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Publication numberUS2524238 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 3, 1950
Filing dateNov 15, 1946
Priority dateNov 15, 1946
Publication numberUS 2524238 A, US 2524238A, US-A-2524238, US2524238 A, US2524238A
InventorsSoule Charles W
Original AssigneeJessie Chess Soule
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Flight trainer
US 2524238 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 3, 1950 C. w, SQUL 2,524,238

FLIGHT TRAINER Filed Nov. 15, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 v n. f

INVENTOR. CHARLES W SOULE A T TURA/Ey Patented Oct. 3, 1950 FLIGHT TRAINER Charles W. Soul, Reno, N ev., assignor to Jessie Chess Soul, Washington, D. C.

Application November 15, 1946, Serial No. 709,975

1 Claim.

This invention is an improvement in flight trainers and particularly an apparatus for the schooling and practice of students of aviation who wish to qualify as aeroplane pilots.

An 1'mportant obj ect of the invention is to provide simple and easily operated combination of control members arranged adjacent a chair or seat; and so designed that, by proper manipulation, all of the movements of an airplane can be imitated and produced, in the same manner and by the same operations and adjustments as with a real airplane in actual night.

Another object is to provide additional means, capable of responding automatically, if the apparatus should ever be tilted to lift the forward end of the trainer to such an extent as to reach the usual stall angle, for immediately superseding all the other control members and bringing the apparatus back into a position corresponde ing to what is necessary for normal flight; and when this condition is reached, said means becomes ineffective and permits the other control members to be again actuated in the usual way.

The invention is shown on the accompanying drawings, which disclose a single embodiment thereof and the novel features are pointed out in the claim appended hereto. But this disclosure is of course explanatory only and numerous changes in details may be made Without departing from the essential construction and layout of connections which contain the principle of the invention,

On the drawings:

Figure i is a side view of the apparatus showing the general arrangement of the various parts of the trainer;

Figure 2 is an end view thereof;

Figure 3 shows in outline the various connections by which the different movements of an aeroplane in night are imitated;

Figure 4 is a detail view in perspective partly broken. away, showing the construction of one of the valves for the medium which actuates the control members of the trainer; and

Figure 5 is an outline of the connections showing how the necessary movements are produced.

In the description of what the drawings set forth, numeral I is used to indicate a movable platform. on which is mounted a chair or seat 2. The platform is supported upon a pillar or column 3 which rests upon and is rigid with a Il secured to the ground or floor or other supporting surface. In upright position on the platform I is the control stick 5 in front of the chan1 or seat 2; this stick being so mounted that it can be moved forward and pulled back or swung from side to side about its lower end as a pivot; and in front of the stick 5 are foot pedals one at each side of the platform I. A pupil occupying the seat 2 can attuate the stick -tween the shaft Il and the column 3 5 with either hand and the pedals 6 with his feet in the usual way; the stick 5 being so connected to various elements in the apparatus that, when it is moved forward or backward it tilts the platform up and down from front to rear; and when urged sideways to right or left, it rocks or banks the platform in the same direction; and the foot pedals 6 being so disposed and joined to the other actuating parts that when one or the other is depressed the platform I remains level but is swung to one side or the other with the same movement that an aeroplane takes when it is turning to one hand or the other in flight.

s To permit the platform I to move in this: way it has a universal joint uniting it to the top of the column 3. This joint comprises a couple of bearing members S affixed to the under side of the platform I; these bearing members being attached to a ball `I by means of a horizontal pivot pin 9 which passes through the center of the ball 1. On top of the column 3 is a yokeshaped member, the arms of which provide a bearing which carries a horizontal pivot pin I0 that passes through the ball 'l at right angles to the pin 9. The pin 9 extends crosswise of the platform and the pin I!) lengthwise thereof. Hence the platform I can tilt up and down at the ends or oscillate sidewise about the length thereof.

To enable the platform to swing from right to left without tilting or rocking sideways, the lower part of the column 3 bears a grooved pulley I2, and the end vbelow this pulley ts into a thrust or foot bearing I 3 on the top of the base 4. Between the foot bearing I3 and the hub I4 ofthe pulley I2 is a ball bearing indicated at I5, on which the weight of the entire apparatus rests. The column or pillar 3 can thus turn freely in the foot bearing on the base il.

To produce the various movements above mentioned, a hydraulic motor I6 having a main shaft I 'i is connected by a belt Iii to the pulley l2. The shaft Il carries a corresponding pulley I2 over which the belt I 8 also passes; and when i forth through a predetermined angle; or it may contain a rotor that revolves through a complete circle or more, and the belt gearing bemay be so designed that the platform I will at the same time swing only through a selected arc. The motor I6 is affixed to a support or shelf l1 that is rigid with the column 3 a short distance above the base 4. T0 tilt the platform I by raising and lowering its ends a hydraulic motor, the casing of which is indicatedby the numeral I9, is

connected to both this support l and the platform i. Said motor extends from the support 4l upward and forward as shown in Figure 1. A similar motor, the casing of which is shown at 29, is connected to the shelf li and to the platform i beside the column 3. This motor tilts the platform l sidewise about the pivot Hl es an aXis.

The entire platform l and the apparatus carried thereby and the upper part of the column '3 is enclosed in a housing 2i which resembles the pilots cockpit or nacelle of :an aeroplane; this nacelle having in the tcp an opening indicated at 22 which permits the pilot to get into seat 2 and to climb out again. The motors I6, I9 and 20 are controlledrespectively by valves `23,2@ and 25 on Ythev topo thetplatiorm -l Y.and sol placedthat they can easiiy'be adjustedfby Vconnections from there tothe stick '5 and Vpedals 5. :Saidvalves are vall four-wayvalvesand motors i6, l'and 2i] are uid actuated, the `fluid being delivered through hose connections notshown'but disposed mostlybetween theplatiorm y`i andthe shelf 41. The general layout oi the `connections andthe source'oiisupply Yof operating `medium is shown inigure 3, and 'the structure voi one of the yicontrolling'valves is illustrated 'in Figure .4; `the means by which' the fluid andthe valves'are` actuated to pass the fluid to energize the various motors being indicated on'Figure'. I shall first describeithe construction of'one'oi the four-way valves and the `manner by which it is attached-to the pedais arid control fstick.

Each'oi thesevalves comprises a body'l' havingfaniinternalcavity which receives a rotatable cylindrical body orV plug 2i rhaving a shaft rigidly connected `at one end projecting tozthe outside .of the casing; and there carrying a rigid arm' 28 with a' longitudinal slot 2e therein. Thezvalve casingii `may be made of onepiece and bored out to receivethe body'ii' at one end, whichis closed by-a'plateit. 'n'Figurel the body of the Valve is V"shown as breken away to reveal'the plug or cylinder '2l'. "Thehatchings at different inclinations in this view merely indicate difierent'imagina-ry surfaces asV if several pieces were taken off from this member. At one end of this valve is conduitl which is affixed to the cover 3e and is" in line `with an axial bore 32 in the 'plug 21. Thisbore or Yduct 532 bends sideways and termi-- nates in a port opening through the bottom oi a'recessf at one side of this plug; andin line with an outietpcrti leading to'a pipe or conduitii secured to said valve in. line with said outlet. Another conduit S6 is connected to the side ofthe valve casing 26 in line with a recess in the outside of this valve to permit fluid to pass through the valve from one side to the other. At one side of this recess 38 isa port 3i' which is in line with the conduit 36, and-vat the other end of this recess is a similar port' 3in the valve casing 2% which is in line with a conduit 39, shown as delivering to a reservoir 52. 'In Figure 5 the pipe 35. is shown as connected to'one end of the casing or cylinder of the hydraulic motor iii and :the pipe conduit as connected to said cylinderat the other end. This cylinder vcontains ka piston 4Q, the rod ii of which projects out at the upper end'and ispinned to the lower face ofthe platform l. The reservoir 42 is connected by a pipe 43 with a pumplil which is driven by an electric motor 35. The pumplill delivers to the conduit 3i. This motor @hand pump/i4 are both shown as'mounte'd on the shelflilil and the motor '2t will have a similar piston therein, the rod lll of which movement by the upward and downward movements of the pistons and the rods 4l.

Obviously when the motor d5 is in operation thehydraulicV actuating iiuid will be pumped from the reservoir and delivered to the conduit 3! :andfsupplied tothe Naive, which will be in the position sh wn in Figures 4 and 5. The uid will beimpelled through the plug 21 and out through the conduit 35 to the top df the cylinder I9 to force the-piston fifi-downward. `it the .same-time fluid will-be discharged 1from the cylinder l 9 to the :conduit'36`andfby`way :of the transverserecess-38 in the valve plug'lthrough the'pipe' 39 back into the reservoir-C52. Hence; the :front end of the platform lwill be depressed. 'Ii the Aarm 28 is now actuated so astorotatefthe valve plug rZ'lcounterclockwise'zwithrreference toFigures lfi and .5, the transverserecessi-in the-plugl21 will connect the port34'itorthe'port 3i' leading to-the'conduit 39 and reservoir 42, and the-recess23 will put the conduit 3l into. communication with the-pipe 3G. The rpiston i-nfzthe casingle'will now be forced upwardand iiuidl :rom the cylinderfof this motor willbe ydischargelironr the top'v into lthe reservoir ft2. 'The rodl'i 4willnowbe:forced out and the front of :theplatforrn li'will beraised. vThe same moderoi operation-wiil'take"placeunder thezcontrol ci thevalves'IMan-d 25 torock'thexplatform sideways 'ori to fswing' it'to one hand orthe other without'rocking` ortilting. 'Forthe motor Ifa cylinder and apistonfsimilar to ',theunit -I9 could be substituted,A and azrach Von .the outer end-.oi ithe piston rod'couldenga'gega'gear:on v.the column`3 to rotate `the latter the .belt t8- and-pulleys l'being discarded.

The'connections .by whicl'rthe reservoir v112, the valves23j24-andz25z-andtheimotors I6, l!) and Z9 are joined "together, are Voutlined on Figure 3,`

which'also showsfcertainelectric connections by which'the motorf'li and-some `other Vparts of the apparatus are supplied and controlled under some conditions by electric current. This view is diagram1natic,:however, and 'the yarms 28 fior-the valves are omitted; the four pipes coupled-to'each valve are not in the same relative positions;as shown on Figures "Il and 5; fbut, as Iwill be understood, the valves in actual use willoperate exactly as-already described.

In this View the reservior is shown connected as beforeby-a pipe 43 to thepump ifi drivenv` by the motor 115. 'From the pump is leads a supply conduit 'SI-A'Lto an assemblage :of Icontreq f devices to be described presently above theplatform I and within reach of the occupant oi'the seat i2. "From that point the conduit -Bl Ais continuedl to thek three valves`23, dandzii with which it isseparately connected Vby'branch pipes 3 I 'to supplyiluid to the ducts '32 infthe cylinders orrplugs'Z'l and each ofthese valves. Further, all :these valves are'connected by `branch 'outlet pipes'i39 vr`toracommonA return pipe S--A which leads back2through'a'conduit 35i-#Bote theres/ervoir 42. "Thercasin'gs zofthe three valves.23,;2i and v25'areeachjoined bypipes 3B `to one point ofthe casings'orthe hydraulic-.motors li, i9 and 20 `andby similar 4pipes `35`tothe othereendpi these casings soothat the pistons in these `casings can bermoved inthe same'rnannenas'the` piston 40'on f-Figuref. '.iThe valves havegzthe :same-internal ducts and are adapted to give the same mode of operation as shown on Figure 4.

Connected to the one pipe 35 and the casing of the motor I9 adjacent its junction with this motor is another conduit 3l a which likewise receives actuating fluid from the pump M and returns it by way of pipe 35i-B to the reservoir 112; and coupled to the pipe 35 of the motor I9 is another conduit 35o which is also connected to receive actuating fluid from the pump lill, and deliver to pipe SS-B to be returned to reservoir 42. This motor is designed to be especially operated independent of the others under conditions to be presently set forth.

Referring now to Figures 1 and 2, I locate a pair of posts or studs i5 adjacent the seat 2, and to the top of each post is aflixed a horizontal yoke 55 in which is pivotally mounted a pulley 5I. These pulleys are each side of the seat and a cord chain 52 passes over them and has one end secured to one of the foot pedals and the other end to the remaining pedal. At the middle of the cord between the studs d5 the cord chain 52 is secured to the arm 28 which controls the Valve 23 that governs the admission of actuating medium to the motor l5. Hence, by pressing on one pedal or the other the occupant of the seat can move the arm 28 in one direction or in the opposite direction and thus admit fluid to the valve 23 through the conduit 3l and either pipe 35 or 35 to turn the motor l5 so as to swing the platform to right or left. Springs 53 connect the pedals 5 to the floor so as to keep the cord 52 taut. Also the control. stick 5 is connected so as to actuate the valves 25 and 25 to operate the motors i5 Aand for this purpose a shaft 55 is mounted on suitable bearings on top of the platform l adjacent the stick 5. The shaft has a crank with alpin 55 to engage with the arm 25 of the valve 25, and the stick is so connected to the shaft 55 that when the stick is moved to right or left the valve will be similarly actuated to admit fluid to one side or the other of the piston in the casing of the motor 25, and thus rock the platform sideways. rIhe stick 5 also has connections with the arm 25 of the remaining valve 25, and when it is pushed forward or pulled back, will actuate the valve thereof to admit the fluid to one end or the other oi the motor I9, and the piston thereof will swing the platform up and down about the `pivot El.

rPhe supply conduit 3 lA has in the line thereof a different four-way valve 55 through which the motive fluid pass-eg` by way of pipe nlil-A to the three valves 23, 25 and 25, and returns by way of the conduits {iE-A and 35--B to the reservoir 42; A similar valve controls the additional pipes 3 la and 39d between the motor i5 and the pump 44. These two valves joined by pipe 59 that is also coupled to the pipe i-B leading to reservoir 52; and the pipe i-B is connected to the lower valve for the pipes 3io and 35a, and extends between said valve and the pipe til-ll where it is coupled to the pump lili. In the position shown, one valve 53 allows communication through ducts indicated by broken lines between the pump Ml by way of conduit Sii--A and the three valves 23, 2li and 25; and from these valves to the conduit 35-A, the pipe 39' and conduit 35i-B, which leads back to the reservoir 52; while the other valve .58 obstructs communication between the pipes BI-jB and 3m `and the pipes 35a, and BQ-B, similar dotted lines thereon indicating ducts in non-communication relal valves 58 have outside arms 59 which are operated by a plunger rod 5l) and are joined by a link 6l pinned to the outer end of both arms 59. The rod 60 is shown as having pin-and-slot connection with one arm 59. It is connected to an armature or plunger which is operated by a solenoid 52 and a spring 53 normally keeps the parts in the positions which Figure 3 illustrates. This means of actuating the valves 58 as illustrated is purely diagrammatic. Any other suitable way can be employed; as for example, using two solenoids in parallel, each having a plunger connected to one arm 59 in the same manner.

Just above platform l near the seat 2 is an arm 55a which can be moved into any adjusted position along a curved rack 55 and controls a pair of switches 5T and 55. The switch 51 opens and closes the circuit of the conductors 58a leading to the electric motor 45, and the switch 55 opens and closes a circuit which leads to the solenoid 62. This arm 55a also controls a valve in the conduit 3l-A. A single movement of this valve starts the motor 45 and opens the line of the conduit 3 I -A from the reservoir 42 to the valves 25, 2li and 25; and at the same time it puts the circuit of the solenoid 62 in condition to be closed when the platform l assumes a certain position.

The pipes and conduits can all be set up under the platform I, with exible connections to the valves, motors, pump, etc., and stout hose can of course be utilized. With the layout as shown in Figure 3 the student occupying the seat 2 can work the pedals 5 or push the stick 5 forward and pull it back` or move it from side to side to cause the fluid fromthe reservoir 42 to flow through Athe conduit .5l- A past the valve 58 therein to the three valvesV 23, 25 and 25 into the motors i6, i9 and 25 and o ut from these motors through the` branch pipes 39 to the main pipe .t9-A, and through said valve 53 into the short conduit 39 back to the conduit 35i-B and the reservoir 42. The extent of the longitudinal tilting of the platform l, the rocking sideways or swinging movement thereof around the pillar 3 in imitation of steering the plane or changing its direction can be governed by the degree of movement given to the pedals 6 or the stick 5. Such movement always governs the amount of fluid delivered to the motors and expelled therefrom to be returned tothe reservoir 42; and by varying the amount, the extent of each movement is regulated. i

If, however, the platform is tilted to raise the front end too much, approaching what is known as the angle of stall in the operation of an :aeroplane, the aforesaid valve 58 will be so actuated as to cut out the valves 23, 25 and 25 and their connections to the motors I5 and 25and the other valve 58 will open the auxiliary connections for the motor I9.

The actuation of the valves 58 to bring about the adjustments named is produced bythe energization of the solenoid 52; which is connected through conductors 64 to the switch 55. In the line` of one of these conductors is a pivoted switch arm 56 having a knob or projection 6I just under the platform I. This switch is wholly or partly of magnetic material and is held up by a spring 58 out of engagement with, a contact 69. In series with the conductors 55 is a magnetic coil 1D adjacent the switch arm 65. When the platform l is elevated at the front to the angle of stall, as shown by dot and dash lines 13, the knob is depressed by the platform and auiaagass the switch arm forced downtovengage .With the contact 69, andthe'circuit to the solenoid 62 .is complete.

The solenoid then actsto swing the arms'59 of valves 58 through an arcof about 45 degrees, cutting off the valves 23, v2li and 25 from the reservoir 42 and pumpt; while the lower valve opens the auxiliary pipe connections 31a and 39a from the motor le to thepipes 3|-B,.and 39 and 39-B, running to the pump 44 Yand the reservoir 42, respectively. When this takes place the pump supplies fluid through the `line' Bt-B and the conduit 31a, these conduits now :being in communication Vthrougha duct in the-,valve indicated .bythe broken line at .the right to the end of the casing I9,.where the pistonrodill projects, and forces the .piston insuch direction as to vpull the frontend of theplatform downward. iAt this time `iiuid is ,discharged from the other end of this motor through the pipe 39atothe valve...5 8, and through'theduct therein indicated ,by the other brokendine, to the connection 39 andthe conduittl-,Bv to the reservoir 4Z. .This continues even afterthe platform releases the kncbtvbecause thecoil l0 remains ,magnetic .to hold the yswitch arm V166 against the contact 69. The platform thus sinks at the front end till it reaches the position-indicated by thedot-and-dash.lines'M. lltiinally engages a movableswitch arm "i2, which engages a xed contact il Vthesetwo elements y.also ,being in series in the conductors 64. LThe lcircuit to the solenoid opens; the `solenoid .is `deenergized; sois magnetic coil '10; and then the springi at once withdraws the plungenrod y E0. Y' ll'1e-two valvesarenow. returned toitheir former positions, in. which vthe one establishes communication from the .pumpfiilito the valves 23, 24 and 25; andfrom these vvalves tothe reservoir 42; .while the other again `obstructs thepipes 3io andf33a. The control devices by which the front `and rear` ends of .the platform can be tilted up .and down, rockedsidewiseand rotated about the vertical axis of the ,column 3 as in steering an airplane; are oncemore rendered effective to `operatein their predetermined manner. The auxiliary control connec tions of theplatform ithus supersede the regular control members in case the ,student ever manipulates the controlmembers ofthe trainer so as torproduce what would be astall of the plane in actualpractice, and he cannot work the device further until the stall has been auto matically corrected.

The foregoing description thus sets forth clear- 1y the construction and mode of operation of my improved night trainer; and it is evident that the combination of various members is nicely and conveniently arranged and well'calculated to give the pupil all the instruction'and practice he requires and the means for automatically correcting a stall condition will a1- ways demonstrate most impressively'thatgoing into a stall is a serious error, and by the need for handling the apparatus a stall vdoes not occur.

Having described'my invention, what I believe to be new is:

Training apparatus comprising a'basaa co1-A umn rotatably supported ontliemase, a horizontal shelf fixed tothe column, auniversaljjoint at the top of the`column, aplatform on' the column connected thereto by said joint, a -motor 8 device connected to vthe shelf and to the 'platform adjacent one end of the latter to raiseand lower the ends of the platform, a .secondi motor device connected to the shelf and to one sideof the platform to tilt the latter sidewise, a third motorA device on the shelf, a mechanical connectionbetween the last named motor device..and said column to swing the platform about the column as an axis, a motor and pump for a power fluid on the shelf, a rotary valve on the platform having an operating arm movable longitudinally of the platform, a second-rotary valve having an operating arm movable transversely of the tplatform, a third rotary valve havingV an arm movable from side to side of the platform, a'supply conduit between said valves and pump, lbranch conduits separatelyv connecting said valves inthe order named, to the first, second and third motor devices, respectively, anda return-conduitcon necting said valves to the pump lsothatnwhen either valve is actuated to admit said iiuidto the motor device connected thereto said Ylast named motor device is then energized; the aforesaid first named motordevice also having vauxiliary supply and return connections coupled to said supply and return conduits, respectively;y a casing with a valve connected to said supply and return conduits, a casing and valve coupled to saidauxiliary connections, said last named valves having operating arms, a link joining said iast'named arms, Va solenoid-connected to operate said last named arms,ran electric circuit for said solenoid, a switch in the circuit in position to be closed by the platform when the front end thereof Ais tilted too high to energize the-solenoidand actuate the last named valves to shut the supply and return conduits'and open the auxiliary connec-A tions to the rst named motor devicefand'reverse the latter, a magnet coil in said circuit'to `hold said switch closed when disengaged by theplatform, and a switch adjacent the platform to .be opened by the platform to break saidcircuit when the platform is moved back from said tilted position. P


REFERENCES vCITED The following references are of record inthe le of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 844,270 Emery Feb. 12, 1907 1,025,517 Davis May 7, 1912 1,825,462 Link Sept.29, 1931 1,865,828 Buckley July 5, 1932 1,944,180 Huffman Jan. 23,1934 2,063,231 Custer Deo. 8,1936 2,099,857 Link Nov. 23, 1937 2,306,429 Edwards Dec. 29, 19412 2,316,131 Ocker Apr. 13, 1943 2,358,016 Link Sept. 12,1944 2,362,486 Holbert Nov. 14, 1944 2,366,603 Dehmel Jan.4 2, 1945 2,372,741 Horseld Apr. :3, 1945 2,385,095 McCarthy Sept. 18, 1945 .FOREGN PATENTS Number Country Date 127,820 Great Britain 17919 396,538 Great Britain 1933 553,139 Great Britain 1943

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U.S. Classification434/58, 91/511
International ClassificationG09B9/12, G09B9/14, G09B9/02
Cooperative ClassificationG09B9/14, G09B9/12
European ClassificationG09B9/12, G09B9/14