US 2511202 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 13, 1950 E. G. FULBOAM 2,511,202
INDICATING INSTRUMENT Filed Aug. 17, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 r/ m iklaimillllis INVENTOR Ellie if'ulaam.
ijag i JAM ORNEY June 13, 1950 E. G. FULBOAM 2,511,202
INDICATING INSTRUMENT Filed Aug. 17, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR Elsieifulbaazzz.
ATTORNEY Patented June 13, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE INDICATING IN STRUBIEN T Elsie G. Fully am, Andover, N. J.
Application August 17 1946, Serial No. 691,223
. 2 Claims. (01. 235-125) This invention is an improved marking and indicating device or instrument designed mainly for use in scoring test and examination papers in schools and other educational institutions; and comprising means for collecting and indicating all the necessary standard data which the test or examination is planned to reveal.
An important object of the invention is to provide a, marking and indicating device containing strips of 1 tapeor film orthe like, each bearing selected data on the face thereof and capable of being actuated to move the desired indication into view, so that the final result can be read'at once when the marking is finished. A further object of the invention is to provide a marking and indicating device in which the mode and rate of actuation of the strips can be adjusted when a change is necessary; and which also embodies suitable means for reverse movementor back-spacing nd connections for enabling all of the strips or the like which carry the data to be returned to starting position in readiness for further use when the process of marking any individual paper is completed. I More specifically an object of the invention is to provide a device that makes a mark and simult'aneously records the addition or deduction of one'or more units. An0ther object ofthe invention is to provide a marking and indicating. device which is elec-' trically controlled and operated and which is very simple, inexpensive and efficient in construction and operation. 1
The nature and advantages of the invention are setforth in the following description, and the novel features are pointed out in the appended claims. This disclosure, however, is explanatory only and many changes may be made in practice without departing from the essential structure in which the invention resides.
On the drawings: v Fig. 1' is a perspective view of the outside casing of a marking and indicating device or instrument according to this invention.
- Fig. 2 is a sectional view of the marking member.
Fig. 3 shows in top plan the operating mechanism within the casing. Fig. 4 is a side view enlarged of the principal operating members for imparting motion to the strips.
Fig. 5 is a similar view of the mechanism for back-spacing the record strips in the device. .1 Fig. 6 showsa section of one of the bearings in which the carrying elements or rolls for the strips are mounted, taken on the line 6-6 of Figure 3.
. Fig. 7-is a section on line 1-1 of Figure 3 and 2 1 Fig. 8 is a section on line 8-8 of Figure 3 and Figs. 9 and 10 are top and side views, respectively of a detail of a modification.
The numeral I indicates a box or casing'in which the essential parts of the mechanism of the marking and indicating device are housed.
This casing'is'provided with an opening 2 in the top, at which the characters representing the desired data are exposed to view; and 3 indicates the marking member which is used as a pencil for checking what the test or examination paper presents. This element is joined by electrical conductors 4 to the circuit of the operating members in the casing I, and current is supplied by way of a connector plug 5 joined to the device by means of a flexible cord conductor or thelike and adapted to be inserted into the usual outlet terminal of a building. When the instrument is not in use the element or marker 3 can be laid in a recess 5 in the upper face of the box I and covered by turning down the lid thereo On the inside of the box are two cylindrical rollers 1 and 8. These rollers carry strips of separate tape or film or other material indicated by numerals 9, 9a, 9b, 9c and 9d. They are wound up on roller 1 and connected to the roller 8 to be transferred thereto, step by step, as required.
This transfer is effected by rotating the roller! and drawing the strips off the roller 1. To accomplish this a solenoid II] is mounted in the casing I; the wiring of this solenoid being connected in series with the plug 5 and marker 3. The sole-1 noid attracts the plunger l2 which operates a ratchet II rigidly connected with the roller 8.
For this purpose a link I3 is pinned to one end of the plunger I2 and toan arm 14 which is movably mounted with respect to the axis of the roller 8 and upon which the pawl. I5 is pivotally sup ported. Therefore whenever the plunger 12 is pulled back by the solenoid the ratchet II is turned one ormore spaces through engagement shown in Fig. 6, the bearings have recesses 18' in the tops to receive the adjacent trunnions of the rollers, with catches or hooks l 9 pivoted as at 20v to the adjacent part of the bearing, to'be pushed over the adjacent trunnions and hold the; rollers in place. Thus the rollers can be taken out by swinging back the retaining catches l9; lifting the adjacent end of the roller,andpullin'g the opposite trunnions out of the circular opening in the bearing at the opposite end-of thisroller.
The pawl I is engaged by a bent spring 34 to hold it into position to engage the ratchet I I and a coil spring l4 attached to the arm [4 and the bottom of the box always holds the pawl in starting position and returns the pawl and plunger after the plunger l2 operates.
At the ends of the rollers l and 8 adjacent the solenoid l0, which is shown as being at the rear left hand corner of the casing, are bearing mem bers 2|. These members 2| have upper projecting ends 22 and they may be connected together at said ends so as to have the form 'of an open framework. The ends 22 are perforated at the top and said ends rotatably supportshort 23 and 24. These shafts and the trunnions H of the rollers have keys and slots, so that when the shafts and the trunnions are properly engaged, said shafts may'rotate the rollers I and 8, V The shaft 23 for the roller 1, projects through .one side of the bearing member 21 and carries an outside knob 26. This shaft is encircled by a coil spring 25 fastened at one end to the shaft 123 and to the bearing member 21 at the other, and this spring is wound up when the roller 1 is turned and the strip drawn off same by the other roller 8.
I At the opposite end of the bearing member 2| and inthe ends 22-, there a similar shaft 24 detachab ly keyed to the adjacent trunnion of the roller 8. On this shaft the ratchet H is rigidly mounted but the arm l4 is'loosely mounted thereon. Therefore whenever the plunger is drawn into the solenoid, the pawl I5 engages the ratchet II to turn it and the roller 8 with it.
The short shaft 24 also carries opposite the ratchet H a hub 28 loosely mounted thereon and bearinga fixed arm 29 which projects through a slot 30 in the top of adjacent casing 1-. .Aflixed to this hub 28v is an arc-shaped shield-21 which iscurved around the axis of the shaft 2% as a center and projects under the pawl l5. When this shield is withdrawn, the full movement'of the plunger will turn the ratchet through its maximum arc, and this are can be shortened by manipulating the arm 29 and moving the shield 2'! forward, so that more of its length lies between the pawl l5and the ratchet H. v The effective stroke of the pawl 15 can thus be governed. Adjacent the 'slot 30 at top of the casing 1 appear the numbers 1 to 5 to indicate the positions of the arm 29 for adjusting the shield'2'i, so that the solenoid will operate to turn the roller '8 to a distance equal to. l, -2 and up to '5 teeth of the ratchet II-. The hub 28 has teeth 3| and to a convenient point on the adjacent bearing member is'afi'ixed a bent spring 32 to engage these teeth and retain the hub 28 and shield '21 in adjusted position. v
1 At the'oppositeend of the roller 8 is a similar bearing member 2 l'a which mounts a-shor't shaft 33 keyed to the adjacent'end 'of the trunnion H of the roller 8. On this shaft is 'a fixed ratchet Haand aloose arm l4a bearing a pivoted spring pressed pawl l5a. To the arm is attacheda link Hit-pinned to the plunger 'IZaof another solenoid 1011, which is preferably disposed in the'rea'r right hand corner of the casing l. The teeth of the ratchet I! a are so inclined and the-pawl I50 so mounted and shapedthat whenever the solenoid ffla isenergized the rollers is'turned backwar'd,"preferably one space-at a time. When this occurs the other pawl l5 is'out of engagement withtheratchet l I, being lifted by the frontend of the screen 21, thus releasing the'roller 8; and the ba'ck-spacing'or wind-up in the opposite di- 4 rection through the distance of a single character on the strips or tapes is accomplished by the spring 25, which reverses the roller 1. When not operated, a stop 31 in the bearing Zia holds the pawl l5a out of engagement with the ratchet I la. The solenoid Illa is connected in parallel with the wires uniting the solenoid [0 to the connector plug 5. The wires which join the solenoid Illa in the circuit are led to a pair of switch contacts 42 and 43 on the bottom of the box I; one of these, the contact 32 being movable and being operated by a plunger 44 which projects upward through a bearing 44' and an opening in the top of the box and has a button or head 4-5. By
pressing the button the switch is closed, the solehold I [la receives the current, and the back-spacing is thus brought about. When the circuits are open springs l4 and [4b attached to the arm l4 and link l-3a respectively and the *bottom of the casing return and hold the plunger-s and pawls to *starting position.
-As the roller -8 is operated to draw the strips from the roller 7 the spring 25 is wound up, as already stated, and after the pawl 15 releases the ratchet H the roller 8 is held against reverse-rotation by a toothed wheel 38 on the short shaft '33. Thiswheel is engaged by a spring stop 39 on the bottom of the box I, and thisspring is set to engage the bottom of wheel '38. Connected to the spring-39 is a stem '40, extending upward through a bearing 40 on the member 2l-a and the top of the box and bearing an outside head 41. Hence to re-set the device after operation so as to reel back the strips fromthe roller '8 upon the roller 1, one has only to press the head or button 4| to release the spring-39 and free the toothed wheel 38 and the roller *8. The spring :25 now reverses the rotation of the roller 1 andreels back all of the strips to their original starting position. l
The short shaft 33 also has a gear wheel 46 thereon which meshes with another gear wheel 4] on a shaft '48 in the member -2la. The gear '41 has a stop 50 projecting from one face which will move to meet astop 49 on the bearing 21a. The ratio of the two gears 46 and 41 is such that when the roller 8 is revolved as far as the strips will permit it, the stop 50 will then engage the stop 49. See Figure 7. When the head or button 4| is pressed :to release the roller -8 the gear 41 will be turned backward and the 'stop 50 it car: ries will pressagainst the bearing 211a," having a retarding effect so=as to prevent the roller 1 from being operated too rapidly by the spring 25 and making sure that the roller 8 will come to s. stand-still when the re-setting is finished. The stop 50 will then'meet the stop 49 on the opposite side. Thus any great stress or force on the strips or tapes 5, 9a, 5b, 9c, 9d is avoided.
The marker '3 is'made up of a cylindrical casing 5| having a 'fixed'contact-Mdn one removable portion 52 connected to one terminal 53 of the supply wires 4. In line with this contact-isa movable conductor stem 55 which projects through the "other removable end =5! and is -slidably=engaged by a brush 55 connected'tothe-other supply "wire. At theoute'r end of the stem 55- is a graphite block 55 attached "by means *of a :pin or screw. Other substances besides graphite'can be employed. Hence wheneverthe'inarkin'g member is used to put a mark'of any kin'don epa'per or is-merely pressed far 'enoughto make' the s'tem 56 "touch the contact 54, the circuit -iifthe "sole-' noid ill "will be closed and the rollers 1 and 8 will turn as far as the setting cf the stem 21 allows. On the stem 55 in the casing is a collar 58, and a spring 59 around this stem, seating against an annular inside shoulder 62, holds the collar 58 against the end 51, but allows inward motion of the stem.
The strips on the rollers bear gradin data by which the score of the pupil taking the test is determined. The data in question may be varied and, for the sake of example, the strip 9a will present numbers on its upper face from 100 down to zero. The adjacent strip 9 will carry numbers from zero to 100. Thus the tape 9 can be actuated to add the desired units and the tape So can be actuated to subtract the desired units. Either tape 9 or 9a or both tapes may carry numbers that are multiples and grow larger thereby, or numbers that are divided by desired units.
The other tapes or strips may carry thereon data corresponding to each combination of indications given by the first two tapes or tapes 2 and 9a, and when the scanning of each paper is completed the strips of tape or film will show the data necessary to give the complete results and grades which the test discloses.
For example, a teacher may be marking a paper with twenty questions thereon, so that each question counts for in grading the paper. In reviewing the paper the member 3 may be so held that when the correct answer is found, a check mark can be made with the graphite crayon 60 without closing the circuit in the member 3 and thus not actuating the instrument at all. If, however, the answer is found to be wrong, so that 5 must be taken off, the reviewer manipulates the arm 29 to set the shield 21 so that when pressure is exerted on the crayon 60 the electrical operating circuit will be closed and the roller 1' and 8 will be operated to turn through a distance equal to five teeth of the ratchet wheel I I. This will move the tapes so that the first two for example, will bring the numbers 5 and 95 in position to be seen in the opening 2. If 3 is to be deducted the arm 29 will be manipulated so that the ratchet is moved through a distance of only three of the teeth. Thus the whole paper can be graded and when the examination is finished the total figure deducted will appear on the tape 9 and the final grade mark will be shown on the tape 9a. Similar data indicating the students full rating in connection with the paper will appear on the tapes 9b, 9c and 9d. The subject matter on the last named tapes will of course be properly related to the numbers shown on the tapes 9 and 9a.
In Figures 9 and 10, the solenoid I0 is shown as joined by a link I3 to a lever 13a, pivoted at 13b to the casing at one end and united by a short link Be at the other end to the pawl-carrying element 14. The arm 29' adjusts the stroke of the pawl, that is drawn towards the ratchet I i by a spring 34. The arm 29 adjusts the shield 21 which is steadied by a spring 32 engaging teeth 3| on the member 28' carrying the screen 21 and arm 29' and mounted loosely on shaft 24.
From the foregoing description it will be seen that I have devised a very simple and reliable instrument for marking and grading test papers. The device is not expensive to produce and after the operator has completed looking over each paper the whole instrument can be re-set for further use. It can be back-spaced at any time to the required extent and the forward movement of the rollers 1 and 8 can be increased or decreased, as the answer to any particular question or part of the paper necessitates.
The design and construction of the marking element 3 is a special feature of the entire combination because it causes actuation of the rollers every time pressure is put upon the end of the marker to close the circuit of the solenoid ID. The actuation of the rollers is thus independent of the amount of pressure on the marking element or the length of time during which said element is kept under pressure or held against the paper by the user.
Having described my invention, what I believe to be new is:
1. An indicating instrument comprising 2. casing having therein a roller, a spring to be put under tension as said roller turns, a second roller, strips to be attached to the rollers to be unwound from the first roller and taken up by the second roller, a solenoid, a pivoted arm mounted concentric with the second roller, a ratchet wheel in fixed relation to the second roller, a pawl on said arm to engage the ratchet wheel, a. plunger in said solenoid connected to said arm, a pivoted curved member concentric with the second roller normally holding the pawl out of engagement with said ratchet to shorten or lengthen the extent of actuation of the said second roller by the solenoid, an arm attached to said curved member, the casing having an opening through which the last-named arm projects, and an opening exposing said strips, a movable member containing a switch in circuit with the solenoid to close the circuit, and means on said movable member operative to close the switch and to mark said strips.
2. An indicating instrument comprising 2. casing having therein a roller, a spring to be put under tension as said roller turns, a second roller, strips attached to said rollers, the casing having an opening exposing said strips, means for intermittently rotating the second roller to draw the strips thereon from the first roller, a toothed wheel connected fast to the first roller, a stop engaging said wheel, a stem projecting to the outside of the casing to release the stop, a ratchet wheel in fixed relation to the second roller, a pivoted arm mounted concentric with the second roller, a pawl on the arm to engage the ratchet and rotate said roller in reverse, a fixed stop in the casing normally holding said pawl inoperative, a solenoid having a plunger connected to said arm, switch parts in the casing in circuit with the solenoid, a plunger extending outside the casing to operate the switch, a fixed stop in the easing and a, wheel geared to the second roller having a stop to engage the fixed stop at both ends of the rotation of the first roller.
ELSIE G. FULBOAM.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 199,289 Hart Jan. 15, 1878 302,953 Smith Aug. 5, 1884 489,228 Huffman Jan. 3, 1893 874,254 Shumaker Dec. 17, 1907 879,145 Clark Feb. 18, 1908 990,736 Hess Apr. 25, 1911 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 116,826 Germany Jan. 21, 1901