US 2511083 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 13, 1950 F. S- SMALL ASSEMBLY OF ROOFING AND SIDING UNITS Filed Aug. 30, 1946 RNE Y. z
I NVENTOR; FRANK 5. SMALL, am
Patented June 13, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Frank S. Small, St. Louis, Mo., assignor of onethird to Byron Nugent, Evansville, Ind.
Application August 30, 1946, Serial No. 693,901
This invention relates to improvements in assembly of roofing and siding units, and more particularly to improved materials and arrangements for laying or assembling weather-resistant units, such as shingles, utilized in building construction, both on the roofs and sides of buildings of a great variety of types.
Prevalent practice in the application of asbestos shingles, and of so-called composition units for both siding and roofing, has almost invariably required a more or less solid sheathing material, such as wood, applied over the rafters or studding. By reason of present shortages of lumber there has arisen an increasing necessity to minimize the footage of lumber employed, particularly in housing structures, but also in buildings for numerous other purposes. The presenti im provements accordingly have as a principal objective, an improved construction and practice in applying or laying siding and roofing materials such as to require only a minimum footage of wood or comparable materials, such as will practically obviate the use of nails and nailing operations in roofing and siding construction.
Yet another object of the invention is importantly realized in the provision of a series of parallel metal supports of novel type, such as to eliminate, to the extent desired, the use of nails in the application of asbestos shingles and siding units for example, the materials and technique being similarly valuable in the application of many forms of strip, roll or individual composition shingles and siding units.
A further marked advantage objectively realized in the practice of the present invention, is attained by reason of the shingle supporting strips mentioned above such that, assuming the siding material to be laid up in longitudinal courses, and if. desired, in overlapping relation, there is attained a self-aligned provision for the several courses of roofing or siding material in a manner to assure a workmanlike appearance, a uniform overlap of the courses, and hence a more eflicient and eifective weather-resistant wall or roof than is usually attained in comparable structures laid by using conventional nailing for securement.
Yet another important objective of the present improvements is realized in a novel form of metal strip, which may be produced and distributed, of itself, as an article of manufacture, and which possesses several novel features enhancing its usage, particularly when employed with separable metal clips, for the support of shingle and siding units.
A valuable further objective attained with present improvements results from a metal clip of unique and novel design, particularly adapted for a semi-locking engagement with a metal strip traversing the studding, the clips being so formed as to serve as directly engageable supports for shingle or siding units or courses, and so formed as to obviate any penetration of the shingle or like units, by the clips, the design and proportions of the clips being such that they may be advantageously sold and utilized as separate articles of manufacture, and in many useful combinations for the general purpose noted.
Many objects and advantages in addition to the foregoing, will appear from the following detailed description of a preferred assembly illustrating the usage of the present novel elements and features as applied to the support and assembly of asbestos siding units and similar shingle elements. In the drawing:
Fig. 1 is a side view of a portion of a building wall as same would appear in the course of laying or applying an asbestos shingle weather surface, and illustrating the present shingle supporting features;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary elevation, in the nature of an isometric view, partly sectioned, the sectional portion being taken along line 2-2 of Fig. 1, and
Fig. 3 is an elevation in perspective showing a shingle supporting strip, and one of the shingle mounting clips in the course of attachment to the strip.
For simplicity of present description and illustration, the improvements are shown as applied to a side wall construction, and will be so described, but without limitation to any specific field of application. inasmuch as the present features may be applied to certain types of roofing, and to other weather-resistant structures generally. Because of this fact, the terms shingles, siding, or shingle units are used throughout without restriction, except in a broad sense.
The present application is related to, and constitutes certain improvements over my copending application Serial No. 673,511, filed May 31, 1946, and to which attention is directed.
Fig. 1 shows a plurality of vertical studding elements S which may be of conventional construction and arrangement, may be supported conventionally in and as a part, for example, of the side wall frame structure of the building. As is well known, studding elements are usually disposed edgewise, i. e., edge outermost. and are prevalently of 2" x 4", 2" x 6", or similar dimension lumber. In the utilization of the present improvements the studding and other parts of the wall frame need not depart from usual construction and practice. The studding elements should of course be sufficiently sound and straight to assure a workmanlike assembly, and should be susceptible of retaining nails or similar fastenings.
It is preferred, although not strictly necessary, to utilize in the currently improved application of shingles or siding units, a sheathing consisting of a fibrous insulation board, such as indicated at It), and which may be secured, as by nailing. to the studs S. This material is relatively readily obtainable and may be had in desired dimensions or readily cut to the desired proportions. It may be of any selected thickness, according to strength and insulation requirements; it may be considered for present purposes, but without restriction, as within the range of thickness of one-half to one inch inclusive. Alternately, but without limitation, the sheathing (or sheeting as sometimes designated), may consist of panels or sheets of gypsum board or the like, or of other suitable material. Typical spacings of the studding elements S, are on 16" or 24" centers, and the sheathing may be obtained in widths or lengths such as to provide without cutting. for an edge to edge abutment medially of the outwardly facing edges of the studding to which it is readily nailed.
The asbestos shingles for use as siding units are shown in a conventional dimensionof one foot in width, b two feet in length, although these dimensions vary according to manufacture, and may be had in a variety of specifications. For simplicity of present illustration, each of these units. indicated as AS, may be considered as two feet in length and one foot in width, or only slightly less than these dimensions. The units AS are shown as laid up in longitudinal courses or rows, with each superposed course overlapping the inferior course, an overlap of the order of two inches being recommended.
The materials thus far described are each well known, widely used and obtainable in some variety of physical characteristics and price ranges. The items of present structure which depart more notably from the conventional, include a series of longitudinal, vertically evenly spaced strips l2. These are formed, by preference, of a relatively thin strong material such as metal, and by preference for economy, of sheet steel strip of the general range of 20 to 25 gauge. This strip may be produced and sold in roll form, or in predetermined lengths, as desired. Although protected from direct weathering effects these strips may be suitably coated, alloyed or otherwise treated so as to resist rusting for long periods of time and in fact may be formed of aluminum or other nonferrous metals so as permanently to avoid any tendency to oxidation.
Each of the strips generally indicated at l2 includes, in the preferred form shown, a substantially planar nailing area I 3. If desired, the nailing area may be perforated at spaced intervals, as at M, so as to provide for ease in nailing or for the reception of other securement means by which the strips are attached in traversing relation to the studding elements S preferably at even vertical center spacings. By preference this center spacing is such that any successive pair of strips will be completely overlaid by one, or a course of the shingles or siding units, as will appear from Fig. 1.
Referring further to the characteristics of the preferred form of strip l2, the lower planar area i3 is contiguous to and merges into an intermediate planar area I5 which is slightly offset from the portion I3, i. e., at a slight angle, as will appear from Fig. 3. The opposite, shown as the upper margin of the strip i2, is preferably somewhat more narrow than either of the portions 13 or 15, and is connected to the latter through a Very narrow ledge or shoulder-forming portion Hi.
This latter makes somewhat less than a right angle connection with the portion 15, and serves to carry the aforesaid uppermost area :1, which in turn is connected to portion l5 through the shoulder, at a slightly acute angle. It will also appear that the ledge shoulder formation l', will function somewhat as a longitudinal strengthening rib, tending to prevent casual kinking or deformation of the strip [2, both in course of application, and in resistance to the weight of the shingles supported thereby.
Coacting with the strips !2 are a plurality of shingle supporting clips, which are of such nature as to be hung preferably from the upper edges of the strips and to serve the purposes, first, of directly supporting the shingles AS from the strips I2, and, secondly, of keeping the shingles firmly in place against the strips l2 and sheathing l0 and in maintaining the several courses of shingle in a depthwise compacted relation so as to prevent access of wind and rain to the areas beneath the shingles. With these purposes in mind, each of the clips generally designated at 20, is of a furcate construction, preferably trifurcate as embodying two longer legs and a single shorter leg. They are by preference formed of a resilient flat metal stock of suitable gauge, say 16-20 gauge, although depending upon temper and resilience, the thickness of metal is not critically of this order. It is also preferred, in order to obviate rusting effects, that the clip be either formed of non-rusting material or be suitably surface treated or coated as above noted in reference to the strip members 12.
Each strip includes by preference a central body, jaw or leg 2| the length of which substantially equals the extent of overlap of the units of superposed courses of shingles AS. At the lowermost extremity of the body 21 is a forwardly projected right angle portion 22 provided with an upturned leg, which may in fact be merely a lip or flange, indicated at 23. This latter is preferably so formed that its uppermost and outermost free margin 24 is slightly outturned. Thus it will now have appeared that the portions 22, 23 and the adjacent part of the body 2 l constitute a stirrup for the reception and support of the lower margin of one of the units AS. The width of the portion 22 preferabl approximates the thickness of the shingle or siding unit AS, so that the margin of the latter is snugly and grippingly retained in the stirrup 2|, 22, 23.
At the opposite or upper end of the clip, the metal of the body or jaw 2| is turned rearwardly at about a right angle, to form a bight portion 25, the cross dimension of which closely approximates that of the portion 22. This bight is, in turn, downturned to form a furcation of intermediate length, and consisting of parts 26, 2'! and 28. In vertical extent the portion 26 conforms rather closely to the width of area I! of strip l2; the ledge 21 conforms in extent and angularity, approximately to the ledge or shoulder I6 of the strip, so that, in assembly as will appear from Fig. 2, when the clip is brought downwardly over one of the strips [2, the interengagement of the shoulders assures against movement'of the clip acros the strips.
From the foregoing it'will have been noted that eachcli-p serves gripping-1y toengage and "hence to retain in assembly, the upper'rnarginof'one'of the units of a lower course, as through coaction of parts 28 and 2!, and the lower margin of one of the units of the next higher course, through engagement of the lower stirrup of th clip with the last saidunit.
The manner of application, erection and assembly, in the course of laying up a roof or siding, are thought to have become apparent from the foregoing detailed description of the elements and their purposes, but it may be noted for completenessthat, assuming the studding to have been completed, the strips t2 are laid thereover in traversing relation and at even spacing somewhat less than the full width of each shingle or siding unit as shown in Fig. 1. Securement of the strips I2 is effected, as noted, by nailing through the openings l4, it being assumed that the insulation board l0 constituting the sheathing, has first been laid over the studding elements and nailed thereto.
A first course of the shingles AS may be nailed along their lower margins, the nail locations being indicated at N, and are applied directly into the plate, sill or like base element of the wall. Assuming now a correct spacing of strips l2, a suitable number, for example three per shingle, of the clips are brought downwardly over the strip l2 and the adjacent shingles, and are preferably evenly spaced along the strip. Such clips now present their lower stirrup portions for the reception of the units of the next higher course, the latter being positively aligned with the strips l2 and thus kept in perfect parallelism and with assurance of uniform overlap of the next preceding course. This same procedure is continued through the requisite number of courses. It will have been observed that only the Very minor face area of the lips 23 of the clips remains exposed, and since these are at the lower margins of the shingles, are not objectionall obvious. It will further have appeared that a substantial saving of time, besides a better appearance and workmanship are attained by the use of the clips and strip arrangement described.
In the preferred and most advantageous combination there has been included the sheathing ID. In the case of certain temporary structures erected in locations favored by mild climates, a useful enclosure, as for temporary structures, may be erected without utilizing the sheathing. In such case, and with only a minor impairment of depthwise rigidity and in attainment of greatest economy, the shingles AS may be applied over the strips l2 and the latter secured directly to the studding without sheathing.
It should also be noted as of proven feasibility, to apply a siding or roofing structure over older composition or other materials so long as the strips I2 are securely nailed to the studding, rafters or the like therebeneath. Obviously also, the clips may, in certain special circumstances, be supplemented to the extent desired, by nailing or other forms of fastening.
The invention has been described by somewhat specific reference to a single preferred assembly and specific forms of adjunction metal elements and hardware, but the detail of description is intended merely in a fully instructive sense without limitation, since many changes may be made Within the full intended spirit of the invention and scope'o'f the claims hereunto appended.
I claim asmyinvention:
1. Means for securing overlapping portions of a pair of sheets to a wall, said means comprisingan elongated strip for fastening to said wall and having a rib extending longitudinally therealong intermediate its edges, said strip adapted to have one of said sheets superimposed thereon, and a clip formed with reversely extending hooks at its opposite ends, one of said hooks provided with a transversely extending shoulder to interlock with said rib of the strip when said hook is in assembled position straddling said strip and the sheet is superimposed on the latter.
2. In-a device of the kind described for securing overlapping portions of a pair of sheets to a wall, an elongated sheet metal strip adapted to be fastened adjacent one of its longitudinal edges to said wall so that its other edge may be yieldably sprung away from the wall, said strip adapted to have one of said sheets superimposed thereon and provided with an elongated rib extending lengthwise of the strip, and a resilient clip having oppositely directed hook ends to straddle the ends of the overlapping sheets, one of said hook ends having a transverse shoulder to yieldably interlock with said rib when said hook end is in its final assembled relation.
3. In a device of the kind described for securing overlapping portions of a pair of sheets to a wall, a strip for fastening to said wall and provided with a longitudinally extending rib intermediate its edges and adapted to have one of said sheets superimposed thereon, and a clip formed with oppositely disposed hooks at its ends, one of said hooks adapted to straddle one edge of said last mentioned sheet, and provided with a shoulder to interlock with said rib on the strip when in final assembled relation, the other one of said hooks straddling and supporting the other of said pair of sheets.
4. Means for securing overlapped sheets to a wall to cover the same and comprising an elongated sheet metal strip adapted to be fastened adjacent one edge to said wall so as to be yieldably springable at its other edge in a direction away from said wall, a rib extending lengthwise of said strip, and a spring clip having its opposite ends bent back to form hooks to straddle adjacent edges of th overlapped sheets, one of said hooks formed with a transverse shoulder to interlock with said strip rib.
5. In a device for securing overlapping portions of sheets to a wall, a sheet metal strip having longitudinally extending substantially parallel spaced portions to engage said wall and adapted to be secured to said wall at one of said portions, and with an ofiset portion intermediat said parallel portions and extending away from said wall, and a sheet metal clip having oppositely disposed reentrant hook ends to straddle the overlapping portions of said sheets, and a transverse rib on one of said hook ends to yieldably interlock with the rib on said strip.
6. In a device for fastening overlapping portions of sheets to a wall surface, an elongated sheet metal strip having a planar nailing portion substantially parallel with said attachment surface of said wall, a second planar portion spaced from said first planar portion and substantially parallel with the latter, and a ribcarrying portion interconnecting said planar portions, and a clip member having hook end to straddle the overlapping portions of said sheets,
one of said hook ends provided with an inwardly directed shoulder to yieldably interlock with said rib on the strip when said clip member is in its final assembled relation.
7. In a device for mounting sheets in overlapping relation on a wall surface, an elongated sheet metal strip having a pair of spaced planar portions whereby one of them may b nailed to said wall surface to support the strip, an angularly disposed planar portion between said pair of spaced portions and adapted to remain out of engagement with said wall surface, and a rib portion interconnecting said unnailed planar portion and said angularly disposed portion, and an elongated clip for supporting said overlapped sheets from said strip, th opposite ends of said clip provided with inturned hooks to straddlethe FRANK S. SMALL.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,399,315 Ocampo Dec. 6, 1921 1,574,099 Kridler Feb. 23, 1926 2,368,867 Olsen Feb. 6, 1945