US 2516419 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 1950 J. A. REYNIERS 2,516,419
BIOLOGICAL APPARATUS Filed Nov. 10, 1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENT OR. JAMES ,4. EfY/V/EES.
BY mam ATTOE/VE Y8.
July 25, 1950 J.IA. REYNIERS 2,515,419
BIOLOGICAL APPARATUS Filed Nov. 10, 1944 3 Sheets-Shem 2 FIG.5.
55 24 5/ 54 50 Z5 Z2 Z7 JAMES A. E: r/v/aes.
BY $7W 'July 25, 1950 J. A. REYNIERS 2,516,419
BIOLOGICAL APPARATUS Filed Nov. 10, 1944 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 7 s 0 JAMES A ZffN/EQS. 93 w g Z5 INVENTOR.
72 2 BY my /W A TTOENE Y5.
Electric outlets as for lights 19, and service connections for steam, water and gas and the like, may be provided in chamber ID.
A transfer unit or clave 20, best illustrated in Figs. 1 and 3, may be connected with the chamber 10. This unit preferably comprises a cylinder 2| surrounded by a water jacket 22, which has a tight fit in an opening in the vertical wall ofch'amber l0. Any suitable means, such as fittings 23 which may include sealing gaskets 24, insure a substantially air-tight fit between casing l3 and cylinder 2I22. Opposite ends'of cylinder 2| are provided with sealing closures 25. each mounted on a threaded shaft 26 journaled in a lever 21 pivoted at 28 to a lug or'ear: 29 projecting from the cylinder. at 3| to the cylinder is adaptedforreleasable engagement with the free end of lever 21. Conduits 32 communicate with the water jacket around cylinder 2| to supply water for cooling purposes,
and conduit 33 communicates with the interior of cylinder 2| to supply steam for steriliiing purposes.
A circumferential flange 34 projects from cylinder 2 l22 intermediate-its ends for sealed connection, by means of an adapter ring 35 and suitable cooperating sealing gaskets, with one 'endof a. transfer chamber 36. -"The transfer chamber preferably comprises'a cylindrical body 31 having end flanges 38 to which adapter ring: 35 and'end closure plate39 are secured in sealed relation. Leg 40 support unit 36. The body 31- preferably has a top opening surrounded by anannular fitting which has a sealed connection withthe body. Fitting 4| mounts a transparent closure 42 with a sealed fit so that the interiorofchamber 36 may be viewed. Two'or-rnore'openings are formed at the sides of body 31, and are encircled by rings 43 having a sealed connectionwith the body. The rings 43 mount the open ends of long rubber'gloves M with a sealed removable connection to provide access of "the' hand's and ar'ms of an operator for manipulating a biological specimen within chamber 36 without breaking the seal of said chamber. 'Steamconnections, as L45, and air connections, as 46; serve respectively 'for'sterilizing chamber 36 and for circulatinglzfresh filtered'air in'saidchamber. Y e
The transfer unit or 'clave"20--36 serves as means for introducing specimens into the chamand 36 have been operatively connected to chamher I!) and to a receiving or treating chamber of any suitable type, for example, of anyof the types illustrated in my prior Patent No. 2,244,082, and also assuming that all units so connected have been sterilized by steam or other-means, the-following sequence of operations is practiced: 010- sure 25 within chamber is opened and the specimen is placed in cylinder '2l, followed'-by resealing of said closure. An'operator "outside of chamber l0 then reachesinto chamber 36 by means of gloves 44 to manipulate-screw 26 and open the outer closure 25 or unit 20, and remove the specimen from unit 2!) into chamber 36a- The last named closure 25 can then be re-sealed. If chamber 36 constitutes a treatment chamberor operating chamber, the specimen is treated therein and then returned into chamber H] by a reverse sequence. Alternatively, if other units are connected to chamber 36, a similar sequence is followed until the specimen has been transferred shown) which is connected with the transfer unit,
and delivered through the latter to chamber in.
At another part of chamber H! a second transfer unit 56 is connected in communication with chamber 10. This unit may be of the type shown A retainer 30 pivoted in Fig.4. A cylindrical body 5| is supported on legs 52 and has steam lines 53 connected therewith. A reduced outer jacketed cylinder 54 is mounted at each end of body 5|, as by means of a circumferential adapter flange 55, having a sealed connection with said body. A sealing closure 56 adjustably mounted on a lever 51 by means'ofa screw threaded shaft 58 seals the outer end of each cylinder 54. .Lever 51 is piv- -oted at 59 and is-releasab1y engagedwith a retainer 60. One ofthe cylinders 54 has a sealed ffit in an opening in the wall of chamber I0,
whereby one closure 56 is within the chamber 15 and the other is outside of said chamber;
Transfer unit or clave provides convenient means for introducing food, small instruments, apparatus and'the like into chamber Ill, andt-for removingitems from thechamber. The items are introduced into chamber 5 I throughthe outer cylinder 53 whose closure 56 is then re-sealed. Steam is then admitted into 'chamberliltoeffectively sterilize the chamber and its contents, including theitems introduced as above mentioned. Thereupon the inner closure 56 maybe opened and the food or' other items"removed through inner cylinder 54 which is-againresealed." 3 t Within chamber Ill are arrangeda plurality .of cages or other receiversor retainers 6| for the biological specimens. w r f f ()ne of the primary features of this invention is the means provided for entry ofan operator into the chamber, and movement of the operator freely within the chamber, without destroying the controlled condition therein. This means ;is best illustrated at the left in Fig. 1. An access chamber adjoins chamber I0 and is of a construction adapted to be rendered liquid-tight and air tight. "Chamber 65 is of a size to permit a man to enter and having a limited movement therein. A dome-like closure 66 seals an access opening at its top, and its bottom preferably slopes centrally downwardly at 6! for drainage purposes A perforated grate 68 islocated therein at approximately the same level-as floor llof chamber l 6. The wall l2'which separates chambers I0 and'65 has an access opening 69,which is normally closed by a door l0 suitably mounted on the wall and constructed to provide a liquid and air seal when closed and locked."v 2;.
Below the chamber 35 is located a liquid ta H preferably having the same. cubic capacity as the chamber 65 and cooperating therewith to dc:- fine a liquid trap. A restricted port or neck :12
connects said chamber and ..tank,'and aliquid seal or valve 73 is provided to seal said chamber from said tank. Valve operating means It-pro- 'ject-from valve 13 to 'andinto chamber 6,5,1 as
through grate 68. Aconduit115 is connected ,at one end with the bottom of tank Hand at its opposite end with the: upper portion of chamber 65. Ahsuitable liquid pump 161s. interposed in said anionic aot dili nwalne :lil also interposed inasa o nonduit and :is; provided witheoneratins means amending into :and =.onerab1e from withinichamillelrififi- 1 i ea rfio duit :liD .has .a sealed connection .With :an openin :in cover 56 for chamber 165.- Gonduit l :ba :a Maine :131! @tberei-n and connects with a branch fitting 81. An air conduitte is porgneotefl to fitting 3B2 :andiszcontrolled by valve 84. Conduit 83 may be connected to an air filter 85. Check valves 8e are connected with fitting 82.
. eAnair supply ,1ine.81 may lead directly .into chamber 65 at a sealed connection therewith. An elongated ,fiexibleair hose 85 Provides a connection between line 131 and a diving'pr imperviousgmotective cover-all suit .89, or to ardivi'ng helmet. :Suit .orhelmet .89. is connected .to; atmosplrereiby a second flexible tubefor exhaust (of eziri'therefrom.
Access to the device is obtained as follows: First, it is assumed that chamber is is operatively conditioned and connected to Service lines for the maintenance and practice of a germ-free technique, and that it and the transfer units 29, 36 and 50 connected therewith are sterile and sealed. To gain access, an operator enters chamber 65, dons the diving suit or helmet B9, closes and seals closure 66 and valve 13, and opens valve 11. Tank H contains a germicidal solution which is pumped therefrom by pump 16 and into the chamber 65. The operator controls the pump and the valve, and the germicidal solution is permitted to completely fill chamber 65, forcing air therefrom through conduit Bil and connected fittings for discharge through check valvesfl3, it being understood that valve 84- is closed. This sterilizes the chamber 65, the diving suit 89, tubing 88 and connected air supply tubing. Valve I6 is then closed, pump 16 is stopped and the valve 13 is opened to permit the germicidal solution to drain back into tank 1!. The operator then opens closure Hi and enters the chamber ID to work therein, wearing the diving suit or helmet continuously so that no contact or air borne vectors of infection between operator and specimens are permitted. The manner in which food and other items needed by the operator for his work are introduced into the chamber ill without destroying the desired germ-free condition, and the manner in which specimens may be admitted to and removed from chamber in, has been mentioned above. Air supply tubing 88 for the diving apparatus is long enough to permit the operator to move freely to all parts of chamber IE3. When the operator has completed his work, he re-enters chamber 65, seals closure 1i), removes the diving apparatus 89 and opens closure 66 so that he may leave the apparatus.
Where the apparatus is used for work with biological specimens in a germ-laden environment, the pressure in chamber in is maintained slightly below atmospheric pressure. The use of the apparatus is substantially the same as mentioned above, except that the filling of the chamber 65 with the germicidal solution is not required until the operator has completed his work in chamber It, protected against the germ laden condition by the diving apparatus. In this instance, the germicidal solution is used to prevent both air borne transfer of germs to atmosphere when the seal '56 of chamber 65 is broken, and transfer by contact by the operator when he leaves the apparatus.
The embodiment of the device illustrated in Figs. and 6 is constructed similarly to that deiii scribed above, and alike inartsxzbear :the same inciterence :nnmerails. :nrimaryzdifierenceris ithat the chamber :ttl ziS'rQl/Hndf-iCal'M/tith.itS:aXis":h01lizontal. lfihamberzli Siis connected at cone .aendsof chamber. .110 :gfior communication .cat openinesr- 69 normally -=rsea1ed ijby :closure. .10.: Chamber :itlii is associated "with re germicidal- :tan'k. a r supply :lines, divine apparatus, and :liquid- :transfer uneans, as'in the Fig. :1 embodiment. --E|3ransier unit .or .C1}3.V!B:5Zifl,i36 :;=is connected:v at :the a opposite rendiofzchamber 111. flood clave unit 151 isrconmected ata aside ofvschamber i0. Storagelcages 26H .iextendslongitudinally ,nfrchamber will. sele- -va:tedafioor;9;tluis "preferably mounted inzztheichamibersl a-ferazccnvenience. :Skirtsrti depending from the outer sid-e :Lwalls i114 ;cooperate with :a :bottom panel 92 to provide chambers 93 which mayzhouse tubinglservicesleads;. motors,ipumps ,andcthe like, and "which :ma-y :conta'in insulation material.
1. Biological apparatus comprising a sealed specimen chamber, means for controlling the environment in said chamber, a sealed access chamber adjoining said specimen chamber, a pair of releasable closures in said access chamber, one of said closures separating said chambers, diving apparatus connected at said access chamber and adapted to be worn by a person while in said specimen chamber and said access chamber, and means for filling said access chamber with germicidal solution and then draining the same to sterilize the same and it contents and the exterior of said diving apparatus.
2. Biological apparatus comprising a normally sealed specimen chamber having a controlled environment, a liquid trap including upper and lower chambers connected by a valved drain, said upper chamber having an access opening and being connected with said specimen chamber by a normally sealed opening, a closure for said access opening, and means for transferring liquid from said lower trap chamber to fill said upper trap chamber.
3. Biological apparatus comprising a normally sealed specimen chamber having a controlled environment, a liquid trap including upper and lower chambers connected by a valved drain, said upper chamber having an access opening and being connected with said specimen chamber by a normally sealed opening, a closure for said access opening, and means for transferring liquid from said lower trap chamber to fill said upper trap chamber, an air filter and a conduit connecting said filter with an opening in said access closure.
4. Biological apparatus comprising anormally sealed specimen chamber having a controlled environment, a liquid trap including upper and lower chambers connected by a valved drain, said upper chamber having an access opening and being connected with said specimen chamber by a normally sealed opening, a closure for said access opening, and means for transferring liquid from said lower trap chamber to fill said upper trap chamber, an air line connected with said access closure and including a filter, and a check valve in said line between said closure and filter to permit discharge of air from said line therethrough.
5. Biological apparatus comprising a normally sealed specimen chamber having a controlled environment, a liquid trap having a portion connected with said chamber and normally separated therefrom by a sealed closure and a portion containing a germicide, a liquid and air tight flexible garment adapted to completely encase a person, means extending into said trap for sup- 7 plying air to said garment. means for transferring said germicide to and from said first trap chamber, and means operable by a person wearing said Egarment for controlling said transfermeans. v
6. Access means for biological apparatus containing specimens in a controlled environment, comprising superimposed communicating tanks, the upper tank having an access opening sealed by a releasable closure and an opening leading to said apparatus and sealed by a releasable closure, valve means interposed between said tanks and havinga controller Within the upper tank, a conduit connecting said tanks, 9, pump in said conduit and having a controller within the upper tank and diving apparatus connected with ran elongated flexible air line entering said upper tank.
7. Biological apparatus comprising a normally sealed specimen chamber having a controlled environment, an access chamber adapted to be sealed and admitting an attendant ina diving-ap paratus. said access chamber being connected of said access chamber for temporarily flooding and then draining the same with a germicide for sterilizing purposes.
. JAMES A. REYNIERS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent: UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,033,357 Riker Mar. 10, 1936 2,185,711 Reyniers Jam- 2, 1940 Reyniers .June 3, i941