US 2513418 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
WM Yma W UNM Em T A W. D. MaCNElLL METHOD 0F' DYEING CONE WOUND YARN Filed Jan. 18, 1949 July 4, 1950 Mgg Nm" Patented July 4, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE METHOD 0F DYEING GONE WOUND YARN William D. MacNeill, Philadelphia, Pa.
Application January 18, 1949, Serial No. 71,538
Various methods of dyeing yarn while in this form have been proposed but none of them, so far as I am aware, has been entirely satisfactory as they frequently result in an unevenly dyed product so that when the dyed yarn is woven into fabric the color of the latter is not uniform. Nevertheless since undyed yarn Wound in this manner by the manufacturer ordinarily can be purchased more cheaply than when wound in other forms, it is commercially advantageous for the ultimate user to have yarn in conical packages dyed without rewinding and the present method which enables this to be readily done without sacrice of uniformity in the resultant product therefore marks a distinct advance in the art of yarn dyeing.
One and perhaps the principal reason why previous efforts to dye yarn while it is Wound in cone form have resulted in a non-uniformly dyed product arises from the fact that the yarn convolutions in each layer proximate the smaller end of the cone are more closely compacted than those in the same layer more nearly adjacent the larger end in consequence of which when the dye is forced through the cone in a generally radial direction the more tightly Wound con- Volutions are not so thoroughly permeated as the more loosely wound ones and are therefore less strongly dyed so that the yarn when ultimately drawn from the cone is of different shades at dierent portions of its total length. However through the medium of my invention I am able to temporarily relieve this lack of uniformity in the Icompactness of the yarn cone and thereby insure substantially equal permeation of all of its convolutions by the dye so that the finished product is of the same shade throughout its length and the cone package in substantially the same condition otherwise as prior to dyeing.
A principal object of my invention, therefore, is the provision of a novel method of dyeing yarn in the cone whereby all the yarn contained in each cone package is dyed uniformly and is thus of the same color irrespective of the position which any part of its occupies in the package and/or of Variations in the yarn tension or in its compactness in different parts thereof.
Other objects of the invention are the provision of a method of the character aforesaid which can be readilyand economically practised, is eicient 56 2 in operation and which obviates the present practice of winding into some other form before dyeing yarn which is received by the dyer in cone packages and then after dyeing rewinding it thereinto before it is delivered to the consumer.
Still other objects, purposes, advantages, novel steps and operations comprised in or comprehended by the invention are hereafter more particularly pointed out or will be apparent Yto those skilled in the art from the following de;- scription of its practice in connection with which reference will be made to the accompanying drawing designed to illustrate the prin-cipal steps and operations incident thereto.
In said drawing, which is of more or less diafgrammatic character throughout, Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a cone package of yarn on its supporting. cone, usually of paper or fibre, as delivered by the yarn manufacturer to the dyer; f
Fig. 2 is an axial longitudinal section through the yarn package as it appears after withdrawal of the supporting cone and insertion of the dyeing cone; y
Fig. 3 'is a side elevation of the package on the dyeing -cone as it appears after it has been dyed;
Fig. 4, on a much smaller scale, is a diagrammatic plan View of a centrifuging machine o r whizzer as it is termed in the art with dyed yarn on dyeing cones disposed therein in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 5 is a view generally corresponding to Fig. 3 showing the appearance of the dyed yarn on a dyeing cone after removal from the centrifuge; and
Fig. 6 is a like view of the yarn package after removal of the dyeing cone and substitution therefor of the original or a similar supporting ICOI'le.
More particularly, in the practice of the present method the paper or other supporting cone C on which the yarn package Y has been wound by the manufacturer and then delivered to the dyer is withdrawn from the package Without materially disturbing the yarn convolutions and re,- placed with a dyeing cone I of special construction as best illustrated in Fig. 2. The major part of the wall of this dyeing cone, which may approximate 778 in total length and is preferably formed of metal of a kind unaifected by dyeing iiuids, is of substantially the same angularity or taper with respect to the cone axis as the supporting cone C but adjacent its smaller end is somewhat outwardly flared for a distance of about 2%". The dyeing cone is materially longer than cone C and of course `than the package, so that when lit is fully inserted therein with the major portion of its Wall in contact with the inner surface of the package its smaller end projects beyond the corresponding end of the latter for an appreciable and to some extent critical distance as hereinafter more fully explained. The wall of the dyeing cone to within about 1ll of its larger and "/8 of its smaller end is provided with a plurality of perforations 2 for the passage of fluid and inwardly from its larger end is reinforced with a centrally perforated plate 3 desirably having a rim 3' and welded into place. At its smaller end the cone is arranged to receive a removable disc 4 likewise perforated and approximating in diameter the larger end, this disc having a central bore larger than the proximate extremity of the cone so it can be slipped on and orf the latter after its insertion in the yarn package (Fig. 2). The disc may be impressed by alternating radial grooves and ridges if desired.
The cone carrying the yarn and disc when introduced to dyeing vat is supported therein, preferably with its axis extending horizontally, in
any convenient way as, for example, on a spindle S projecting radially from a drum or header disposed in the vat, the spindle passing axially through the cone from adjacent an aperture in the header and carrying at its outer end a retainl ing nut N or other means for holding the cone in place'in the customary way and retaining the disc in the cone so that during the processing of Customariiy a conditioning fluid, if it may be so termed, is. first forced through the yarn for several minutes so as to suitably prepare it for'the dye and in accordance with the present method n during the major portion of this conditioning period the fluid is forced outwardly from the cone through the yarn instead of inwardly through it into the cone as norm-ally better results are obtained-by this procedure than if during the major portion of the conditioning the iluid is passed i-nwardly through the yarn or alternately inwardly and outwardly for approximately equal times during the entire period.
Mention `has been made of the fact that the compactness of the yarn usually increases progressively i'rorn the larger toward the smaller end of the yarn package and when the package is confined to its original dimensions while the conditioning iluid and subsequently the dye proper i are being forced through it, the yarn convolutions in those parts of the package which are the most compact are permeated to a lesser degree than those in the less compact parts with consequent lack of uniformity in the shade of the t dyed yarn. In the practice of my invention, ho-wever, when the conditioning fluid is forced through the yarn package the latter tends to elongate in the direction of its smaller end adjacent which it is normally of maximum compactness, capacity for this elongation being afforded by the material space or clearance remaining bev tween the corresponding end of the package and the end plate or disc. l automatically loosens the Whole structure of the This axial elongation yarn cone and particularly those portions there- 'of which were the -most tightly compacted, thus affording adequate opportunity for full permeation of' all the Yfibers by the conditioning and dyeing fluids while covering with yarn any perforations proximate the smaller end of the dyeing cone which initially may have been exposed, so that each portion of the entire length of yarn comprised in the package is. treated approximately the Same as all the other portions with resultant production of a uniformly dyed product.
For satisfactory operation the dyeing cone must be of such size and shape that when it is initially fully seated in the yarn package its smaller end will project an adequate distance beyond the corresponding end of the latter as otherwise non-uniform dyeing results, and I have found that this critical distance should be at least one inch with a standard package initially wound on a supporting cone approximating 61/2" in length and that With longer packages substantially the same ratio should be preserved. Usually the dyeing cones are dimensioned so that they Will likewise project slightly beyond the larger endy of the package but the extent oi this projection isA not. critical and. is desirably kept as small as possible tov economize space'in the dyeing vat` lt will thus be understood that at the conclusion of the conditioning and dyeing and subsequent removal from the dyeing vat the still wet yarn package is materially elongated axially, as indicated in Fig. 3 over its initial dimension in that .direction (Fig. 1) and is also vmore loosely constituted than is desirable for commercial usage. To. remedy these conditions the next step in the practice of my method is to place a plurality of the dyeing cones. still supporting their respective undried yarn packages, but without the retaining discs, in a centrifuge or whizceu comprising a basket B or other device adapted yto support the packages with their larger ends outwardly; (Fig` Ll) and then subject them to a centrifuging operation which not only expels .a material amount of moisture from the yarn but compacts the yarn convolutions progressively toward the larger ends of the packages until thelatter are returned substantially to their initial length- The dyeing cones carrying the yarn areY then removed from the centrifuge (Fig. 5),
witl'idrawn from the packages-and replaced with standard paper or nbre supporting cones C (Fig. 6) on which the yarnis nally dried in any appropriate way. This causes it to shrink snugly against the supporting cone. and places it in condition for delivery to the` ultimate user of the yarn.
The shrinking of the yar-n against the paper cone during the iinal drying is of extreme importance in the commercial dyeing of cone yarn in the package and obviates certain difficulties inherent in package dyeing methods heretofore attempted'v which havein'- a large measure negatived `their general acceptance. For example, when the yarn 'is dried on the cone on which it was dyed before the latter is replaced by a standard paper cone it is substantially impossible to seat the paper rcone rmly in the package of dry yarn with its inner convolutions tightly embracing the cone. vConsequently When most of the yarn has been unvvoundv from the cone by a textile machine or the like and vonly the innermost few layers of convolutions remain on the lcone,
'a number of these, or even all of them at once,
yer when as in accordance with my invention the cone has been inserted in the yarn package while the yarn was moist and the latter dried on the paper cone with the resulting shrinkage causing the cone to be tightly embraced by substantially every convolution of the yarn in the innermost as well as in all other layers thereof in the package. Yarn dyed, extracted and dried in accordance with my invention may therefore be Woven into fabric in exactly the same manner as yarn dyed by prior methods and then after drying rewound on paper cones in the customary way, a procedure which is expensive and which involves a number of operations my invention renders wholly unnecessary.
My improved process is applicable for dyeing many kinds of yarn when Wound in a coneshaped package and so avoids the customary rewinding of such yarn by the dyer, while the uniformity of shade exhibited by yarn dyed in accordance with the invention is fully equal if not superior to that exhibited by yarn dyed by any of the methods heretofore utilized in the dyeing of yarn irrespective of the manner in which it is wound while being treated with the dye.
Moreover while I have herein described the preferred manner of practising the method of my invention, I do not thereby desire or intend to specifically restrict or confine myself thereto as such variations as seem desirable or advantageous may be made in its performance within the spirit and scope of the invention as dened in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim and desire to protect by Letters Patent of the United States:
1. The method of dyeing cone wound yarn which comprises the steps of withdrawing the usual supporting cone from the yarn package, inserting into the resultant void a perforated cone of greater length than the package until the outer surface of said cone engages substantially the entire inner surface of the package and the smaller end of the cone projects appreciably beyond the corresponding end thereof, forcing fluid through the yarn and cone perforations to thereby axially elongate the yarn package while substantially uniformly permeating its individual convolutions, then subjecting the yarn While supported on the perforated cone to centrifugal force in such manner that the radial component thereof acts on the yarn from the smaller end of the package thereby to compact the yarn convolutions toward its larger end until the package is restored to substantially its original length, withdrawing the perforated cone, re-inserting a supporting cone and finally drying the yarn thereon.
2. In a method of dyeing yarn, the steps of supporting a hollow frusto-conical yarn package on and in coaxial relation with a hollow perforated cone of greater axial length than the package to extend axially beyond the smaller end thereof, forcing a fluid generally radialli7 through the Cone and package to thereby expand the latter axially of the cone, then subjecting the yarn to the action of a dyeing fluid, thereafter centrifuging the yarn packing on the cone while maintaining its smaller end radially inward from its larger end and restraining the latter to thereby compact the package axially substantially to its original length, and finally drying the yarn with the inner convolutions of the package in snug engagement with a supporting cone other than said perforated cone to thereby shrink the yarn tightly about the supporting cone.
3. In a method of dyeing yarn, the steps of supporting a hollow frusto-conical yarn package on and in coaxial relation with a hollow perforated cone of greater axial length than the package to extend axially beyond the smaller end thereof, forcing a fluid generally radially through the cone and package to thereby expand the latter axially of the cone,` then subjecting the yarn to the action of a dyeing fluid, thereafter centrifuging the yarn package on the cone while maintaining its smaller end radially inward from its larger end and restraining the latter to thereby compact the package axially substantially to its original length, while the yarn is still moist replacing the perforated cone with a supporting cone, and dryingthe yarn on the latter to thereby shrink the yarn into tightly thereby extract from the yarn a major part of the dye fluid carried thereby and compact the package to substantially its original dimensions, then while the yarn is still moist removing the perforated cone, inserting in the package a standard supporting cone, and finally drying the yarn thereon to thereby shrink it into tightly embracing relation therewith.
WILLIAM D. MACNEILL.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 266,494 Maybury Oct. 24, 1882 2,091,282 I-Iuttinger Aug. 31, 1937 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 267,017 Italy Aug. 22, 1929