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Publication numberUS2516438 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 25, 1950
Filing dateMay 26, 1947
Priority dateMay 26, 1947
Publication numberUS 2516438 A, US 2516438A, US-A-2516438, US2516438 A, US2516438A
InventorsWheeler Norton L
Original AssigneeWheeler Norton L
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Dental pulp capping preparation
US 2516438 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

standing the above reasons for failure.

Patented July 25, 1950 U N I T E D S TA S YDENTAL PULP CAPPINGPREPARETION NortonL. Wheelen-Tulsa, Okla.

N 0 Drawing. ApplicationMay 26,:1917, Serial Noi7-50,631

19 Claims. 1

This invention relates to a dentalpulp capping preparation to be usedin-the art-of dentistry; and more-particularly to a new combination of medicinal agents and chemicals for forming a dental pulp capping agent and/or sedative cement having for its purpose a more successful capping and preserving of dental .pulp in the filling of'cavities in the teeth.

This application is filed as a continuation in part of my copending application filed'Degem gfl tralize ithe':acid iofzacid-forming bacteria and the ber 17, 1943, serial No. 514,655 newabar'lde n Dental pulp capping has long beenpractic to preserve the dental pulp closely-approached or exposed in dental operative proced in the capping processesheretoiore -em51 ae* ,p

of-zinc oxide or other-metallic oxides and oil of cloves or eugenol were inserted-within the tooth over the exposed ulp. ,Few, =if 'any of. these cements or capping agents can -be used without attendant disadvantages o tation on tooth structure due to heat gener' fwhile hardening and/or pressure on the den tissue 'For example, the mixture of zinc oxide and oil of clovesor eugenol is a combination which must be mixed so thick that the insertion within the tooth many times causes pressure on the dental pulp,,producing ache, often causing the loss of the dental pulp and necessitating the extraction of the tooth. Zinc oxide and eugenol mixture is very slow in its setting or hardening, taking many minutes to hours to reach its maximum hardness, during which time the patient can and does chew upon the tooth under anaesthesia, forcing the still soft material into the pulp canal with the ossibility of destroying the pulp by a second method. Because of the slow reaction between these materials, the permanent filling cannot be immediately inserted in thetooth lest the-pulp capper is forced into or upon the pulp, thus necessitating return of the patient for another sitting for final filling of the tooth, causing a lossof time both to the dentist and the patient.

Possibly 40% of exposed dental pulpsare saved by the useof zinc oxide andeugenol, notwith- It would :be of value and-'advantageito the'dentist and. patient if: dental pulp capping preparation could he made to permit the insertion of the material in' the tooth: over the Y. dental pulp without-presbacteriatliemselvespands by the addition 01 other t hemicals itiisipossible toiprepare:a pulpcapping rmatemal that mayrbevmixedrto a very thin conwistencyrcausing the detrimental: pressure I on the 5; dental :pulp -=in Tithe insertion operation. By

ment or capping agent' ,1forexample} ziiixtiiYe emeansmfamyiparticularachemical'mixture and obvious variations thereof the; pulp :cappingmaterialwill set-oriharden in.-one to four-minutes .or.moreaszdesired andiwhen setit is suificiently strong, hardand inflexibletto support most den- :tal .fillingsean'd tmsufficiently -withstandcompressionor bend ingior on into the: dental pulp in the further-:filling-operation, thereby reducing the timeand'number ofi sittingsnecessaryto the filling .of. the toothdn-question; saving time for the dentistandr-patient. I-have-also found that .=:materials may the: introduced lintO -the mixture tor stimulate the: formation of normal secondary Identinedn-the dental pulp canal, thus restoring :the -tcoth-to w conditionzapproachingitsnonmal condition and materials to give the mixture proper ooler and -rad iopacity.

":since -:there --are-imanyi attendant advantages in a nnickrsetting. pulp-reappir1g-:materia1, I; prefer 35 to-provide a'mixture of dry: chemicals in the form ofi amow der.and othenschemicals -in the form of 4 e I liquidlwhich may be; proportioned for mixing 'COYpTOV-iedB the ecnsistency'desired. The powder iportion-iof the formula; made intaccordance with '40 the invention contains in itslpreferrediorm as rune. aprincipal ingredient: ;:an :alkaline material zsucheasm :mtallicvltYdroadde to.:1produce the alkatmityinecessary torneutralize the acid of acidfomiirggbacteriawnd the bacteria themselves. 45 Theerred allcallneimaterlal which .may zrb suitably' usedl ini -therrnew mapping imatervial calcium hydroxide, and tests prove that calcium hydroxide mixed with liquidieugenolvor-guaiacol 1 produces a- :rapid Jsettin'g cement of sufiicient hardness to withstand pressures necessary incinserting permanent fillings in teeth. Therefore, the principal ingredients of the liquid portion of the capping preparation formula are preferably eugenol or guaiacol or mixtures of both. Whereas a mixture of calcium hydroxide and eugenol or guaiacol, or both eugenol and guaiacol, may be used successfully to cap the dental pulp when atmospheric conditions are particularly favorable, that is, when the relative humidity is very low, it has been found favorable to add various quantities of linseed oil to the guaiacol or eugenol for the reason herein set forth.

Calcium hydroxide and eugenol when used for medically capping the exposed dental pulp under atmospheric conditions with himidities varying from 40 to '70 percent, have a very rapid chemical reaction. These same chemicals when used under atmospheric conditions with humidities of to 30 percent do not react rapidly and can be used unmodified to successfully cap the exposed pulp, offering ample time to mix and insert the capping material into the tooth, this without generation of noticeable heat. No agent such as linseed or any other oil is necessary in the mix-' ture during periods of low humidities.

Mixtures of calcium hydroxide and eugenol or guaiacol alone, and those of calcium hydroxide, eugenol and about 24 percent of linseed oil, and guaiacol and 35 percent of linseed oil, under conditions of low humidity set with about the same speed, requiring more than. an hour to see setting change in any such mixture.

Therefore, apparently linseed oil has little or nothing to do with the chemical reaction of calcium hydroxide and eugenol or guaiacol, and in no way retards the chemical action of these chemicals directly. The function of the oil is to prevent the action of atmospheric moisture from attacking the liquid mixture, this moisture being the agent that causes rapid setting reaction.

The action of the linseed oil is demonstrated by the following test:

Through a rubber diaphragm and within a mixing receptacle, the air of which was quite completely dried by passing compressed air first through a container of calcium chloride and then through colloidal silicon dioxide, three similar mixes of pulp capping materials were made. One contained only calcium hydroxide and eugenol; another contained 23 percent of linseed oil in the eugenol and calcium hydroxide; the third contained guaiacol and 35 percent of linseed oil and calcium hydroxide. After contacting said mixtures in the drying receptacle for a period of sixty minutes no visible setting had occurred in any mix.

All mixes were removed simultaneously into a room in which the humidity was 60 percent. Within two minutes the material containing no linseed oil showed thickening signs of setting. In five minutes this material was of thick creamy nature. In nine minutes this material was of thick putty consistency. Only at the end of nine minutes was visible change noticed in the mixtures containing the linseed oil.

This test shows that linseed oil does not inhibit the setting of the calcium hydroxide and eugenol or guaiacol per se, but shows definitely that it inhibits or prevents to a necessary degree the attack of atmospheric moisture on the fresh liquid mixture of calcium hydroxide and eugenol or guaiacol.

Other known oils, for an example motor oil, olive oil, hydrogenated vegetable oil, tung oil, or poppy seed oil may be, used in the eugenol or guaiacol, and the speed of set is slowed thereby, but the set mixture is more crumbly and more easily fractured than when linseed oil is used. Therefore the addition of linseed oil, and it has been found that either boiled or raw oil may be used, has another specific function. When this oil is used with guaiacol or eugenol and calcium hydroxide the set mixture is much harder than with said other named oils. When linseed oil is used with eugenol or guaiacol the set hardened mixture is only slightly to no softer than when no linseed oil is used, a very vital result for a successful pulp capping material.

It is understood that sufiicient linseed oil has not been added to the eugenol or guaiacol to prevent the attack of the moisture vapor on the liquid mixture placed in the mouth to prevent proper setting therein, nor will the amount herein stated prevent rapid setting in relative humidities close to 100 percent.

It has been found that suitable liquids to be used with calcium hydroxide alone or with its modifying chemicals are as follows: Eugenol 100 parts, linseed oil 15 to 30 parts; guaiacol 100 parts, linseed oil 25 to 50 parts. Eugenol 1 to 100 parts, guaiacol 100 to 1 parts, linseed oil 15 to 50 parts, said parts of the liquid components being volume. It is understood that these proportions may be varied depending upon atmospheric condition. The quantities of linseed oil as stated sufficiently prevent the attack of atmospheric moisture of areas of average relative humidity, that the liquid mix may be carried to the tooth with ample time, but when so placed the mixture will set hard in from one to four minutes, a very valuable characteristic in pulp capping agents.

A small quantity of powdered calcium phosphate, preferably 1 to 10 parts by weight to 100 parts by weight of calcium hydroxide, is desirable in the capping agent as the calcium phosphate being essentially the same composition as dentine may act as a splint or stimulant for the formation of secondary dentine in the pulp canal by the same rinciples by which bone splints are used in bone surgery to stimulate the growth of bones. Although it is desirable to incorporate small amounts of calcium phosphate in the powder it is not essential and successful cappings are possible without it.

Calcium hydroxide, eugenol and linseed all set to a dark greenish brown color. It is usually desirable to obtain a hard set capping material approximately the color of natural teeth. Therefore, the color of the capping material is preferably controlled by incorporating in certain formulae a suitable amount of a, white agent. Such control agent should provide beneficial results as regards color without great detrimental effects on the setting properties and hardness of the capping material or cement. I have found that titanium dioxide produces very good results with eugenol, linseed oil and calcium hydroxide mixtures. However, I prefer to add a small quantity of yellow ochre to provide a more perfect tooth tint and to make the dry powder visibly different in color than other capping powders used in the dental ofiice. By the addition of these coloring agents the color characteristics of the capping material are susceptible to close control. In general, I have found that from nine (9) to fifteen (15) parts by weight of titanium dioxide and 1 s to 1 part by weight of ochre (yellow) to 100 parts cameras tupomtheparticular color characteristics: desired. .-A set mixture of calcium hydroxide, titanium dioxide, calcium phosphate and ochre (yellow) mixed with eugenol and/or; guaiacoL-andlinseed oil is radiolucentand'when a-tooth is'X-rayed the dental capping material isfalsely represented beneath the metal fillings as carious :dentine. I rhave discovered thatadditions-woflfivetfi) to fifa teen (15) parts'iby weight of barium-i-sulphateszto 100 parts by weight of calcium hydroxidezprosduces sufficient' radiopaciiry to. cause. the set mate- ..rial" to. appear the same -in density' as the'.unde- -.cayed tooth or' to appear as .a --whitish.- layer :beneath the various fillings. Radio opaqueimate- :rrials other than barium sulphate: may also be used to ;produce the proper X:-ray interference 'as desired, such materials being metallicqparticles -such as-finely divided copper,-.silver or silver. alloy particles. It has also been found thatw-amounts of-abietic acid may'be addedto theabove pow- ."ders-to make :the set material moreadhesive iand/orharder. One to twenty-five parts .of; abi- -eticaci'd may be used.

.=.It'.- has r been further 1.=discovered that although cexcellent pulp capping agents can be madea'by combinations of the chemicals as already-setmut, anadditionalzgroup of formulae can also be used successfully. When the liquidguaiacol with linseedoil is used with calciumhydroxide alone. a

.-.1'ight;grey solid is formed. It follows from this- -.that.litt1eto no white-titanium dioxide need be vvused, but-pure zinc oxide maybesubstituted. in ..the. proper amounts for a triple reason. Zinc oxide is first, white; second, radio opaque, and third, it apparently goes into the chemical. reaction with guaiacol to make a more hardened end result. .--Being radio opaque it may also replace the barium sulphate. Yellow ochre may be added to this formulaor not, at will. To make the set mixture ofcalcium hydroxide and zinc oxide, with or without ochre, more adhesive powdered -.abietic acid, which dissolves in either of the above liquids, may .be added to the .various powders in the amount of 1 to 25 parts to 100 parts calcium hydroxide.

Guaiacol and linseed oil as set out react with any of the previously described powders to pro- .duce set hardened products that are of more grayish tint than the tooth color. Small quan- ..tities of eugenol added to the guaiacollinseed oil mixture tend to produce a set productof a more yellow nature, more the color of theusual dental cements and tooth tint. Such a liquid would:have a formula as follows; guaiacol 100 parts, eugenol l to 15 parts, linseed oil 15 to 50 parts. As the eugenol is increased in the quai- .acol so is the yellow tint deepened. However, ex- .cept as regards color any mixture of eugenol and g-uaiacol with 15 to 50 parts of linseed oil .can perused-successfully as a pulp capping liquid.

..It is-understood that successful cappings may .be madewith calcium hydroxide and eugenol or .Yguaiacol alonewhen proper atmosphericcondiations are present. vThe other chemicals have v.beenaddedland varied as shown, to adaptthe ;-pr.eparation to particular conditions, :practice, :aanddesiresof dentists and-patients. However, each of the other chemicals may beomittedor :added 'at will with apparently thesame successtul: result. except as already set out; not excludwing calcium phosphate.

EIEhe :2 following examples illustrate exemplary compositions of the .powder and I liquid "compo- --nen-ts used in the capping-material of the inveniztioni it' being. understood-that any" of the powder 7 s components 'may be used with any of the liquid components and. that the invention is not :-to' be in any-way. limited by. the examples:

"Parts ..Calcium.hydroxide .(powder) 100 .--.-E ugenol .(liquid) 100 10 .Calcium hydroxide I00 iiTitanium dioxide 9'to Calcium .phosphate 1to.10 ..Barium' sulphate 5 to 15 'IOchre (yellow) to2 Parts by weight Calcium: hydroxide v100 Titanium iedioxide 9 to 15 iG'alcium phosphate .1 to 10 iMetallicesilver particles 5-tO 5 Yellow ochre 1 5m 2 Parts by weight ifcalcium hydroxide 100 frzinc'zoxide 5.to

. L0chre 1 5' to 2 Parts by weight .ilGalcium hydroxide :100 L-Z-inc. oxide 5 to25 -.!Abietic acid 1 to 25 ,Ochre Parts by weight .Calcium hydroxide 100 Titanium dioxide -9.to 15 u. ..Calcium phosphate Ito 10 .--Barium sulphate 5to 15 Ochre to 2 .=-Abietic .acid 1. to 25 Parts by weight n: Calcium hydroxide 100 Titanium dioxide 9to'15 Abietic acid l t025 Parts by-weight Calcium hydroxide 100 Titanium dioxide 9.to 15 Calcium phosphate 1 to 10' .Abietic acid 1 to 25 Parts by weight Calcium hydroxide Titanium dioxide 9 to 15 Calcium phosphate 1 to 10 Barium sulphate 5 to 15 Abietic acid 1 to 25 Parts byweight Calcium hydroxide 100 Titanium dioxide 9 to 15 -Calcium phosphate 1 to 10 60 :Metallic =partic-les to 5 .Abietic acid Lto 25 6 to 2 Other powder-components "Parts by weight Yellow ochre I Other liquid components Parts by volume Eugenol Parts by volume -Guaiacol 1 to 99 Eugenol 99to l Linseed oil to50 It has been further discovered that abietic acid may be added to or dissolved in the eugenol,

guaiacol, linseed oil liquids of the above examples of the liquid components to obtain a more adhesive and/or harder pulp capping material, the resuits being comparable to those obtained when the abietic acid is incorporated in the powders.

The quantity of abietic acid in the liquid component is limited according to the quantity in the powder component or vice versa whereby the final mixture of the liquid and powder contains approximately one (1) to twenty-five parts -'by weight of abietic acid to one hundred (100) parts by weight of calcium hydroxide. The following are examples of suitable liquids containing abietic acid:

Parts by volume The procedure for using the dental pulp capping material is as follows:

After the pulp in a tooth is exposed in the Y operative procedure, the tooth is dried. A desired amount of a selected powder component of the dental pulp capping material is then mixed with a selected liquid component to form a creamlike consistency only sufliciently thick or viscous to adhere to an instrument used to carry it to the tooth. A small quantit is placed over the exposure of the pulp and quickly teased or flowed over the pulp and adjacent cavity walls by the instrument or b a tiny pellet of cotton held by cotton pliers, causing no appreciable pressure on the pulp.

Setting of the capping material requires one to four or five minutes. At the end of this time the excess material is removed, the cavity completed in the usual well known manner and silver.

silicate, Or cement fillings may be inserted, or

the wax pattern for gold inlays ma he made immediately the setting of the capping material is I complete. Temporary fillings of gutta percha or zinc oxide eugenol may be inserted over the capper when lack of time prevents the insertion of the permanent filling.

Special emphasis is brought to bear that by my combination of powder and liquids a tooth pulp protecting and capping material can be mixed very thin and carried into the cavity in this state and within one to four minutes the mixture hardens or sets sufliciently to withstand the pressure of inserting any known filling except gold foil. Unlike other capping agents, no cement is usually needed over the capper to protect it from compression or bending onto or into the pulp when inserting the filling immediately after the pulp is capped and setting occurs.

Furthermore, my pulp protecting and capping materials can be used as sedative cements and insulating materials in the deep cavity having no exposure of the pulp. It is further understood that germicidal agents, sulphanilamide and other derivatives, may be added for bacterial action. It might also be mentioned that various combinations of the drugs may be employed if desired, the amount of which drugs or combinations thereof required to obtain the beneficial results will not appreciably afiect the setting properties and hardness of the capping material.

What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. A dental plug capping material consisting of --approximately equal parts of calcium hydroxide and eugenol.

2. A dental pulp cappin material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred parts by weight of calcium hydroxide and the liquid containing one hundred (100) parts by volume eugenol and fifteen (15) to thirty (30) parts by volume of linseed oil.

3. A dental pulp capping material consistin of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) parts by weight of calcium hydroxide, nine (9) to fifteen (15) parts titanium dioxide, one (1) to five (5) parts calcium phosphate, and the liquid containing one hundred (100) parts by volume eugenol and fifteen (15) to thirty (30) parts by volume of linseed oil.

4. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) parts by weight of calcium hydroxide, nine (9) to fifteen (15) parts titanium dioxide, one (1) tofive (5) parts calcium phosphate, and five (5) to fifteen (15) parts barium sulphate, all of said parts being by weight, and the liquid containing one hundred (100) parts by volume eugenol and fifteen (15) to thirty (30) parts by volume of linseed oil.

5. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) parts by' weight of calcium hydroxide, nine (Ql'to fifteen (15) parts titanium dioxide, one (i) to five (5) parts of calcium phosphate, five- (5) to fifteen (15) parts barium sulphate, one-sixteenth (1/ 16) to two (2) parts yellow ochre, and the liquid containing one hundred (100) parts by volume engenol and fif teen (15) to'thirty (30) parts by volume of linseed oil.

6. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) parts by weight of calcium hydroxide, nine (9) to fifteen (15) parts titanium dioxide, one (1) to ten (10) parts calcium phosphate, one-sixteenth (1/16) to five (5) parts metallic silver particles, one-sixteenth (1/16) to two (2) parts yellow ochre, all of said parts being by weight, and the liquid containing one hundred (100) parts by volume eugenol and fifteen (15) to thirty (30) parts by volume linseed oil.

I. A dental pulp cappin material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) arts calcium hydroxide, nine (9) to fifteen (15) parts titanium dioxide, one (1) to twenty-five (25) parts abietic acid, all of said parts being by weight, and the liquid containing one hundred (100) parts by volume eugenol and fifteen (15) to thirty (30) parts by volume of linseed oil.

8. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) parts calcium hydroxide, nine (9) t0 fifteen (15) parts titanium dioxide, one (1) to ten (10) parts calcium phosphate. five (5) to fifteen (15) parts barium sulphate, one (1) to twenty-five (25) parts abi ti 9 acid, all of said parts being by weight, and the liquid containing one hundred (100) parts by volume eugenol and fifteen (15) to thirty (30) parts by volume of linseed oil.

9. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) parts calcium hydroxide, five to twenty-five (25) parts zinc oxide, one-sixteenth to two (2) parts yellow ochre, all of said parts being by weight, and the liquid containing one hundred (100) parts by volume eugenol and fifteen (15) to thirty (30) parts by volume of linseed oil.

10. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) parts calcium hydroxide, five (5) to twenty-five (25) parts zinc oxide, one (1) to twenty-five (25) parts abietic acid and one-sixteenth ("1 5) part yellow ochre and the liquid containing one hundred (100) parts by volume guaiacol and twenty-five (25) to fifty (50) parts by volume linseed oil.

11. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) parts of calcium hydroxide, and five (5) to fifteen (15) parts barium sulphate, all of said parts being by weight, and the liquid containing one (1) to ninety-nine (99) parts by volume guaiacol, ninety-nine (99) to one (1 part by volume eugenol and fifteen (15) to fifty (50) parts by volume linseed oil.

12. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) parts calcium hydroxide, one (1) to ten parts calcium phosphate, all parts being by weight, and the liquid containing one hundred (100) parts by volume of eugenol, and fifteen to thirty (30) pggg fiy v me linseed oil.

1 A dental plp capping material consisting of a powder and iquid in combination, the powder containing one hundred (100) parts y Weight of calcium hydroxide and the q d Containing one hundred (100) parts 51 volume guaiacol, one (1) to fifteen (15 parts by v ume n l, and fifteen (15) to fifty (50) parts by Volume of linseed oil.

14. The liquid of a dental pulp capping material including one hundred (100) parts .by volume eugenol, fifteen (15) to thirty (30) parts by volume linseed oil, and one (1) to fifteen (15) parts by volume abietic acid.

15. The liquid of a dental pulp capping material including one hundred (109) parts by volume guaiacol, twenty-five to fifty (50) parts by 10 volume linseed oil, and one (1) to fifteen (15) parts by volume abietic acid.

16. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing calcium hydroxide parts by weight, titanium dioxide 9 to 15 parts by weight, yellow ochre A th to 2 parts by weight, calcium phosphate 1 to 10 parts by weight, barium sulphate 5 to 15 parts by weight, and the liquid containing eugenol 100 parts by volume, linseed oil 15 to 30 parts by volume, and a germicidal agent.

17. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing calcium hydroxide 100 parts by weight, yellow ochre ti th to 2 parts by weight, calcium phosphate 1 to 10 parts by weight, barium sulphate 5 to 15 parts by weight and the liquid containing eugenol 100 parts by volume and linseed oil 15 to 30 parts by volume.

18. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing calcium hydroxide 100 parts by weight, yellow ochre ti th to 2 parts by weight, calcium phosphate 1 to 10 parts by weight, barium sulphate 5 to 15 parts by weight and the liquid containing eugenol 100 parts by volume, linseed oil 15 to 30 parts by volume and a germicidal agent.

19. A dental pulp capping material consisting of a powder and liquid in combination, the powder containing calcium hydroxide 100 parts by weight, zinc oxide 5 to 25 parts by weight, yellow ochre 1 th to 2 parts by weight, and the liquid containing eugenol 100 parts by volume, and linseed oil 15 to 30 parts by volume.

NORTON L. WHEELER.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,326,552 Vogt Dec. 30, 1919 1,473,482 Kruger Nov. 6, 1923 1,556,696 Kruger Oct. 13, 1925 1,641,844 Fisher Sept. 6, 1927 1,866,433 Ward July 5, 1932 1,900,237 Harsh-man Mar. 7, 1933 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 166,854 Great Britain 1921

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Classifications
U.S. Classification106/35, 106/663, 106/228, 106/667, 106/260
International ClassificationA61K6/02, A61K6/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61K6/0032, A61K6/02
European ClassificationA61K6/00D, A61K6/02