Wire rope and cable
US 251114 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A. S. HALLIDIE WIRE ROPE ANDOABLE. No; 251,114.` Patented Dec. 20,1881.
F1H.2. FIB.Z. FIEHL..
PATENT reres@ ANDRE'W S. IIALLIDIE, O F SAN FRANCISOO, (JALIFQRNIA.
WIRE ROPE AND CABLE.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent 1\To. 251,114, datecl December 20,- 1881.
Application filed September-27, 1880. (Xo model.)
'To all whom it may conccrn y Be it known that I, ANDREW S. ITAL-Limit, of the city and County of San Francisco, State of California, have invented Improvements in the Manufacture of Wire Bope; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description thereof.
My invention relatcs to wire ropes', used in hoisting, trans'nitting power, haulage, and for similar purposes.
The ordinary method of making wire ropes is to twist or lay together cylindriealwires of the same metal into strands and to lay or twist these strauds together to form a rope. Ropes made in this manner, when suhjected to 'considerable friction or pressure, have the exterior wires composing them Very much tlattened and worn upon their outer sur-faces, and on account of this wear the strands break and the rope becomes stranded.
I propose to lay the strands of the rope in such a manner that their exterior surface shall approximate iu form the curve of the circumference of the rope,*thus producing amore solid and compact rope, with a surface less snsceptible to wear and presentin less irrcgularities to be acted upon. y
The machine for fiattening the wires is the subject of a separate pending application filed February 23, 1881.
I propose, further, to change the form of 'the cylindrical wire employed, so that these portions of the wires which are on the outside of the strand shall present afiattened surface, or a surface other than cylindrical o'rcircular.
My inventon consists in the following construction and arrangement, which will be here inafter particularly described, and the points of novelty set forth in the claims.
Iu the accompnnying drawings, Figures 1, 2, 3,' and 4. show the different forms into which the wire may be drawn or formed to suit the particular strand or rope in which it is to he used. Fig. 5 shows a strand formed ot' seven round wires, with an exterior layer of wires flattened similarly to Fig. 1. Fig. (i showsa strand formed of severi wires, the outer surface of the six inclosing-wires being fiattened. Fig. 7 shows a Seven-wire strand,'n which the inclo ing six wires are made oral in form, like Fig. 3, to produce the flattened surface. Fig. S shows a five-wire sti-and having interstitial fillingwires shaped as shown in Fig. 4. Fig. 9 is a perspective view of the end of a. Seven-wire strand having the six iuclosing-wires fiattened in the form shown in Fig. 2. Fig. 10 is a trans- Verse section of a single interstitial wire used in filling between strands or ropes formed of round wires, as shown in Figx ll.
In order to aceomplish my object I change the form of the wires into the shapes similar to Figs'. 1, 2, 3, and et by suitable means, and twist the same, either during the process of manufacturing or afterward, and by giving them the same number of twists per foot as the lay or twists of the strands into which it is proposed to make these wires, so that when the wires are laid or twisted together and form a strand the flattened faces will always appear ou the outside of the strand into which they are made; or I place the cylindrical wires in a suitably-constructed machine, so that while the wires are being twisted togetherinto strands they are rolled or drawn into suitable form for the purpose intended, and in like mauuer prei sent the flattened faces of the wires on the outside ot' the strands into which they are twisted' or laid.
In some cases the strands of wire ropes are made of two layers ot'wires, one covering the other, in which case I lay or twist the two layers in the same-direction; but it is not important or necessary that the in ner layer of wires should have flattened i'a-ces; but in all cases the wires in process oflaying into strands must always present the flattened surface on the outside and at the same time each wire, in itself, must be kept straight or free from twist, although it is coiled or laid with .the others into a strand.
It is ohvious that if I should draw or roll a wire by pulling the. wire between dies 'or rolls, so as to'give it a face flattencd on one side and parallel to the axisot' the wire, in order to lay two or more of these wires into a. strand, or so as to form a strand, I must twist each wire for every revolution of the twisting-machine in order to keep the fiattened surface of the wire on the outside of the strand, and a wire rope made this way would naturally untwist and fly apart; but by shaping the wire spirally and making the pitcl of the spi 'al the same as the .y of the strancl, when I lay or twist the wires Jgether into a strand the flattened surfaces of e wires will always appear on the outer side f the strand. "W hen eylindrieal wires are enlloyed, as in ordinary wire ropes, there is a ,pece between eaeh wire nnoeeuped. in that ipaee bounded by the eurves of the ad on ng ;ylindrical wires and a eireulnr line boundng he wires which are laid or twisted into an orlinar'y strantl I lay interstitial wires, made in he manner already described, with their fiatened or conVeX i'a-ces on the outside.
I am aware that lollow oores lwe lind an- ;ular metullie sl'ips lnid around the outside und arallel With the axis of the core, these strips being eovered with felt and the whole wrapped with flat ribbons, so as to form spirals -pproaehing a right. angle with the central zore, for protection, and I do not claim sueh a leviee, as it is in no sense a rope formed of itrands and suitable for transmitting power; )nt,
Having thns described my invention, what [claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. A wire rope eomprising one or more series of wires, the enter wires of whiel are n` eireular in cross-section and are laid spira. around an interier eore or strand, the non-e enlar wires being spirally formed, with the sar piteh or lay as the lay of the strand of whie they form a pnrt, snbstantially as herein se forth.
2. As a new article of mannfaeture, a. wire rope or eable having its Component wires noneirenlar in section and spirally forned, so that they will present the same faee on the outside ot' the trand tlereol", substantially as herein described.
3. A wire 'ope forned of twisted strands or wires having interstitia-l wires laid in the outer spaces between adjoining wires, said Supplementnl wires being formed in cross-section, so as to npproximately fill the spaces and present a, convex or flattened exterior surface, snbstan- 45 tiztlly as herein described.
In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand.
ANDREXV S. HALLIDIE.
'Witnesses S. H. NOURSE, FRANK A. BnooKs.