US 2511626 A
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June 13, 1950 H. B. EINBECKER APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SPATTER FINISH COATINGS 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed April 17, 1942 HENRY 5. E/NBECKEE June 13, 1950 ElNBEcKER 2,511,626
APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING SPATT ER FINISH COATINGS Original Filed April 1'7, 1942 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented June 13, 1 95 FINISH COATINGS Henry B. Einbecker, Homewood, Ill., assignor to The Sherwin-Willia Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Company, Cleveland,
Original application April 17, 1942, Serial No. 439,361. Divided and this application October 2, 1946, Serial No. 700,702 g 3 Claims. (crass-14o) This invention relates to surface coatings and particularly to apparatus for producing the same, and aims to produce a spatter finish coating of uniform pattern, attractive appearance and durablewearing qualities. The invention enables such an improved finish to be produced by one application of paint instead of a plurality of applications, which have heretofore been required for the production of a spatter finish.
Spatter finishes are desirable on many com-- mercial products, particularly those rougher metals which do not produce a smooth ippearing finish. The pattern efiect, as produced by spatter finishes, tends to break up the reflection, and the roughness of the metal is considerably less noticeable than if a solid color were used.
In applying spatter finishes consisting of two or more contrasting colors distributed to give a freckled or mottled effect, it has heretofore been necessary to go over the surface at least twice, that is, once for each color comprised in the finish. The first color applicat on would completely cover the surface. After this color was applied, the product was returned for the application of another color which was imposed upon the first color in spots or blotches .distributed over the first color with such uniformity as the skill of the applier would permit. Usually both colors were applied with a paint spray gun, the first color being the basic or background coating and the second color being applied in droplets of substantial size scattered over the first coating. This second application necessitated a second handling operation before the coated product could be fabricated or shipped,
as the case might be.
In addition to the labor cost involved in mak- 'ing two or more independent applications of color, and in the incident handling and reha'ndling of the product, further disadvantages in the product itself resulted from the multi-operation method just explained. One objection was the non-uniformity 'in the appearance of the product. This was occasioned by the fact that in applying the second color it was practically impossible for the operator to apply the spatters 2 only the solid color exposed in the effected areas. A product thus easily disfigured presented an unattractive and unsatisfactory appearance.
My present invention aims to provide an improvedproduct over the product of the multioperation process, and to reduce the cost of manufacture by eliminating a substantial por.- tion of the time and labor involved. The superiority of the product produced by my apparatus resides in the uniformity of the finish, in which the spots or spatters are uniformly distributed, instead of being concentrated over some areas and sparsely applied over others. Furthermore, my improved finish is more uniform in its wearing qualities because the plurality of colors are applied simultaneously and constitute a single integral coat which at any point is the same color throughout the thickness of the coat, as distinguished from the finishes heretofore produced in which the spattered color is superimposed upon a previously applied coat, and is consequently easily worn ofi, leaving-in such effected areas only the one color background coat.
My invention, in addition to improving the character and quality of the product, also greatly'reduces the cost of production by'applyin'g the multi-colors simultaneously tothe surface.
' the right at Fig. l;
with uniformity. Any slight variation in they were imposed upon the solid background of another color would, if the coated product was sub- Jected to abrasion become worn off, leaving Fig. 3 is a fragmentary face view roughly exemplifying a surface coated in accordance with my invention;
Fig. 4 is a sectional view through the spraying device shown in Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a sectional view on the line 5-4 of Fig. 4; a
Fig. 6 is an end view of the nozzle viewed on the line. 6-6 of Fig. 4; and
Fig. 7 is a sectional view on the line l--'| of Fig.4.
Referring to the drawings more in detail, reference characters I-and 8 indicate a plurality of liquid receptacles each adapted to contain a pig-. ment carrying liquid, such as paint, the liquid in each receptacle being of a diiferent color from that in the other receptacle or receptacles.
While only two receptacles are here shown for illustrative purposes, it will be apparent hereafter that more than two colors may be employed, if desired, in the production of a spatter finish coat. The colors, whether two or more, are delivered simultaneously to a receiving chamber, from which they are discharged in a composite stream and applied to a surface in a manner hereinafter disclosed.
In order to obtain a spatter effect, it is necessary that the plurality of colors employed do not blend or intimately mix so as to produce or give the effect of a homogeneous intermediate color.
This result is accomplished by employing sub-- stantially immiscible liquids as the pigment carriers in the various receptacles exemplified by I and 8. The degree of immiscibility required for satisfactory results does not, necessarily involve the employment of carriers basicly foreign in character. On the contrary basicly similar car riers difiering sufflciently in com stency or viscosity to inhibit blending together in the receiving chamber will meet the immiscibility requirements. It should therefore be understood that.
the word immiscible" is used herein in that broader sense. I
The receptacles 'I and 8 are provided with hermetically scalable covers 8 and I I, respectively,
through which air under pressure i introduced from a common branch pipe I: connected through a reducing valve l8 by means of a pipe l4 with a source of air under pressure, It will be observed that, since the supply branch l2 isconncted with both receptacles, these receptacles will be under a common pressure. A shut-oi! valve I5 is provided to render receptacle I inoperative by cutting off its air supply, in the event that it should become desirable to use the apparatus in some particular instance for the application of a single color only.
The colors are applied with a tool resembling in outside appearance an ordinary spray gun, but differing from the ordinary gun in that it comprises a liquid receiving chamber having a plurality of connections thereto through which the liquids from the plurality of containers are simultaneously delivered into the chamber. Except forthose structural features incident to the simultaneous handling of a plurality of liquids, the structural details of the gun may be of stand- .ard or any preferred form. It will accordingly -be unnecessary to describe in detailed particularity the well known features of the gun here shown for illustrative purposes.
Generally speaking, such a guncomprises a handle by which it may be held and manipulated, a nozzle from which liquid and compressed air are discharged, and suitable passages and valves by which the discharge of air and liquid are'controlled.
Referring to Figs. 1 and 4 illustrating a gun of this general character, the body of the gun is indicated-by It, the nozzle generally by II, the
handle by It, and the valve controlling lever or trigger by IS. The handle includes a passage 28 which is connected by a flexible conduit 21 to the air supply pipe l4 through the valve i8. This valve is so constructed that the pressure delivered to conduit 2| is greater than that delivered to.
the branch l2 supplying the receptacles I and '8, or, if preferred, two pressure reducing valves may be employed. In either event, the pressure delivered through conduit II. should be about one-third greater than that delivered to the liquid receptacles. I have found'that excellent results are obtainable by employing an air pressure of approximately thirty pounds in the liquid receptacles, and a pressure of about forty pounds in the conduit 2|, although my invention is in no wise limited to the utilization of these particular pressures. The passage 20 communicates with a second passage .22 which communicates through a port 28 with the rear portion of the bore 24. A main, normally closed, shut-oil valve 28 is provided in the passage 82, and is adapted to be opened by operation of the trigger II in a well known manner. 7
The bore 24 opens at-the rear end of the body It to receive a tube 28 which is threaded at its forward end in a restricted portion of the bore 84 in advance of a port 21, and the forward end of the tube communicates with the orifice "through which air is supplied to the chamber 28. The flow of air through the tube 28 will be remilated by a valve 8|, andthis air is delivered from the chamber 29 through the annular chamber 88 into the passage 88 in the head 84 of the nozzle, from whence it is discharged from th nozle openings 88 diagonally toward the longitudinal axis of the gun. The air from the bore 24 surrounding the tube 28 passes through the annular port 21 into the chamber 86 from which it is discharged at the nozzle through the ports 81, 88 and 88.
A receiving chamber 4|, formed bya bore in the housing It and a tubular extension 48 threaded into the bore, is provided with a discharge orifice 48 positioned coaxially with the nozzle head 84. The discharge orifice is controlled by a valve 44 carried by a stem 48 which is connected with the trigger l8. A plunger 48 and an expansion spring 41 normally urge the valve 44 into position to close the orifice 48 and hold the trigger in the position shown in Fig. 4.
The receiving chamber 4! is connected to receive liquids simultaneously from the containers I and 8. A passage 48 communicatin with the rear end of the chamber is connected by a coupling 48 with the interior of a head 5| having a laterally extending passage 52 which is connected, through a pipe 58, with a flexible conduit 54. Conduit 54 in turn is connected to the upper end of a pipe 55 extending downwardly into the container 8. A regulating valve 56 interposed in the pipe 58 aiford provision for regulating the flow of liquid from the container 8 into the receiving chamber 4|.
within the passage 48 is disposed a tube II opening at its upper end into the chamber 4| and at its lower end into a pipe 88 threaded into the head ii. A frustro-conical partition 88 into which the lower end of tube 81 is threaded affords support for the tube and separates the interior of pipe 58 from the head passage 52. A continuation of pipe 88 is connected to a flexible conduit 6i, which in turn is connected with the or partially filled with substantially immiscible liquids impregnated with pigments of the desired contrasting colors, air pressure of, for instance, thirty pounds is applied to the liquids in the containers and a higher air pressure is delivered to the spray gun through the conduit 22. The operator grasps the gun, directs the nozzle toward the surface to be coated, positions it the requisite distance from such surface, and pulls the trigger [9 to the right viewing Figs. 1 and 4. This action opens the air valve 2!, permitting a fiow of air under pressure to the nozzle and its discharge therefrom in converging jets through the orifices 85, 31, 38 and 39. Simultaneously the valve 44 is opened, permitting the discharge through the orifice 43 of a composite stream of the contrastingly colored liquids which have been received in the chamber II from the containers 1 and 3 through the tube 51 and passage 48, respectively. The issuing composite stream of substantially immiscibe contrastingly colored liquids is disseminated by the converging higher pressure air jets into droplets'of various sizes which are directed toward and deposited upon the surface to be coated. The size of the disseminated droplets will be determined to some extent by the viscosities of the liquids constituting the issuing stream. Consequently, it lsusually desirable to utilize for the carrier of the color which is to appear predominant as snots or spatters a liquid of a higher viscosity than the liquid carrying the background color. If the liquids be of substantially equal viscosity, neither color will predominate in the spots or shatters of the finish.
In Fi 3 I have attempted to crudely illustrate the spatter finish contemplated by my invention. On this fi ure, which represents a fra ment of a coated surface, the color of lesser viscosity which forms the back round is indicated by the smaller dots 64, while the predominantly larger spots or spatters of the contrasting color, and which result from the larger droplets of the liquid of higher viscosity, are indicated by reference character I.
It will be apparent from the foregoing that the co or effect or appearance of the coating may be varied by utilizing pigment carrying liquids of various viscosities and also by regulating the relative proportions of the individual liquids used through the setting of the control valves 8' and 83.
It will also be manifest that the coating produced by my method is unitary and integral as distinguished from a coating composed of two or more superposed separately applied coats and that the color presented to view at any point in my coating extends substantially through the entire thickness of the coating at such point.
While I have shown and described one practical apparatus for carrying my method into effect, it should be understood that the details thereof, as well as variations in the steps of the method, may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined in the following claims.
This application is a division of my copending application Serial No. 439.361, filed April 17, 1942, now abandoned for Spotter finish coating and method and apparatus for producing the same.
1. In a spray gun apparatus comprising a gun body defining a liquid receiving chamber and having a discharge orifice communicating with said chamber at one end thereof for discharging a liquid stream therefrom and a single inlet opening into said chamber, a liquid control valve associated with said orifice for opening and clos- .ing the same, air passages in said body for receiving air under pressure and exhausting the same 'as a plurality of atomizing iets into the path of liquid discharged from said orifice, an air control valve controlling the admission of air to said massages, and manual control means for simulc itaneously opening both of said valves; the combination of a plurality of conduits separately opening into said chamber through said single inlet opening, means for propelling a corresponding plurality of different liquids under a common hsuperatmospheric pressure into said chamber through said conduits respectively and from said chamber through said orifice as a composite stream, and means associated with said conduits for fixing at selected predetermined relative probody defining a liquid receiving chamber and having a discharge orifice communicating with said chamber at one end thereof for discharging a liquid stream therefrom and a single inlet opening into said chamber, a liquid control valve assoblated with said orifice for opening and closing the same, air passages in said body for receiving air under pressure and exhausting the same as aplurality of atomizing jets into the path of liquid discharged from said orifice, an air contiol valve controlling the admission of air to said passages. and manual control means for simul- 'taneously opening both of said valves; the combination of a pair of conduits separately opening into said chamber through said single inlet openhis, means for propelling a pair of different liquids under a common superatmospheric pressure into said chamber through said conduits respectively and from said chamber through said orifice as a composite stream, and means associated with said conduits for fixing at selected predetermined relative proportions the respective rates of fiow of liquids therethrough, said last mentioned means being independent of said manual control means for said air control valve and said liquid control valve.
3. The apparatus of claim 2 in which a first one of said conduits is connected to said single inlet opening for conducting one liquid into said chamber, and the other of said conduits extends into and through the first of said conduits for conducting a second liquid through said single inlet opening and into said chamber. HENRY B. EINBECKER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS