructed of a metal of low thermal expansion coemcient, but slidably mounted in said latter bore, said adjustable member being provided on its end adjacent the end wall with a complementary frusto-conical surface engaging the frusto-conical surface on the end wall at minimum volume position, and sealing the space between the end wall and said adjustable member except at said grooves in said position, and an elongated metal member constructed of metal of high coeiiicient of thermal expansion having one'l end secured to said plug, and having the other end secured to the other end of said adjustable member, said housing having channels for the flow of liquid to'said distribution chamber between the housing and said elongated metal member, the expansion of said elongated metal mem-'- ber differentially with respect to the adjustable member, withdrawing the adjustable member from the end wall to increase the effectivedepth l of the discharge end of the tapered grooves and to y n l of uniform characteristics, while the volume of discharge is varied responsive to the temperature v of the liquid in the nozzle, the said end wall member comprising a metal disc engaging an annular shoulder in the end of said housing against which it is secured by engagement with said plug, the said elongated metal member comprising a sleeve secured to said plug at one end and secured to an enlargement on said adjustable member at the other end, the said sleeve being formed with a threaded surface of a size adapted to be slidably received in said housing, and said threaded surface being formed with transverse longitudinal liquid inlet slots terminating short of the plug end, and similar outlet slots terminating short of the opposite end, the liquid in said housing being caused to pass along between said threaded sleeve and the housing to entrap solid particles.

9. In a. thermostatically controlled liquid nozzle, the combination of a substantially cylindrical housing provided with a liquid inlet at one end and a liquid outlet at the opposite end, said outlet being bordered by an annular shoulder, a removable nozzle tip member of circular shape fitted against said annular shoulder in a cylindrical bore in said housing and provided with a central nozzle discharge aperture of cylindrical shape, said tip being provided with an inner frusto-conical surface and a convexly curved flaring surface leading from said discharge bore to said frusto-conical surface, the said flaring surface forming the front annular Wall of a whirl chamber, said nozzle tip member being formed with a plurality of grooves extending from a point adjacent its outer edge to said whirl chamber, and said grooves extending substantially tangentially to the whirl chamber and tapering to zero depth at said flaring surface, a cylindrical fixed plug member secured in said housing and formed to provide an annular distribution chamber surrounding its end and communicating with said grooves, and also provided with a frusto-conical surface complementary to that of the outer portion of the frusto-conical surface on said nozzle tip member, said plug having a central cylindrical bore, an adjustable volume controlling member of cylindrical shape movably mounted in said bore to approach or recede from said nozzle tip member, said volume control member being formed with a. frusto-conical surface at its end engaging said nozzle tip member and at minimum position cutting oif ow of liquid except through the smallest end of said grooves, and thermostatic means mechanically connected to said volume adjustment member for advancing or withdrawing said volume adjustment member responsive to the heat applied to said thermostatic means, the withdrawal of said volume adjustment member increasing the eiective depth of said grooves and increasing the diameter of said whirl chamber while the external portion of said grooves continues to maintain high speed rotation of the liquid in the whirl chamber at an increased volume due to the reduction of the resistance to flow 20 through said grooves, the whirling liquid following the wall of said discharge bore due to centrifugal force until it is discharged as a thin finely atomized conical spray of uniform characteristics within the range of volume adjustment of said volume adjustment member.

10. In a thermostatically controlled liquid nozzle, the combination of a substantially cylindrical housing provided with a liquid inlet at one end and a liquid outlet at the opposite end, said outlet being bordered by an annular shoulder, a removable nozzle tip member of circular shape fitted against'said annular shoulder in a cylindrical bore in said housing and provided with a central nozzle discharge aperture of cylindrical shape, said tip being provided with an inner frusto-conical surface and a convexly curved flaring surface leading from said discharge bore to said frusto-conical surface, the said flaring surf-ace forming the front annular wall of a whirl chamber, said nozzle tip member being formed with a plurality of grooves extending from a point adjacent its outer edge to said whirl chamber, and said grooves extending substantially tangentially to the whirl chamber and tapering to zero depth at said iiaring surface, a cylindrical fixed plug member secured in said housing and formed to provide an annular distribution chamber surrounding its end and communicating with said grooves, and also provided with a frusto-conical surface complementary to that of the outer 4portion of the frusta-conical surface on said nozzle tip member, said plug having a central cylindrical bore, an adjustable volume controlling member of cylindrical shape movably mounted in said bore to approach or recede from said nozzle tip member, said volume control member being formed with a frusto-conical surface at its end engaging said nozzle tip member and at minimum position cutting off flow of liquid except through the smallest end of said grooves, and thermostatic means mechanically connected to said volume adjustment member for advancing or withdrawing said volume adjustment member responsive to the heat applied to said thermostatic means, the withdrawal of said volume adjustment member increasing the eective depth of said grooves and increasing the diameter of said whirl chamber while the external portion of said grooves continues to maintain high speed rotation of the liquid in the whirl chamber at an increased volume due to the reduction of the resistance to flow through said grooves, the whirling liquid following the wall of said discharge bore due to centrifugal force until it is discharged as a thin finely atomized conical spray of uniform characteristics within the range of volume adjustment of said volume adjustment member, the said volume adjustment member being formed in its end opposite to the nozzle discharge bore with a partially spherical surface forming the central rear wall of the whrlchamber.

l1. In a thermostatically controlled liquid nozzle, the combination of a substantially cylindrical housing provided with a liquid inlet at one end and a liquid outlet at the opposite end, said outlet being bordered by an annular shoulder, a removable nozzle tip member of circular shape tted against said annular shoulder in a cylindrical bore in said housing and provided with a central nozzle discharge aperture of cylindrical shape, said tip being provided with an inner frusto-conical surface and a convexly curved fiaring surface leading from said discharge bore chamber, said nozzle tip member being formed with a plurality of grooves extending from a point adjacent its outer edge to said whirl chamber," and said grooves extending substantially tangentially to the whirl chamber and tapering to zero depth at said flaring surface, a cylindrical fixed plug member secured in said housing and formed to provide an annular distribution chamber surrounding its end and communicating with said grooves, and also provided with a frustoconical surface complementary to that of the outer portion of the frusto-conical surface on said nozzle tip member, said plug having a central cylindrical bore, an adjustable volume controlling member of cylindrical shape movably mounted in said bore to approach or recede from said nozzle tip member, said volume control member being formed with a frusto-conical lsurface at its end engaging said nozzle tip member and at minimum position cutting olf flow of liquid except through the smallest end of said grooves, and thermostatic means mechanically connected to said volume adjustment member for advancing or withdrawing said volume adjustment member responsive to the heat applied to said thermostatic means, the withdrawal of said volume adjustment member increasingthe effective depth of said grooves and increasing the diameter of said whirl chamber While the external portion of said grooves continues to maintain high speed rotation of the liquid in the whirl chamber at an increased volume due to the reduction of the resistance to flow through said grooves, the whirling liquid following the wall of said discharge bore due to centrifugal force until it is discharged as a thin finely atomized corneal spray of uniform characteristics within the range of volume adjustment of said volume adjustment member, the said grooves in said nozzle tip member comprising indentations' formed in the surface of the nozzle tip member, said grooves being free of burrs and roughness, and having rounded corners. v

l2. In a thermostatically controlled liquid nozzle, the combination of a substantially cylindrical housing provided with a liquid inlet at one end and a liquid outlet at the opposite end, said outlet being bordered by an annular shoulder, a removable nozzle tip member of circular shape fitted against said annular shoulder in a cylindrical bore in said housing and provided with a central nozzle discharge aperture of cylindrical shape, said tip l being provided with an inner frustoconical surface and a convexly curved flaring surface leading from said discharge bore to said frusto-conical surface, the said flaring' surface forming the front annular wall of a whirl chamber, said nozzle tip member being formed with a plurality of grooves extending from a point adjacent its outer edge to said whirl chamber, and said grooves extending substantially tangentially t the whirl chamber and tapering to zero depth at said flaring surface, a cylindrical fixed plug member secured in said housing and formed to provide an annular distribution chamber surrounding its end and communicating with said grooves, and also provided with a frusto-conical surface complementary to that of the outer portion of thefrusto-conical surface on said nozzle tip member, said plug having a, central cylindrical bore, an adjustable volume controlling member of cylindrical shape movably mounted in said bore -tO approach or recede from said nozzle tip member, said .volume control member being formed with a frusto-conical surface at its end engaging said nozzle tipmember andat minimum position cutting on' flow of liquid except throughv the smallest end of said grooves, and thermostatic means mechanically connected to said volume adjustment member for advancing or withdrawing said volume adjustment member responsive to the heat applied to said thermostatic means, the withdrawal of said volume adjustment member increasing the effective depth of said grooves and increasing the diameter of said whirl chamber while the external portion of said grooves continues to maintain high speed rotation of the liquid in the whirl chamber at an increased volume due to the reduction of the resistance to flow through said grooves, the whirling liquid following the wall of said discharge bore due to centrifugal force until it is discharged. as a thin nely atomized conical spray of uniform characteristics within the range of volume adjustment of said volume adjustment member, the said plug member being threaded into a threaded bore in said housing member and said plug having longitudinal external slots traversing said threads to provide communication past said plug to said distribution chamber.

13. In a thermostatically controlled liquid nozzle, the combination of a substantially cylindrical housing provided with a liquid inlet at one end and a liquid outlet at the opposite end, said outlet being bordered by an annular shoulder, a removable nozzle tip member of circular shape fitted against said annular shoulder in a cylindrical bore in said housing and provided with a central nozzle discharge aperture of cylindrical shape, said tip being` provided with an inner frusto-conical surface and a convexly curved flaring surface leading from said discharge bore to said frustoconical surface, the said flaring surface forming the front annular wall of a whirl chamber, said nozzle tip member being formed with a plurality of grooves extending from a point adjacent its outer edge to said whirl chamber, and said grooves extending substantially tangentially to the whirl chamber and tapering to zero depth at said flaring surface, a cylindrical fixed plug mem ber secured in said housing and formed to provide an annular distribution chamber surrounding its end and communicating with said grooves, and also provided with a frusto-conical surface complementary to that of the outer portion of the frusto-conical surface on said nozzle tip member, said plug having a central cylindrical bore, an adjustable volume controlling member of cylindrical shape movably mounted in said bore to approach or recede from said nozzle tip member, said volume control member being formed with a frusto-conical surface at its end engaging said nozzle tip member and at minimum position cutting off flow of liquid except through the smallest end of said grooves, and thermostatic means mechanically connected to said volume adjustment member for advancing or withdrawing said volume adjustment member responsive to the heat applied to said thermostatic means, the withdrawal of said volume adjustment member increasing the effective depth of said grooves and increasing the diameter of said whirl chamber while the external portion of said grooves continues to maintain high speed rotation. of the liquid in the whirl chamber at an increased volume due to the reduction of the resistance to flow through said grooves, the whirling liquid follown ing the wall of said discharge bore due tocentrlf.-

23 ugal force until it is discharged .as a thin finely atomized conical spray of uniform characteristics within the range of volume adjustment of said volume adjustment member, the said volume adjustment member having a threaded connection with said plug and having a shank projecting from said housing for rotation, and said thermostat being connected mechanically to said shank to rotate the shank.

14. In a thermostatically controlled liquid nozzle, the combination of a substantially cylindrical housing provided with a liquid inlet at one end and a liquid outlet at the opposite end, said outlet being bordered by an annular shoulder, a. removable nozzle tip member of circular shape fitted against said annular shoulder in a cylindrical bore in said housing and provided with a central nozzle discharge aperture of cylindrical shape, said tip being provided with an inner frusto-conical surface and a convexly curved daring surface leading from said discharge bore to said frusto-conical surface, the said aring surface forming the front annular wall of a whirl chamber, said nozzle tip member being formed with a plurality of grooves extending from a point adjacent its outer edge to said whirl chamber, and said grooves extending substantially tangentially to the whirl chamber and tapering to zero depth at said flaring surface, a cylindrical iixed plug member secured in said housing and formed to provide an annular distribution chamber surrounding its end and communicating with said grooves, and also provided with a frusto-conical surface complementary to that of the outer portion of the frusto-conical surface on said nozzle tip member, said plug having a central cylindrical bore, an adjustable volume controlling member of cylindrical shape movably mounted in said bore to approach or recede from said nozzle tip member, said volume control member being formed with a. frusto-conical surface at its end engaging said nozzle tip member and at minimum position cutting off ow of liquid except through the smallest end of said grooves, and thermostatic means mechanically connected to said volume adjustment member for advancing or withdrawing said volume adjustment member responsive to the heat applied to said thermostatic means, the withdrawal of said volume adjustment member increasing the effective depth of said grooves and increasing the diameter of said whirl chamber while the external portion of said grooves continues to maintain high speed rotation of the liquid in the whirl chamber at an increased volume due to the reduction of the resistance to flow through said grooves, the whirling liquid following the wall of said discharge bore due to centrifugal force until it is discharged as a thin finely atomized conical spray of uniform characteristics within the range of volume adjustment of said volume adjustment member, the said volume control member being constructed of metal of low coeicient of thermal expansion, and having its end opposite to the nozzle bore connected to an elongated sleeve of metal having a high coeflicent of thermal expansion, the other end of said sleeve being secured to said plug and the diierential in expansion between said sleeve and volume control member acting as said thermostat.

15. An atomizing nozzle according to claim 1, in which the nozzle tip discharge orifice comprises a cylindrical bore communicating with an enlarged whirl chamber having a gradually curved annular surface of revolution at the inner end of said cylindrical bore.

16. An atomizing nozzle according to claim 1, in which there is a circular whirl chamber formed between the end of said adjustable member and an annular surface on the nozzle tip, which surface surrounds the discharge orince, and in which the tapered grooves extend substantially tangentially of said whirl chamber.

17. An atomizing nozzle according to claim 1, in which the means for holding the nozzle tip in its socket comprises a substantially cylindrical plug having external threads engaging in said cap, the said plug being smaller at the end adjacent the nozzle tip to provide an annular'fuel supply chamber communicating with said grooves.

18. An atomizing nozzle according to claim 1, in which the nozzle tip member comprises a cylindrical metal member in which the discharge orince is a cylindrical bore centrally located and the rear face of the nozzle tip containing said tapered grooves is frusto-conical and joined to the discharge orifice by a gradually curved surface of revolution,

19. An atomizing nozzle according to claim 1, in which the nozzle tip member comprises a. circular metal disc with its discharge oriiice of cylindrical shape centrally located and having a frusta-conical rear face in which the tapered grooves are indentations free of burrs and roughness and having rounded corners.

20. An atomizing nozzle according to claim 2, in which the nozzle tip discharge oriilce comprises a cylindrical bore communicating with said whirl chamber having a gradually curved annular surface of revolution at the inner end of said cylindrical bore.

21. An atomizing nozzle according to claim 2,

in which the oil feed grooves comprise indentations formed in the nozzle tip member, the said indentations being free of burrs and roughness and having rounded corners.

22. An atomizing nozzle according to claim 2, in which the nozzle tip member has its oil feed grooves formed in a frusta-conical face which is complementary to the end of said adjustable member.

23. An atomizing nozzle according to claim 2, in which the adjustable member is of cylindrical shape and slidably mounted in a cylindrical bore of a xed cylindrical plug mounted in said enclosure and engaging the nozzle tip member.

WILLIAM W. HALLINAN.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 957,014 Thornycroft May 3, 1910 1,014,111 Anderson Jan. 9, 1912 1,098,160 Mackie May 26, 1914 1,516,871 Stout Nov. 25, 1924 1,526,006 Mersch Feb. 10, 1925 1,762,678 Bryan June 10, 1930 1,799,757 Mayr Apr. 7, 1931 2,048,495 Eaton et al. July 21, 1936 2,052,399 Hetherington Aug. 25, 1936 2,071,143 Scott Feb. 16, 1937 2,267,451 Eweryd et al Dec. 23, 1941 2,286,581 Scott June 16, 1942 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 298,252 Great Britain Oct. 8, 1928 288,727 ItaLv Sept. 19, 1931

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Classifications
U.S. Classification239/75, 236/10, 138/43, 239/496
International ClassificationF23D11/24
Cooperative ClassificationF23D11/24
European ClassificationF23D11/24