US 2510572 A
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June 6, 1950 RQH. GODDARD uxxmc PARTITION FOR comsus'rxou CHAMBERS Filed larch 22, 1947 ATTORN EY Pai'ented June 6,
UNITED STAT MIXING PARTITION F'on COMBUSTION omuunsns Robert H. Goddard, deceased, late of Annapolis,
Md., by Esther C. Goddard, executrix, Worcester, Mass., assignor of one-half to The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation, New York, N. Y.', a corporation'of New York Application March 22, 1947, Serial No. 736,443
' 1 This invention relates to combustion chambers as used in propulsion apparatus and of the type having an open rearward discharge nozzle for the combustion gases. liquids, such as liquid oxygen and gasoline, are injected directly into a combustion chamber, it
is found that the combustion is at times incomplete and tha drops of fuel leave the chamber with the discharged combustion gases.
It is the general object of this invention to provide improved means for attaining more complete combustion in such a combustion chamber. More specifically, a pervious mixing partition is provided at a longitudinally intermediate point in the chamber, and the partially consumed mixture of combustion elements is caused to pass through openings or perforations in this partition which becomes highly heated as the chamber is operated.
Passage of the combustion mixture through this heated partition breaks up any drops of liquid which have not been vaporized and causes very effective intermingling of the gases and vapors. After passing through the heated partition, further and more complete combustion takes place.
The invention further relates to arrangements and combinations of parts which will be hereinafter described and more particularly pointed out in the appended claim;
Preferred forms of the invention are shown in the drawing, in which Fig. l is a sectional side elevation of a combustion chamber embodying this invention;
Fig. 2 is a face view of a modified partition;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail sectional view, taken along the line 3-3 in Fig. 2;
Fig.4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 but showing a further modification; V
Fig. 5 is a partialsectional side elevation of a combustion chamber showing an alternative construction;
Fig. 6 is an end ,view, lookingin theidirection of the arrow 6 in Fig. 5; and
Fig. 7 is a detail transverse. section of one of the tubular elements shown in Figs. 5 and 6. Referring to-Fig. '1, a combustion chamber C is provided with a closed inner end portion l0 and with an open discharge nozzle II. An igniter I2 is mounted inthe end portion I 0. Liquid oxygen is fed to the chamber C through a pipe I4 and annular intake passage I5. Gasoline is fed to the chamber C through one or more feed pipes H and the combustion liquids intermingle adjacent the igniter l2. Cooling water may be injected through a pipe l8.
Where two combustion A partition 20 is mounted in the chamber C at an intermediate point in its length and may be retained in position by rings 2|, secured to the chamber wall in any convenient manner, as by welding thereto. The partition 20 may be arched or convex as shown in Fig. 1 or may be fiat as shown in Figs. 2 to 4.
The partition '20 is to be formed of heat-resistant material, such as carbon or a metal having a very high melting point, as the partition becomes very hot when'the chamber is in operation. A large number of holes or perforations 22 extend through the partition 20, and these holes 22 are preferably countersunk at both ends to provide easy entrance and exit to the combustion mixture passing therethrough.
Substantially complete mixing of the partially consumed combustion elements takes place as the mixture passes through the holes 22 in the partition 20. This complete mixing is due in part to the vaporizing of any drops of liquid on the surface of the heated partition 20, also to the fact that eddies cause the mixture to strike the hot surface at various angles and to the fact that further combustion is facilitated by heat imparted to the mixture as it passes through the I highly heated partition.
As the combustion gases'approach the nozzle H, it is desirable that any gaseous eddies be straightened out, and for this purpose vanes 40 may be provided atthe exit end of the combustion chamber, which vanes extend radially inward and also extend longitudinally parallel to the axis of the combustion chamber and nozzle.
' passing directly through the openings 22 or 50,
which are parallel to the combustion chamber axis, the holes may be disposed at a substantial angle to the face of the partition, as indicated at in the partition 6| shown in Fig. 4.
- An alternative construction is shown in Figs. 5 to '7 in which the partially consumed combustion elements pass through a double grid, each part of which comprises a series of tubes extending crosswise of the combustion chamber 0' and at right angles to each other in the two grid parts.
One gridpart tubes "Ill terminating in manifolds II and 12 at comprises a series of paralleleach side of the combustion chamber. A feed pipe 13 supplies a cooling liquid, as water, to the manifold H and tubes and this water is discharged from the manifold 13 through a pipe I4.
The second grid part is similarly formed of tubes 80 mounted in manifolds 8| and 82 provided with a feed pipe 83 and discharge pipe 84.
Each tube 10 or 80 is thus eil'ectively cooled by the liquids passing therethrough. Each tube may also desirably be provided with an enclosing coating or covering of heat-resistant material, as indicated at 85in Fig. 7.
The intersecting tubes 10 and 80 constitute a double grid which is engaged by the partially consumed combustion mixture and which causes substantially complete mixture and final combustion thereof, all as previously described with reference to the construction shown in Fig. 1.
With all the described constructions, combustion in the chamber C takes place in two steps. Initial combustion occurs in the entrance portion of the combustoin chamber C, and final and substantially complete combustion takes place beyond the mixing partition or grid and as the combustion gases approach the discharge nozzle ll.
Having thus described the invention and the advantages thereof, it will be understood that the invention is not to be limited thereto, otherwise than as set forth in the claim, but what is claimed is:
In a combustion apparatus having a combustion chamber with an inner closed end portion, an initial combustion area, a final combustion area, an open rearward discharge nozzle, means to feed and commingle a liquid fuel feed and a a 4 liquid Lxidizer in said initial combustion area, means to ignite the combustible mixture in said initial area, and a pervious mixing partition po- ESTHER C. GODDARD, Executria: of the Last Will and Testament of Robert H. Goddard, Deceased.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 421,477 Beckfeld et al Feb. 18, 1890 781,922 Thomson Feb. 7, 1905 1,828,784 Perrin Oct. 27, 1931 2,074,098 Adams Mar. 16, 1937 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 4,736 Great Britain Mar. 11, 1884 378,868 France Aug. 24, 1907