US 2510235 A
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June 6, 1950 w. G. KGEL PORTABLE RADIATOR 2 Sheets-Sheet l Filed Nov. 19, 1 946 INVENToR. @f7/5% ,q Ww/Mfr June s, 195o w. G. KGEL 2,510,235
PORTABLE RADIATOR Filed Nov. 19, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 .77, f r 5f i @7 i ff gli 5% y? 46 4/ JNVENToR.
Patented June 6, 1950 PORTABLE RADIATOR Wilhelm Georg Kgel,A Stockholm, Sweden Application November 19,1946, Serial No. 710,847
In Sweden December 1, 1945 16 claims. (C1. 21e- 38) My invention relates to a heater and more particularly a portable radiator.
It is desirable that a. heater of this type produce warmth quickly, present no burn hazard, and be simple and inexpensive. I achieved all of these desirable factors by utilizing low temperature radiation. The radiant is also a casing. The source of heat is an ordinary electric heating cartridge. Heat is transferred from the cartridge to the radiant by a rapid starting sealed iiuid heat transfer circuit. The cartridge and the circuit are enclosed within the casing, and the cartridge is enclosed by thermal insulation. The circuit is formed by an endless tube containing a suitable liquid; the cartridge is removably associated with one part of the tube; and the casing and the tube are simply associated in telescopic relation.
The invention is set forth in greater detail with reference to the accompanying drawings of which:
Fig. 1 is a vertical section on line I-I in Fig. 2 showing a heater embodying the invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical section on line 2--2 in Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a sectional view like Fig. 2 illustrating a slight structure modification;
Fig. 4 is a side elevation illustrating a modiiication of the heat transfer circuit only;
Fig. 5 is a View like Fig. 1 illustrating an embodiment of the invention provided with a humidifier;
Fig. 6 is a horizontal section on line 6 5 in Fig. 5; and
Fig. '7 is a vertical section on line 'I-l in Fig. 5.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings, a pipe I is formed into an endless coil having a vertical straight section I I and two laterally projecting loops I2 and I3. The pipe coil I0 is provided with a lling opening formed by a short piece of tubing I4. A metal cylinder I is attached in good thermal contact with the straight section II of the pipe coil.
The cylinder I5 and the straight coil section Il are enclosed by thermal insulation Iii, except at the lower end of the cylinder I5, to permit the insertion of an electric heating cartridge Il. The latter should fit well within the cylinder I5, but not with a force fit. This is so the cartridge can be removed for repair or replacement. Any suitable means, not illustrated, may be provided to removably support the heating cartridge II within the cylinder I5.
Through the connection provided by the stubl Whe. I4, `the pipe coil I0 is evacuated and Iilled I' with a suitable liquid to a level about at the upper end of the straight pipe section II. Then the coil is hermetically sealed as by welding off the charging tube I4. The heat transfer liquid should preferably have a vapor pressure close to that of the atmospheric pressure at the highest temperature of the heater I'I. This liquid may be, by way of example, toluol or Xylene.
The principal part of the casing for the heater is formed by asheet cf metal I3 in the shape of an inverted-U.v An upper pair of horizontal walls or partitions I5 and 20, and a lower pair of partitions 2I and 22 are joined in good thermal contact to the casing I8. The partitions I9 and 20 are formed with opposite longitudinal channels 23 and 24 respectively. The lower partitions 2l ts snugly in the grooves 23 and 24, and the lower loop I3 fits snugly in the grooves 25 and 26.
The bottom of the casing is formed by a closure plate 2l which has an opening 28. The top of the casing Iii is provided with a plurality oi' openings such as the slots 29. The ends oi' the casing are closed by end plates 30 and 3| which are formed to provide legs 32 projecting below the bottom of the plate 2l to support the heater.
In Fig. 3 the partitions I'Ja and 20a are shown provided with channel members 33 and 34 respectiveiy to serve the same purpose as the grooves and 24 previously described. In Fig. 3 the casing is shown telescoped on the pipe coil with the pipe loop I2 snugly engaged in the channel members 33 and 34.
For a larger heater. a second pipe coil Ia may be provided. This pipe coil is lixe the previously described pipe coil lo and is thermally attached to the opposite side of the cylinder I5. In this modification, the casing, not shown, would be made in two parts each similar to the casing described above and telescoped over the pipe coils it) and Ilia from opposite directions and then joined in the center.
Referring again to Figs. 1 and 2, the cylinder I5, the pipe coil I, the partitions I9, 20, 2| and 22, and the casing IB should be of good thermal conductive material. The several described joints should be made so as to have good thermal conductivity. The outer surface of the casing I8 should have the best black body characteristics possible so as to produce the maximum amount of radiation for the surface area provided. When a sourceot electricity is connected to the heating cartridge I1, heat from the cartridge I'I is transmitted through the cylinder l5 and the vertical straight Il of the pipe coil to the xylene contained therein. This liquid is heated and vapor that is formed rises in the straight Il of the pipe coil and causes an up-ilow of heated liquid in this part of the coil. The result is a rapid circulation of liquid through the entire pipe coil I0. Heat transmitted to the fluid in the rising part of the pipe coil l is transmitted by the circulating fluid to the partitions and the casing. Objects of lower temperature which can see thev casing I8 receive heat from the latter by radiation. The casing and the internal partitions also cause heating of air which enters the casing' through the bottom opening 28 and emerges from the top of the casing through the slots' 29.
Referring to Figs. 5, 6, and 7 of the drawings, there is illustrated a heater like that previously described except that, as shown, the endless pipe coil 35 has but a single loop with two vertical straights 36 and 3'1, and two horizontal straights 38 and 39. The vertical straight 36 is thermally connected to a cylinder 40 for a heating cartridge as previously described. The casing 4l is like that described in connection with Fig.l 1l but hasl only two partitions 42 and 43. The horizontal straights 33 and 39- of the pipe coil 35 are engaged in grooves in the lpartitions 42 and 43l respectively. At one end of the top partition 42' there is provided a ledge 4d, and the other end of the partition 42 projects somewhatbeyond the coil', thus forming a trough or fiume.
Attached to the vertical straight 31 of the pipe'y coil there is areceptacle- G which is open at the top and located beneath the projecting end of the trough-forming partition 42, this end being provided with lipsr 46 and 4-7 to direct-liquidl from the trough to the receptacle 45. One end of ay pipe diiis connected tothe bottom of the receptacle i5 andr the other end of the pipe 48: is lo cated so as to discharge into the end of the trough-forming partition #i12 near the heating cylinder 401. A risersection of the pipe 48 is thermally attached to the heating cylinder 40. The pipe coi-l 35 is evacuated and' charged with, for instance, Xylene, in the manner previously described.
The receptacle 45 is filled withL water when it isy desired to humidify the air being heated inside the casing l. The water is heated in that part"4 of pipe iii connected to the hueatingV cylinder 481' and rises by'thermo-siphon action into the trough 42; The waterl flows along the trough 42 andJ that which remains unevaporated' drains back into the receptacle H5. Thedry bulbtemperature ofthe air inside the casing fil' is increased' while the heater is in operation. Accordingly, the relative humidity is decreased, permitting evaporation ofthe water with a resulting increase in the absolute amount of water vapor in the air issuing' from the top of the heater. This lair mixing with other air in the vicinity causes an increase in the mean humidity of the whole;
The heater previously described is la l'ow ternperature radiator characterized' byrapi'd transfer of heat from a localized source to an extended surface radiant. The radiant isthe casing of'this heater. The casing is not merely a shield, it is an essential part of the heater itself;
Various changes may be made within the scope of the invention as set forth in` the following claims.
1. A, heater comprising a closed liquid container forming a circuitous and endless conduit, a heating element arranged to apply heat to a portion of said conduit, and a casing enclosing said container and said element, said casing fproviding a heat radiating surface large relative to the surface of said container, and arranged in thermal contact With the latter.
2. A heater as set forth in claim 1 in which said casing and said container lare so constructed that said thermal contact therebetween is effected upon telescoping said casing over said container.
3. A heater as set forth in claim 1 in which said casing is provided with top and bottom openings to permit now of air therethrough.
4. A heater as set forth in claim 1 in which said casing is formed in principal part by a sheet of metal in the shape of an inverted-U.
' 5. A heater as set forth in claim 1 in which said casing is formed in principal part by a sheet of metal inthe shape of an inverted-U, and,l is provided with internal. partitions which engage. said container in said thermal contact'.
6. A heater as set forth in claim l iri which said casing is formed in principal part by a sheet of metal in the shape of an inverted-U, and has end plates formed to provide legs for supporting' theheater with a space therebeneath, said casing being provided with top and bottom openings to permit fiow of air therethrough.
7. A heater as set forth in claim 1 in which Said container isseV constructed andv arranged with respect toY said heating element that rapid circulation of liquid occurs in said conduit upon the application of heat.
8. A heater as set forth in claim l in which said container comprises an' endless tube.
9. A heater as set forth in claim 1 in whichA said container comprises an endless tube having an upright straight portion to which heat is applied by said heating element, and a laterally projecting loop.
lo. A heater as set forth in claim 1 in which saidv liquid container comprises an endless pipe coil having a vertical straight portion, and said heating element is arr electric heating cartridge` supported in thermal conductive relation to said straight portion.
1-1'. A heater asset forth' inclaim 1 in which said heating element is an electric heating cartridge, said cartridge and the part of said container to which it applies heat being substantially enclosed by thermal insulation.
12. A heater as set forth in claim 1 in which said container is an endless pipe coil located inY a' substantially vertical plane, and said casing comprises inY principal part .a sheet of metal in the shape of an inverted-U, said casing having interior platesI arranged to support said coil inA thermal contact tnerewithin theV casing by telescoping oversaid coil.
13. A hea-teras set forthinA claim 1 in which said liquid container is an endless' pipeY coi-lV lo cated in a substantially verticalplane, said casing comprises in principal parta sheet of metal in the shape of an invertedf- U, and said casi-ng hasinternal piates adapted to direct air' laterally andL support said colli in thermal contact therewith; when saidL casing is' telescoped over said coil, and end; plates thereafter attached to'said casing and providing legsv for supporting' the heater above' the floor, said casing having topA and bottoml openings to permit upward flow of air therethrough.
14. A heater as set forth in claim 1 in which 5 Said casing has openings to permit ow of air therethrough, and a humidifier also Within said casing and including a, Water circulator of a thermosiphon or Vapor lift type operated by heat from said element.
15. A heater as set forth in claim 1 which further comprises a humidifier Within said casing and including a Water trough, a receptacle to receive Water from said trough, and a thermosphon or vapor lift connected to deliver water ic Number from said receptacle to said trough, said lift being operated by heat from said element.
16. A heater as set forth in claim l in which said liquid container is an endless pipe coil located in a substantially vertical plane, and there is a humidier including a, tray mounted on the top of said coil, a receptacle mounted on one end of said coil and arranged to receive water from said tray, and a thermosiphon or vapor lift connected to deliver Water from said receptacle to said tray and operated by heat from saidelement.
WILHELM GEORG KOGEL.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Name Date 1,305,532 Fulton June 3, 1919 1,635,591 Valiquette July 12, 1927 1,724,046 Schleicher Aug. 13, 1929 1,788,201 Murray, Jr., et a1. Jan. 6, 1931 1,919,204 Decker July 25, 1933 1,941,855 Eggleston Jan. 2, 1934 1,942,559 Lithman Jan. 9, 1934 2,000,438 Dougherty May 7, 1935 2,225,850 Wright Dec. 24, 1940