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Publication numberUS2521154 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 5, 1950
Filing dateNov 1, 1945
Publication numberUS 2521154 A, US 2521154A, US-A-2521154, US2521154 A, US2521154A
InventorsPeter Clarence Jack Dudley
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of and means for making
US 2521154 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

P 1950 L P c. J. DUDL 2,521,154

EY METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR MAKING STEREOSCOPIC X-RAY PHOTOGRAPHS Filed Nov. 1, 1945 INVENTOR LEfiL/E Q C.J. DUDLEY HTTOAN F Y:

Patented Sept. 5, 1950 METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR MAKING STEREOSCOPIC X-RAY' PHOTOGRAPHS Leslie Peter Clarence Jack Dudley, Twickenham,

England, assignor to Stereoptics. Limited, London, England, a British company Application November 1, 1945, SerialN'o. 626,144 In Great Britain November 11, 1944' 12 Claims.

This invention relates to methods of and means for providing stereoscopic X-ray photographs, or, as they are termed: in the art, stereoscopic radiographs; of the integral or parallax panorama.- gram type andof the parallax stereogram type.

In British specification No. 564,490'there are described methods of making stereoscopic radiographs involving the use of a radiographic grid, that isa grid composed of fine, parallel strips of a material which is'opaque to X-radiation, separated by strips which are transparent to X- radiation.

One of the objects of the present invention is to provide a method which does not necessitate the use of a radiographic grid.

A further object is-to enable stereoscopic radiographs' to be produced on films or plates of small dimensions such as in, for example, the radiographic method commonly known as mass radiography.

According to the present invention there is provided a method of making stereoscopic radio graphs wherein the'subject is exposed to a source of X-radiation, provision is made for presenting the required different aspectsof', the-subject. to the-said radiation, acsuitable; screen; such as a fluorescent surface; is-provided for receivingathe radiation after itv has passed through the subject so as to forum an imagecapable of being photographically recorded, and means'are' provided for photographicall-y recording saidimage, said meansbeing associatedawithv an; optical grid composed of finestrips'bf' a material which is opaque tolight alternating with strips which are transparent to lightand said opticalgrid being moved" in a direction transversely to the grid strips and parallel to the lighttsensitive"surface, the movement of the optical grid-being similar to that adopted: in making: stereoscopic photo'- graphs by certain known. methods and the cor, relation between said: grid" movement and the relative movement between the subject and the source of X -radiation' being: similar to the cor= relation between the movement of'the grid and the relative movement between: the? subject the. camera in such methods.

A. stereoscopic X-ray photograph'in' accordance with the presentxinvention' may; be viewed directly through azgrid, the viewing grid having the same pitch as the r abovermentioned; optical grid. Alternatively the image. may be; recorded on a small film or plate and'then projected to an enlargedv scale onto a screen; the projected image then being viewed through a viewing grid having a pitch whichwmatchesrthatiof thfi' ll p of: which the image, is; constituted.

The photographic recording means employed in carrying out the present invention'may com.- prise a camera ofthe still or kinematographic kind.

A further possibility would be to dispose a photographic grid" in close proximity to the screen andra sensitised photographic film or plate in'closewproximity to the grid on the side remote from the screen for the purpose of recording the image on said sensitised'surface without the aid of a camera. In the latter method it would be'desirable to protect thephotographic film or plate from theefleets of X-radiation penetratving the fluorescent screen by interposing a:suit

able filter of, for example, lead glass between the said screen and the photographic film or plate.

In-cases where a. photographic camera is employed in carrying? outthe present invention the grid associated with such camera may be em bodied therein on such gridmay be disposed between the camera and the-screen, preferablyin close proximity t'o-the latter. In both cases the photographic apparatus may be protected" against adverse influence by X-radiation-by the use-of mirrors; prisms-orv the like so that only a reflected and/or refracted image reaches the apparatus and/or by the use'of a filter for example of lead-glass.

For: the purpose of attaining the necessary relative movement between the source of X- radiation. and the subject the subject may be moved in the manner described in British' Sp'GCi; fication No. 564,490 or' alternatively the. subject may'remain stationary whilst. the source of.ra'di:- ation besmoved'. For optimum results however movement of the source of radiation necessitates corresponding movement of the screen and of the grid and photographic recording means and thefi'rst: mentioned procedure is therefore in general pref erable:

In order" thatthe present invention maybe well understood I will now describe, by way of examples only; two specific modes of carrying outsuch invention with reference to the accompanyingdrawings; in: which:

Figure 1 is a. plant View showing diagrammatically onet. arrangement and Figure 2; is: a plan viewshowing diagrammatically another? arrangement.

Referring to Figure 1; reference numeral 1 denotes a source of X-radiation, 2 denotes the subject to be: X-rayed, 3- denotes a fluorescent screen and" 4-- denotes a. camera.

Means are provided for moving the source of radiation; e. g. an-X-ray tube, from the'position designated: l to the'position designated l and means are also provided for moving the screen 3 from the position designated 3 to the position designated 3 so that the central ray of the cone of rays emanating from the source remain normal to the screen throughout the said movement. Similarly the camera 4 is moved from the position designated 4 to the position designated 4 so that the optical axis of the camera likewise remains normal to the screen.

The aforesaid camera 4 may be of any type suitable for making photographic parallax panoramagrams or parallax stereograms. Thus it may for example include an optical grid having fine transparent strips alternating with opaque strips and means for moving such grid in a di rection at right angles to the direction of the grid strips as indicated diagrammatically at 9, 9 and 9 in Figure 1. Alternatively the necessary grid may be disposed between the camera proper and the screen 3, preferably closely adjacent to the said screen.

The arrangement shown in Figure 2 is of a simpler and accordingly preferable nature. Instead of generating the required relative movement between the source of X-radiation and the subject by moving the said source, the source, designated 5, remains stationary and the sub ject 6 is moved in the required sense say from the position shown in full lines to the dotted line position designated 6 the fluorescent screen 1, the camera 8 and the optical grid II) also remaining stationary. The required movement of the subject may be effected with the aid of the apparatus described in the above mentioned earlier specification.

Assuming that a radiograph of the parallax panoramagram type is required the aforesaid camera (4 or 8) preferably makes a continuous exposure whilst the optical grid is in motion and during this exposure the relationship between the subject and the source of radiation is changed, in the case of the arrangement shown in Figure 1 by moving the source from I to l and in the case of the arrangement shown in Figure 2 by moving the subject from the position shown in full lines to the position designated 6 In this way a progressively changing image is formed on the fluorescent screen and recorded by the camera in the form of a parallax panoramagram. In a modified method, instead of making a continuous exposure a series of separate exposures may be made each with the subject and the source of radiation in different relative positions, the grid or the plate or film being caused to move through a distance equal to the width of one opaque strip of the grid while the subject or the source of radiation as the case may be is caused to move between its two'extreme positions.

Assuming that a radiograph of the parallax stereogram type is required, each radiograph consists of two views only, one representing a right eye view and the other representing a left eye view. The relative movement between the subject and the source of radiation takes place between the exposures and there is, consequently, no necessity for simultaneous movement of the grid and of the subject or source of radiation.

In the production of radiographs of the parallax panoramagram kind the photographic grid preferably comprises opaque strips which are of somewhat greater width than that of the transparent strips but in the production of radiographs of the parallax stereogram type the grid should be composed of opaque strips and transparent strips of the same or substantially the same width. In both case the total movement imparted to the grid, i. e. the total movement during the production of either a parallax panoramagram or a parallax stereogram should be equal to the width of one opaque strip, such movement being at right-angles to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips and parallel to the plane of the sensitized surface on which the image is to be photographically recorded.

Whilst I have hereinbefore described two specific methods of carrying out the present invention I wish it to be understood that various modifications are possible without departing from the scope of such invention. It is also to be understood that any suitable photographic apparatus, e. g. apparatus already known for use in making stereoscopic photographs of the parallax stereogram or parallax panoramagram kind may be employed in carrying out this invention.

I claim:

1. A method of making stereoscopic X-ray photographs wherein the subject is exposed to a source of X-radiation, relative movement is established between the source of radiation and said subject so as to present the required different aspects of the subject to radiation, the radiation after passing through the subject is caused to impinge on a screen, for example a fluorescent screen, so forming an image, and a photographic record is made of said image on a light-sensitive surface through an optical grid coextensive with said image and composed of parallel strips of a material which is opaque to light alternating with strips which are transparent to light, the said grid being moved in a direction transversely with respect to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips and parallel to the plane of the light-sensitive surface through a distance equal to the width of one opaque strip of the grid, and the relative movement between the source of X-radiation and the subject being in a direction substantially at right-angles to the longitudinal axes of the said grid strips.

2. A method of making stereoscopic X-ray photographs wherein the subject is exposed to a source of X-radiation, relative movement between the said subject and the said source of radiation is eifected by moving the subject with respect to the source and thus presenting the required different aspects of the subject to radiation, the radiation after passing through the subject is caused to impinge on a screen of the fluorescent type so forming an image, and a photographic record is made of said image on a light-sensitive surface through an optical grid coextensive with said image and composed of parallel strips of a material which is opaque to light alternating with strips which are transparent to light, the said grid being moved in a direction transversely with respect to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips and parallel to the plane of the light-sensitive surface through a distance equal to the width of one opaque strip of the grid, and the relative movement between the source of X-radiation and the subject being in a direction substantially at right angles to the longitudinal axes of the said grid strips.

3. A method of making stereoscopic X-ray photographs wherein the subject is exposed to a source of X-radiation, the radiation after passing through the subject is caused to impinge on a screen of the fluorescent type so forming an image, a light-sensitive surface is positioned for making a photographic record of said image, an optical grid coextensive with said image and composed of parallel strips Of a material which is opaque to light alternating with strips, which are transparent to light is interposed between the said screen. and the said light-sensitive surface, the said grid is moved in a direction transversely with respect to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips and parallel to the plane of the light-sensitive surface through a distance equal to the width of one opaque strip of the grid, the source of X-radiation is moved with respect to the subject in a direction at right-angles to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips, the screen is moved in unison with movements of the said source of X-radiation so that the central ray of the cone of rays emanating from the source remains normal to the screen, and the optical grid is caused to move so as to remain parallel with respect to the said screen.

4. Apparatus for making stereoscopic X-ray photographs wherein the subject is exposed to a source of X-radiation and the radiation after passing through the subject i caused to impinge on a screen so as to form an image, said apparatus including a source of X-radiation and a screen of the fluorescent type, means for movably supporting the subject between said source of radiation and screen, a camera presenting a light-sensitive surface adapted to be positioned for making a photographic record of an image on said screen on said camera light-sensitive surface, an optical grid coextensive with said image and composed of parallel strips of a material which is opaque to light alternating with strips which are transparent to light interposed between said screen and said camera light-sensitive surface, means for moving said grid in a direction transversely with respect to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips and parallel to the plane of the light-sensitive surface through a distance equal to the width of one opaque strip of the grid, and means for causing relative movement between the subject and the said source of X-radiation in a direction at right-angles to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips.

5. Apparatus as claimed in claim 4 wherein the camera employed is of a kind having a rapidly moving shutter for exposing the light sensitive surface simultaneously over its entire area suitable for making a cinematographic record.

6. Apparatus as claimed in claim 4 wherein the optical grid is located between the camera and the said screen in close proximity to the latter.

7. A method as claimed in claim 1 wherein a filter having characteristics of a lead-glass filter is inserted between the screen and the means for tical means of the type of mirrors and prisms are located between the screen and the photographic recording means whereby the optical rays are bent towards the photographic recording means whilst the X-radiation proceeds in such a direction that it does not impinge on said recording means.

9. A method of making stereoscopic X-ray photographs wherein the subject is exposed to a source of X-radiation, the radiation after passing through the subject is caused to impinge on a screen so as to form an image, a light-sensitive surface is positioned for making a photographic record of said image, an optical grid coextensive with said image and composed of parallel strips of a material which is opaque to light alternating with a material which is transparentto light is interposed between the said screenand the said light-sensitive surface, the said grid is moved continuously during the exposure of the subject to X-radiation in a direction transversely with re-. spect to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips and parallel to the plane of the light-sensitive surface through a, distance equal to the width of one opaque strip of the grid, and relative movement is caused between the source of X-radiation and the subject in a direction substantially at right-angles to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips, the said relative movement being efiected during the said exposure.

10. A method of making stereoscopic X-ra photographs wherein the subject is exposed to a source of Xradiation, the radiation after passing through the subject is caused to impinge on a screen so as to form an image, a light-sensitive surface is positioned for making a photographic record of said image, an optical grid coextensive with said image and composed of parallel strips of a material which is opaque to light alternating with a material which is transparent to light is interposed between the said screen and the said light-sensitive surface, the said grid is moved in a direction transversely with respect to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips and parallel to the plane of the light-sensitive surface through a distance equal to the width of one opaque strip of the grid and relative movement is caused between the source or -radiation and the subject in a direction substantially at rightangles to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips, the said subject undergoing two separate exposures to X-radiation each with the said subject in a different position with respect to the said source, and the said movement of the grid being effected between the making of the twoexposures.

11. Apparatus for making stereoscopic X-ray photographs comprising a source of X-radiation, means for supporting a subject to be exposed to said radiation, means for causing relative movement between said source of X-radiation and said subject so as to expose to radiation the required different aspects of said subject, a screen of the fluorescent type disposed for receiving the radiation passing through the subject and so forming a fluoroscopic image, a light-sensitive surface disposed for making a photographic record of said image, an optical grid coextensive with said image and disposed between said screen and said light-sensitive surface, said grid comprising parallel strips of a material which is opaque to light alternating with strips which are transparent to light, means for moving said grid in a direction transversely with respect to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips and parallel to the plane of the light-sensitive surface through a distance equal to the width of one opaque strip of the grid, and means for causing relative movement between said source of X-radiation and said subject in a direction substantially at rightangles to the longitudinal axes of the said grid strips.

12. A method of making stereoscopic X-ray photographs wherein the subject is exposed to a source of X-radiation, comprising establishing relative movement between the source of radiation and said subject so as to present diiierent aspects of the subject to radiation for stereoscopic efiect, causing radiation after passing through the subject toimpinge on a screen of the fluorescent type to form an image and making a photographic record of said image on a light-sensitive surface through an optical grid coextensive with said image and composed of parallel strips of a material which is opaque to light alternating with strips which are transparent to light, moving said grid in a direction transversely with respect to the longitudinal axes of the grid strips and parallel to the plane of the light-sensitive surface through a distance equal to the Width of one opaque strip of the grid, the transverse movement of said grid and the relative movement between the source of X-radiation and the subject being correlated in a direction substantially at right-angles to the longitudinal axes of the said grid strips to produce a radiograph of the parallax type.

LESLIE PETER. CLARENCE JACK DUDLEY.

8 REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,704,477 Jacobson Mar. 5, 1929 2,214,621 Leishman Sept. 10, 1940 2,318,983 Winnek May 11, 1943 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 449,213 Great Britain June 23, 1936 556,837 Great Britain Oct. 25, 1943

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US3809904 *Oct 5, 1972May 7, 1974Atomic Energy Of Canada LtdMethod for non-destructive densitometric measurement of small volumes inside irregularly shaped non-uniform objects
US6115449 *Oct 10, 1998Sep 5, 2000Nanotek Instruments, Inc.Apparatus for quantitative stereoscopic radiography
US6118843 *Oct 10, 1998Sep 12, 2000Nanotek Instruments, Inc.Quantitative stereoscopic radiography method
DE1024351B *Jan 7, 1953Feb 13, 1958Josef Georg Johannes Metzner DEinrichtung zur kinematographischen Aufnahme von auf Roentgenschirmen erscheinenden Bewegungsvorgaengen innerhalb eines zu durchleuchtenden Koerpers