US 2513514 A
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A. PISTON AND CRANKSHAFT CONNECTING MEANS July4', l1950 R. PoAGE FOR INTERNAL-coMBUsTIoN ENGINES 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed oct. 8, 1945 305e r'ZZPoagei Attorneys July 4, 195o y R. A. PoAGE 2,513,514 PISTON AND CRANKSHAFT CONNECTING MEANS FOR INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Oct. 8, 19.45 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Sme/WM 50- Roelqaye July 4, 1950 R. A. PoAGE 2,513,514
PISTON AND CRANKSHAFT CONNECTING MEANS l FOR INTERNAL-CQMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Oct. 8, 1945 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 aman Patented July 4, 1950 UNITED STAT PISTON AND CRANKSHAFT CONNECTING MEANS FOR INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES Robert A. image, Rails county, Mo.l Application October 8, 1945, Serial No. 621,130 b4 claims. (o1. 'M -5c) This present invention relates to Diesel engines which complete their cycle in two piston strokes; One of the objects of the invention is the design f an internal combustion engine including cylinders disposed on both sides of the crank shaft and pistons secured to one another and therefore moving in unison. Both pistons are stopped and started by a cushion of air that requires compressing every time the pistons require stopping and starting. In the conventional connecting-rod engine the high pistonvelocity which is desirable as it gives distance in a short time. reaches a critical value which becomes the source of loss of power due to the mechanical stresses involved in stopping and starting the pistons. The stopping and starting of the pistons is done by the crankshaft and accounts for a loss of 50% in the two-stroke cycle and 75% in the four-stroke cycle engine.
Near the completion of a compression stroke the air pressure rises rapidly and my pistons decelerate at an increasing rate at this time, thereby closely matching piston deceleration to force available to cause same. l
Another object of the invention is the provision of an engine the pistons of which are operated in pairs and the crank shaft of which is short and rigid. The crank webs are -each formed into a flywheel accommodating a removable crank pin and roller and counter balanced. The crank pin is keyed and locked in the crank webs and together with a crosstie makes the crank construction sturdy. Furthermore the web crosstie acts as an emergency piston stop in the event of loss of compression.
Another and primary object of the invention is the construction of an engine the pistons of which hesitate at both the top and bottom of stroke. The duration of the hesitation is to be determined by the designer. The main purpose is to obtain `a higher rate of acceleration and deceleration near the beginning and end of a stroke. This is accomplished by permitting the :crank arm to get well past the center line of cylinder bore before the piston gives way from the top and after the piston at the bottom ends its stroke. Thus higher acceleration from the top is obtained while the combustion pressure is highest, furthermore, the entire stroke consumes less time and crank shaft rotation. This results in more power.
The injection should be so timed as to obtain flame spread simultaneous with the piston giving way from the top. The more rapidly the piston gives Way at this time, the shorter is the timeA during which the cylinder walls areexposed to the extremely high temperatures of the flames;` -I-Ieat thus saved early in the stroke will give'greater pressure throughout the stroke.
The scavenging ports, uncovered by the pistons at the bottom of their strokes, are opened quickly to the fullest extent and remain open during the hesitation of the pistons. This permits improved scavenging with shallower ports that use up a lesser fraction of the 4power stroke as the exhaust valves may be opened later in the power stroke.
Piston hesitation at the top of the stroke gives a stabilized, high compression temperature prior to the injection of fuel; thus the-ignition delay period is shortened, the accumulation of fuel reduced, detonation prevented and the proper timing of the injection at various speeds is simplied.
With these and other objectsin View the invention resides in the novelty of construction, combination and arrangement of parts which will be khereinafter specifically described and claimed in the appended claims.
For a full understanding of the invention reference is had to the accompanying drawings in which: v
Figure 1 is a central longitudinal section of the intermediate part of the engine, the blower, injection pump and cylinder heads being shown in side view;
Figure 2 is a horizontal section of some parts, other parts being shown in plan view;
Figure 3 is a vertical detail section, showing the partsintheir position at the beginning of the power stroke; v
Figure 4 is a vertical detail section, showing the partsl in mid-stroke position;
Figure 5 is a Adetail side elevation of the crank;
Figure 6 is a plan View of the crank shaft;
Figure 7 is a vertical detail section on line 1 1 of Fig. 2;
Figure 8 is a view of the inner side of a section of the track member.
In the'drawing in which like characters of reierence designate like or similar parts, numeral 2 denotes each of four fiat feet which are fas- .tened to `a floor or other foundation by bolts 3 and support each a web-like vertical frame portion 4. From the lateral edges of the flat bottom 5 of a crank case 6 extend upwardly and outwardly side walls 1 each integral with or connected to a pair of the frame portions. The up- .per ends of the walls 'l merge into vertical side walls 8 each of which hasA a relatively large Cir-1 cular opening registering with the other opening cure the' ange and cylinder to the VVertical side l The section of each cyl-,4,
walls of the crank case. inder outwardly of the flange consists of an inner and outer shell providing an annuiar space il3in Y which cooling water can circulateandconnected on its lower side and near the flange to an inlet pipe I4 and on its upper side and near the outer end of the cylinder head I5 to an outlet pipe I6.
On the front side of eithencylinderiheadfis an air cell retainer I1 and the outermost end portion of each cylinder head is formed by 'a' valve cover I8 which contains a conventional rocker arm assembly I@ operated'lbya--valve rod to be described. y
-Theforward'eendrof thelfvalve cover is 'conwardlyandconnected at the inner end -tov-aihousing'23vwhi'ch isattached by bolts 24 to'thef front wallf'25 of the crank case. VThroughv eithery tube extends -a valve I-pushrod126,` thev inner Vvand? forl ward end 4offwhich is formed /i-n-to aball-f21. ffThe sameis received in aspherical socketiformedfin the-outer end `of a cylindrical. carnffollower 28 which is slidably disposed in a cylindrical'holiow in the housing and the headedinner-=end of which bears 4against oneI curved-sidepf -a cylindrical cam -disctIL The same is eccentrically. mounted upon a carn-fshaft liI whichlis journaledninan openingfintheAv front wall 32--of the housinggan'd surrounded by apack-ing 33 in the inner enlarged portion of the opening. The rear end of the cam shaft is -securedto or integral with the central p piston of Figs-1, y2.
The injection pump 38 is connected1byafpipe 43 to an--injector-#44(Fig.'f2).
The crankshaft --gear *described is secured to the frontend-ofthe crank shaft 45 the aligned portions of whichd are -journ'aledf'in :bearings Q11. Each bearing is mounted in anfapertureiformed in the outwardly land .inwardly enlarged central portion 43 of the-frontfwall or rear vwallf-f25-of the crankcase. Each'bearing is provided on `its inner side with-an oil groovell. Theuoilv groove-of the front bear-ing of f the crank shaft communicates with the forward end of an oil conduit 52 which extends through the front cylindrical portion,=the crank portion of the shaft, throughfonel half .of the crank pinvstill f to --be described, zand then radially throughthe crank pin to rollerbearings still to 1 be ldescribed. f-An annular #housing I* 54 surrounds theportion of 4thefcrank .'shaftproj ecting 'beyond i the Trearv wall of fithercrankcase and is attachedy to such-"rear -wallPby bolts and retainsra` packing l5'I.
-The inner ends -ofthe cylindrical-aligned vvportions of the crank Vshaft are each'integral.wi.th the.: counterbalanced v1Web-like l.wheel 160 :of: cast steel. :Eachwvheel iis: provided with an Ieccentric split opening 62 in which one end of a crank pin 63 is held by a key 64. These openings are located diametrally opposite to the weighted portion 65 of the wheel and communicate each with a narrow radial slot B'I which may be narrowed by tightening a bolt 69. The crank pin is surrounded by a hollow ring I0 containing pairs of conical .rollersi'lfwhichare lubricated by oil conducted vby'the'oil conduit 52 described (Fig. 2). Each I,pair of rollers are so arranged that the smaller `ends are adjacent to one another. Inwardly of `the' crank'ipin and roller bearing is a web cross- .tie .1.4. of heart-shaped cross section which connects the melbi-like wheels. This crosstie has a fragmentary cylindrical surface concentric to the vlongitudinal axis of the crank pin and a pair of vintersectingconvex surfaces 'I6 and acts as an emergency piston stop in the event of loss of compression.
The roller bearing ring rotates within a track meinberll'flrwhich denes ancopening land comprisestwosymmetrical halves fbolted together by bolts 19. 'LThe sameare insertedin holes gil. (Fig. 8). Eachfhalfeconsistszof adiangeel extending laterally :ofr'the rtrack opening and .provided `atthe upper` and lower `ends .withe'parallel abutting por.- tions through whic'hthezbolts extend. The openingiislbounde'dat the :top and bottom vby a semicylindricalsurfaoeizseitherof .which merges at thelflower-ror.npper;=ends into Yrelatively short at-surfaces'.f83. ":Thesame terminate abruptly `at their upperor lower. ends .and form .a` blunt cornerlwith `'theiends of .ay .pair of vopposed shallow concave surfacesil (Figs..1,;3, 4)
''Theroller bearingengagingilange Aof either half 'of the :track vmember `is connected at its outer'-=side by a. web '.851'to .1a. piston :85 .and reinforced by-:an .intermediate .vertically disposed flange 81. Each ,piston has ,rings 88 V'nearits outer-lend.
iIii-1e preceedingdescription n:applies to :both lfialves-Yof-y the symmetrical engine 1 structure.
-iEigure-B-'shows the left hand piston inzthe position at the beginning 4ofthec powerv stroke. The cra-nk rollerv ring contacts the upper endof. the left-hands-hallow concave portion'idiand isabout to engage the -left-handllower at Surfaceg. Thecrank armi is='wel-ll past the centerline of: .the cylinder bore and the f hesitation of v the piston has ende'd. -`At= the end' of they impending r'stroke the crank arm will occupy a positiondiametrally oppositev of that-shown in-Figs 3.
*Figurei'showi the' parts in the position ofthe midstroke.
It will sbe understood'thats'thedetailsof :construction may be varied wit-hout departing! from the' spiritor'scope'of` theI invention -as defined in theY appended claims. l
i What'claim" and desire'v to Aprotect-'by Letters Patentis: V
`L A piston and crankshaft connecting `means foryan internal'combustion engine comprising'an elongated-'yoke adapted to be connected to `the adjacent `ends :oftwoa-cpposed lreci-procatin-g pistons and .forming :a rigid "connection therebetween, said yoke beingdisposedwithitsr longitun dinal laxis'substantially*at aY right-angle to the axis-ofthepistons and having-'an elongatedopening extending iengthwise thereof Vand bound by complementary, substantially semi-'circular end surfaces, complementary -elong`ated, `internally concave "intermediate surfaces @and complementaryl opposed substantially lflat surfaces' between saiderid-:.suriaces and said .intermediatesurfaoes a'shafthavingjavportion .extendingthroughnnd movable in the yoke opening at a right angle to the axis of the pistons, a pair of disks xed to the shalt in spaced parallel relationship and disposed one on each side of the yoke, and a crank pin extending between the disks and connected thereto eccentrically of the shaft, said crank pin extending through the yoke opening and being disposed for movement therein to engage each of said yoke surfaces during each revolution of the shaft, the shaft portion disposed between the disks being recessed to provide an outer concave portion disposed adjacent the crank pin and an inner portion terminating adjacent the axis of the shaft and defined by corresponding convex inwardly merging portions, said shaft portion being in radial alignment with the crank pin to provide a piston stop.
2. A piston and crank shaft connecting means as in claim 1, the distance between the inner edge of said shaft portion and the outer part of the crank pin being only slightly less than the width of the Widest, intermediate part of the yoke opening.
3. A piston and crank shaft connecting means as in claim 1, said disks being counter-balanced with respect to the crank pin to form a flywheel.
4. A piston and crank shaft connecting means as in claim 1, said yoke being formed of detachably connected corresponding symmetrical halves each adapted to be formed integral with one of the pistons.
ROBERT A. POAGE.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent: f
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 399,593 Worth Mar. 12, 1889 956,881 Bonnett May 3, 1910 981,995 Godlove et al Jan. 17, 1911 1,045,505 Braver Nov. 26, 1912 1,089,645 Jenkins Mar. 10, 1914 1,125,486 Dawson Jan. 19, 1915 1,443,282 Scott Jan. 23, 1923 1,845,702' Evinrude Feb. 16, 1932 2,076,892 Irgens Apr. 13, 1937 2,229,545 Beckstrom Jan. 21, 1941 2,259,196 Beckstrom Oct. 14, 1941 2,405,016 Cook July 30, 1946 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 22,694 Great Britain of 1902