US 2519681 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 22, 1950 kM. MAGEs ToNoMETER HEAD Filed July 27, 1946 1 IN V EN TOR. f/y v'vs ./Va
Patented Aug. 22, 1950 lfroivoivnrrim HEAD Morris Mages, fChicago, Ill., assigner to V. Mueller & Company, fChicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Application July 27, 1946, Serial No. 686,702
(lCl. 'i3-80) 2 Claims. l
My invention relates to tonometers, These instruments are used in the medical profession for making measurements of the pressure of liquid in the eyeball. The instruments now used for this purpose, with which I am familiar, are quite -diicult to handle being of such construction that it is quite a delicate task to make the meas urement. The scale for measurement is limited in size, and there is quite a problem of keeping the plunger that engages the eyeball from being influenced by friction and by inaccuracies that result from use.
It is the purpose of my invention to provide a novel tonometer which is so constructed that application of it to the human eye and the measurement of the pressure can be accomplished easily, and to any sensitivity that is desired, the measurement being translated into current flow that can be measured to whatever accuracy is desired by a suitable meter.
It is a further purpose of my invention to provide an improved tonometer wherein the head thereof is Capable of being set directly on the eye and supported entirely by the eye in a stable position while the measurement is being made.
Another purpose of the invention is the provision of a novel supporting means for the tonometer whereby, when it is being applied, free movement in all directions is provided, thereby assuring perfect alignment of the tonometer head with the curvature of the eyeball.
It is a further purpose to provide such an instrument in which a calibrated standard is incorporated in the circuit by means of which any deviation in the accuracy of the tonometer head, changes in `line voltage, or aging of tubes, can be easily detected. Provision is made for easily compensating for any normal changes, so that the accuracy of the instrument can be maintained over a long period of time.
A further purpose of my invention is to provide a simple means of mounting the plunger whereby to avoid cams, pivots and the like, and thus reduce frictional errors to a minimum.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will appear from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings disclosing a preferred embodiment of my invention, It should be understood, however, that the drawings and description are illustrative only and are not to be taken as limiting the invention except insofar as it is limited by the claims.
In the drawings;
Figure 1 is a vertical sectional view showing the tonometer in use;
Figure 2 is a sectional View taken on the line 2 2 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a wiring diagram illustrating the electrical connections of the tonometer, and
Figure 4 is a fragmentary view illustrating the manner of clamping the tonometer plunger in place for initially adjusting the instrument.
Referring now to the tonometer as illustrated in Figures l and 2, the parts shown are on an enlarged scale. The eye under test is indicated at 5. No attempt is made herein to discuss the reasons for testing the liquid pressure within the eyeball since the testing and the use made of the knowledge gained thereby are matters for the medical profession. The measurement is, for example, important in the diagnosis of Glaucoma. The present invention is directed entirely to perfection of the instrument for making the pressure measurements so that the measurement may be made with greater accuracy, and the accuracy is maintainable throughout the life of the instrument. All dimensions, curvatures and weights conform to American Medical Association (A. M. A.) standards.
The tonometer comprises a head `6 of a suitable non-magnetic metal such as brass. This head has its lower end l cupped out to substantially conform to the shape of the eyeball surface. A central passage 8 is provided through the head for a plunger e. This plunger has its lower end also cupped to nt the eyeball as indicated at Iii. The plunger is composed at least in part of a, magnetic material such as iron, for a purpose that will presently appear.
The upper portion of the head 6 is cut out at il to form a spool for the coils I2. A sleeve I3 is fitted snugly over the spool portion of the head 6. The sleeve encloses the coil and has an opening at is for the leads to the coil- A shoulder I5 is formed on the sleeve at its lower end. A similar shoulder l@ is formed on the sleeve near its upper end. These shoulders serve as stops for a ring Il that ts loosely around the sleeve it. The sleeve I3 projects above the upper end of the head 6 somewhat as shown as I8, to form a stop for a head i9 on a stem 20 which carries the plunger 9. The stem 2d and the head i9 are of brass, and the stein is threaded into the upper end of the plunger. The proportions are preferably such that the lower limit of movement of the plunger and stem assembly at which the head I9 rests on the part I8 of the sleeve I3 will bring the lower cupped end Il) o1" the plunger substantially level with the lower edge of the head 6. This prevents the plunger from being let doWn too far, and protects the eye. A reduced extension 2l projects above the head I9 for the addition of auxiliary weights to measure higher pressures.
The ring Il' is secured to a handle 22 by a bent rod 23, one end of which is integral with the ring l1, and the other end of which is threaded into a sleeve 2G ixed in the handle 22. The handle is also provided with a pocket 25 in which a connector strip 25 is mounted. The wires in the coil I2 are fine wires, and leads of ne wires are brought from the coil in a cable form through a passage 2l in the handle to the strip 25. A cord 26 having wires of the size usually employed for appliances is used to make connection from the strip 25 to the metering circuit and current source. The pocket 25 is closed by a plate 29, and the connector strip 2d has end flanges 3de-.3i for positioning it in the pocket.
In Figure 3 of the drawings, the measuring circuit is shown diagrammatically as an induction bridge type of measuring circuit. In this circuit the toncmeter head coil is shown at 32, a standard coil is shown at 33, and the balance coil is shown at 131i. Each coil is shown as comprising a primary coil and a secondary coil. The primary coilsv are connected to a source 35 of alternating current. The output leads 3% and 3l of the secondary coilsY are connected through a phase adjuster 3E to an amplier tube 39. This tube and a second tube d form an amplifier by which the signal is amplified and transmitted to a third tube dl, the plate circuit of which includes a meter di?, and a source it of current. The sensitivityj or compensation control is obtained by a variable connection dit to the grid ci the tube The phase adjustment unit 38 is merely to bring the unbalance signal in phase with the plate voltage of the indicator tube l. Normally when the plunger s is positioned so that its surface ii) coincides with the curved face 1 of the head E, the voltage in the secondary or coil 32 (wound oppositely to the coils 3; and 3d) is balanced against the voltage of the standard and balance coils so that the leads S and 37 are at the same potential. When the tonometer head is placed on the cornea of the eye, the weight of the plunger bearing against the eye causes the plunger to sini; downward against the fluid pressure within the eyeball. The change in the position oi the iron plunger in the coil i2 will cause a change in the secondary voltage so that a balance condition will no longer exist, and one of the leads S-l will be at a different potential than the other. This will cause a signal to be transmitted through the amplier tubes the intensity of which is measurable by the meter 52.
In practice the instrument is first checked for accuracy and adjusted by comparison with the internal standard so as to insure accurate measurement. This is done as follows:
A holding member d5 (of brass) of the proper curvature is clamped to the bottom of the tonometer head to align the plunger with the foot of the tonometer head. This member (see Figure e) is pivoted loosely on two pivot pins d6 and 47 that extend from two rods 48 and 49 toward each other. The rods are Carried by a split ring 5D 4 that can be clamped upon the head 6 when the member d5 is in proper position. With the intrument plugged in, the adjustment for the standard coil is set at its zero or normal position. The meter pointer is then set at zero on the scale by manipulation of the control for the balance coil. The standard coil 33 is now adjusted to change its value a predetermined amount, and this should result in a meter needle movement o1" a certain number of divisionsalso marked on the meter dial by a red line. If the adjustment of the standard does not check with the required movement of the meter needle, they are made to coincide by means of the sensitivity control d'3. The member i5 is then detached from the tonometer head, and the instrument is ready for use.
From the foregoing description it is believed that the nature and advantages of my invention will be clear to those skilled in the art.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
.1. In a tonometer, a substantially cylindrical head of nonmagnetic material, said head having a cupped lower face to engage the eyeball surface, said head having a central passage from said face to the upper end or" the head, said head also having a spool portion on the exterior thereof intermediate its ends, an electrically conductive coil wound upon said spool portion, a plunger composed in part of magnet material slidable in said passage, indicating means connected with the coil to indicate changes in the magnetic circuit about said coil ei-Tected by movement of the plunger, a sleeve covering the spool portion of said head and projecting above the head, a handle having a head supporting ring portion in which said sleeve is loosely suspended and eooperating stop members on the sleeve and plunger limiting downward movement of the plunger, but leaving the plunger ree for removal upwardly out of said head.
2. A tonometer comprising a head having a cupped lower face for resting on an eyeball, an electrically conductive coil carried by said head, a plunger freely slidable in said head and extending through the coil and having an end face for engaging an eyeball upon Which the head is resting, said plunger having a part of magnetic material, means connected with said coil for indicating changes in the magnetic circuit about said coil effected by movement of the plunger, a ring encircling the head loosely, spaced upper and lower shoulders on the head retaining the ring, and a handle to which the ring is fixed.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record, in the le of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,419,134 Goldstein June 13, 1922 1,743,461 La Force 1 Jan. 14, 1930 17,855,757 Harrison Apr. 26, 1932 2,178,471 De Bruin Oct. 31, 1939 2,276,843 Hathaway Mar. 17, 1942 2.314.514 Parsons "1 Mar. 23, 1943