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Publication numberUS2525344 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 10, 1950
Filing dateJun 17, 1947
Priority dateJun 17, 1947
Publication numberUS 2525344 A, US 2525344A, US-A-2525344, US2525344 A, US2525344A
InventorsWinslow Garniss George
Original AssigneeWinslow Garniss George
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Ball tumbler type cylinder lock
US 2525344 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 10, 1950. G. w. GARNISS 2,525,344

BALL TUMBLER -TYPE CYLINDER LOCK Filed June 17, 1947 20 12' 1 16 Z 17 24 17 22 2 2e 2a 2 L I 28 J 13" will!" 3 I IN VEN TOR.

Patented Oct. 10, 1950 BALL TUMBLEB TYPE CYLINDER LOCK George Winslow Garniss, Bloomfield, N. J.

Application June 1'7, 1947, Serial No. 755,103

This invention relates to looks and in particular to cylinder locks.

Cylinder locks, as at present commonly used, employ a plurality of spring pressed cylindrical tumblers to normally lock the cylinder to the case element of the lock. The tumblers are moved out of locking position against the pressure of the springs by a flat key serrated in conformity with the size and location of the cylindrical tumblers. The present day cylinder locks have numerous disadvantages both from a manufacturing and operating standpoint and considering their comparative simplicity are high in cost.

I have devised a cylinder lock which has all of the advantages of the present cylinder locks, but is simpler in construction, can be manufactured at much lower cost, is much less subject to wear in use and is for all practical purposes pick-proof.

It is the principal object of this invention to provide a cylinder lock in which one or more ball members are employed which are movable radially from looking to unlocking position and vice versa, solely by, or solely-against, the force of gravity, said balls when in either of said positions being positively held against movement.

It is also an important object of this inven tion to provide a cylinder lock in which'a ball is employed that is movable from locked position to unlocked position in a vertical radial path located above the center of the cylinder ofthe lock, said ball being normally held in lockedposition by a retractable member which substantially closes the keyhole to access by foreign bodies;-

whereby when the key displaces said retractable member and a hole therein is aligned with said ball said ball falls out of locked position to permit the cylinder of the lock to be rotated and when the key is retracted the ball is raised thereby into locked position to be held therein by said retractable member. I

It is a further object of the invention to provide a cylinder lock in which a plurality of balls are employed movable from locked position to unlocked position in paths radially and longitudinally spaced about the cylindrical keyhole in the cylinder, one of said paths being vertical and above the center of said keyhole, said balls being normally positively held in locked position by a retractable member closely fitting within the keyhole and closing access thereinto, whereby 14 Claims. (01. 70-364) when the key is inserted are aligned with said balls, the said ball movable in said vertical path will fall out of locked position to permit the key to rotate the cylinder to move the remainder of said balls from locked position to unlocked position and when the key is retracted said balls will bereturned to locked position and heldtherein by said retractablemember.

The further objects, features and advantages of my-invention will be readily apparent from aconsideration of the following description taken with the accompanying drawings in which:

Fig; 1 is a vertical section showing a lock embodying the features of my invention; Fig. 2 is a plan view of a key for the lock;

Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 1 showing the locking mechanism in position to be rotated by the key; I

Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken along the line of Fig. 3; and

Fig. 5 is a rear'view of the lock of Fig. 1.

The lock of the invention is of general utility and may be used in place of the present day 03 1-,

inder locks to fasten doors and similar closures.-

While thelock, embodying features of my invention, is shown as positioned in the closure member itself it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to this embodiment but that the lock issusceptible, of being incorporated 7 into the padlock and other forms. Also, While the lock of the drawings is not shown as associated with the lockbox usually employed with cylinder locks, it is to be understood that such a lockbox may be employed with the lock shown.

Referring to the drawings, the novel lock I0 is shown as mounted in position in a closure member, such as' a door, in which a hole is provided to house the outer cylindrical'case member I I The annular flange 32, integral with case member H, contacts one face of the closure member While a nut l2 threaded on screw threads 13 formed on the rear end of the case member l l contacts the opposite face of the closure to keep the lock ll! fixed in position. The case member H is provided with a central bore Ila which houses the cylinder member l8. A cylindrical keyhole'bore "la is formed through the center portion of the cylinder member IS.

in the keyhole to retract" the-retractable member-and the holes in the key" modatea portion of ball l1.

The cylinder member 18 includes an end which projects outwardly beyond the rear end of the case member H and upon which is mounted a latch member 21. The latch member 21 is maintained in fixed position by means of a set screw 28. The latch member 21 may be used to operate the components of the usual lockbox, not shown, or it may be the actual latching means.

The extending end of the cylinder member l8 has a screw threaded bore adapted to receive a similarly screw threaded plug 2!. Plug 2| is provided with a central screw threaded hole which receives the threaded end 22 of the stem member 23. The stem member 23, at its keyhole end, is provided with an enlarged, generally hemisphericalhead 24 of a size to permit ready entrance of the hollow key 30. About the stem member 23 is a spring member 25. The coils and the diameter of the wire of which are such that spring 25 contacts the stem member 23 and the walls of the keyhole bore l8a with only sufficient clearance to provide for easy operation. Between enlarged head 24 and spring 25 is a ball 26 constantly urged by the spring 25 toward the head 24 and having a bore therethrough to permit it to be placed on the stem member 23. The ball 26 is of a size to fit snugly in the keyhole bore 18a and to effectively seal the keyhole [8a against access by any of the instrumentalities commonly used for lock picking.

1 line with the extreme outer position of the ball-26am provided the bores I 4 and. 26in the c asing;memb'er ll andthe cylinder member l8, respectively. These bores areof a diameter to snugly house the ball. [1' while providing for movement of said ball in directions radially of center-line of the keyhole Mia. The ball I! is of'such apdiameter. that it exceeds the thickness of the cylinder member I 8 by an amount equal to the width of the annu us space between thewall of thekeyhole lBa and the surface of the stem 23. I

The plug I closes the upper end of the bore H l .Theportion of the plug [4 presented to ball i! has a depression l5 formed therein to accom- The depth of depression i6 is substantially equal to the distance betweenthewall of the keyhole "3a and the surface of 'the stem.23. Furthermore, the depth of depression l6 isso chosen that it does not gxceeld. substantially one fourth the diameter of a1 ,1.

.Aplurality of balls, bores and plugs of the same-nature as those just described are distributed alongthelength of the keyhole; these are not only longitudinally spaced but they are also radially spaced. The invention is not limited. to anypattern of spacingbut the. pattern chosen will determine the character of the key and only arkey conforming to the particular pattern will operate in the lock;

'The key 30 includes the usual flat enlarged portionfor'manipulating it and a hollow cylin drical portion 29 adapted to be inserted into the keyhole over the enlarged head and along stem 23. 4 The cylindrical portion 28 of the key 30 is provided with a pluralit of holes 3! corresponding in number and spacing to the balls I! employed. The key 30' is also provided with a projection 33 which is adapted to engage a similar shaped. depression 34 in the cylinder 18 for r0- tating said cylinder to rotate latch member 21 to thelockecl or unlocked position, as the case may be. Depression 34 also serves to indicate the position of registry between the key 3!) and the lock mechanism.

In assembling the lock, ball 26 and the spring are first placed on the stem 23. The threaded end of the stem 23 is then threadeol'into plug 25 and the stem 23 is inserted into the keyhole from the rear. The plug 2| is then screwed into posi tion. A screwdrive slot is cut into plug 2!, as shown in Fig. 5, to facilitate this operation. After this, the balls I! are positioned in their respective bores and the cylinder it moved into the bore Ha until the shoulder I9 contacts case member II. The latch piece 2'! is then placed upon the extendin end of cylinder i8 and fixed in position by tightening set screw 28. Fig. 1 shows the lock parts in' the locked position. At this time the first ball I! rests upon the ball 26 and contacts the depression 16 in the plug E5. The remainder of the balls are held against their respective plugs by means of the coils of spring 25. The pitch of spring 25 is small enough to assure this result. When the parts are in this position, Fig. 1, it is not possible to rotate of the balls being below the center of the keyhole will remain in the locked position. Unless the location of the balls are accurately known, it is not possible to unlock the lock.

It is also to be noted that ball 26 effectively seals the keyhole against the entrance of foreign matter such as dirt and the like which would tend to foul up the parts and prevent their smooth and easy working.

To rotate the parts of the lock Ill to the unlocked position, the key 30 is inserted in the keyhole [8a and projection 33 made to seat into depression 34. In doing this, ball 26 and spring 25 are retracted along the stem 23. When the holes 3| in the key 30 are in registry with their respective balls H, the first ball will fall by gravity into contact with stem .23, Fig. 3. Any other ball I? that is located above the center line of the keyhole will also fall into contact with stem 23'. The balls below stem '23 will maintain their original position. Upon initial rotation ofthe key, the balls below the center of the keyhole will be r'aisedout of contactwith their respective plugs 15 and into contact with stem 23. To assure this result it is necessary, as pointed out heretofore, that the depthof depression 16 does not substantially exceed one fourth the diameter of ball, Ill, WhenEthe" balls are in contact with the stem 23, the cylinder 13 and the latching member .21 rotate with the key 30 to permit the latch member 21 to unlatch the closure or the lockbox.

The key 30 cannot be retracted as long as latch 21 is out of the locked position as the balls ll, being in contact with thesurface of bore I la and the surfaceof thestem 23, will prevent it. When the key is rotated to again bring latch member 2'! to the locked position, key 30 may be retracted as the balls may then be moved to their original position. The ball 24 and spring 25 facilitate the removal of key 30 from the keyhole and in fact, act to eject the same therefrom.

While the inventionhas been described with particular reference to specific embodiments, it is to be understood that it is not to be limited thereto, but is to be construed broadly and restricted solely by the scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. In a look, a case member having a bore therein, a cylinder member fitted for rotation in said bore and having a cylindrical keyhole therein, latch means on said cylinder member and movable therewith, a stem mounted centrally in said keyhole, said case member having a depression which communicates with said bore, said cylinder member having a radial hole extending from the outer surface thereof to said keyhole and being located to align with said depression in one position of said cylinder member relative to said case, a ball positioned in said depression and said radial hole, when in said-one position, to lock said cylinder against rotation in said case member, a retractable member positioned adjacent said radial hole and normally preventing egress of said ball from said depression, and means encircling said stem member and movable therealong into operating position, said means having a radial opening therein, said means in said movement displacing said retractable member away from said radial hole and positioning said radial opening in line with said radial hole to permit egress of said ball out of said depression toward said stem member so as to free said cylinder for rotation in said case member.

2. In a lock, a case member having a bore therein, a cylinder member fitted for rotation in said bore and having a cylindrical keyhole therein, latch means on, said cylinder member and movable therewith, a stem member mounted centrally in said keyhole, said case member having a depression which communicates with said bore, said cylinder member having a radial hole extending from the outer surface thereof to said keyhole and being located to align with said depression in one position of said cylinder member relative to said case, a ball positioned in said depression and said radial hole, when in said one position, to lock said cylinder against rotation in said case member, a retractable member positioned adjacent said radial hole and normally preventing egress of said ball from said depression, and a hollow cylindrical keyinsertable in said keyhole and movable along said stem into operating position, said key having a radial opening therein, said key in said movement displacing said retractable member away from said radial hole and positioning said radial opening in line with said radial hole to permit egress of said ball out of said depression toward said stem member so as to free said cylinder for rotation in said case member.

3. In a lock, as defined in claim 2, in which, the depth of said depression is substantially equal the-distance between the peripheries of said stem member and said keyhole and said ball is of a diameter not in excess of the distance between the bottom of said depressionand the periphery of said keyhole, whereby when said ball is in contact with the bottom of said depression said ball does not impede the movement of said key in said keyhole and when said ball is in contact with said stem member said ball does not impede the rotation of said cylinder member.

i. In a lock, as defined in claim 2, in which the depth of said depression is substantially equal to the distance between the peripheries of said stem member and said keyhole and said ball is of a diameter substantially equal to but not greater than the thickness of the wall of said 6 cylinder member plus the depth of the said depression.

5. In a lock, as defined in claim 2, in which said cylinder member and said key are provided with means engageable when said key is in look operating position to enable said key and cylinder member to be rotated as a unit.

6. In a lock, a case member, a cylinder member fitted for rotation ina bore in said case member and having a cylindrical keyhole therein, latch means united to said cylinder member and movable therewith, a cylindrical stem member mounted centrally in said keyhole, spring pressed retractable means around said stem member closely fitted for longitudinal movement in said keyhole and preventing access thereinto, a hollow cylindrical key member insertable in said keyhole over said stem member and adapted to push said retractable member ahead along said stem as said key is moved into lock operating position, said key including means engageable with said cylinder member for rotating said key and cylinder member as a unit, said lock having a radial bore therein comprising a, depression in said case member and radial bores in said cylinder member and said key member, the depth of said depression being substantially equal to the distance between the peripheries of said stem member and said keyhole, and a ball in said bore of a diameter substantially equal to but not in excess of the thickness of said cylinder member plus the depth of said depression, whereby when said ball is in contact with said stem member, said key and said cylinder member may be rotated as a unit and when said ball is in contact with said retractable means it contacts the bottom of said depression and rotation of said cylinder member is prevented.

7. In a lock, as defined in claim 5, in which said bore is vertically disposed above the center of said keyhole, whereby said ball member moves into contact with said stem member solely through the action of gravity, and when said key member is withdrawn from said keyhole the sides of the bore in said key member raise said ball into contact with the bottom of said depression and said retractable member in following said key member engages said ball as said key leaves it to maintain it in contact with the bottom of said depression.

8. In a look, a case member, a cylinder member fitted for rotation in a bore in said case member and having a cylindrical keyhole therein, latch means mounted on said cylinder member for movement therewith, a cylindrical stem member mounted centrally in said keyhole, spring pressed retractable means around said stem member closely fitted for longitudinal movement in said keyhole and preventing access thereinto, a hollow cylindrical key member insertable in said keyhole over said stem member and adapted to push said retractable member ahead along said stem as said key is moved intolock operating position, said lock having a plurality of angularly spaced radial bores therein, each of said bores comprising a depression in said case member and radial bores in said cylinder member and said key member, the depth of said depression being substantially equal to the distance between the peripheries of said stem member and said keyhole, and a ball in each of said angularly spaced radial lock bores of a diameter substantially equal to but not in excess of the thickness of said cylinder member plus the depth of said depression, whereby when said key member is out of said keyhole saidretractable member holds said balls out of said keyhole to lock said case member and cylinder member against relative movement, and when said key is in look operating position said balls are in position to permit said key member and cylinder member to rotate relative to said case member.

9. In a look, a case member, a cylinder member fitted for rotation in a bore in said case member and having a cylindrical keyhole therein, latch means mounted on said cylinder member for movement therewith, a cylindrical stem member mounted centrally in said keyhole, spring pressed retractable means around said stem member closely fitted for longitudinal movement in said keyhole and preventing access thereinto, a hollow cylindrical key member insertable in said keyhole over said stem member and adapted to push said retractable member ahead along said stem as said key is moved into lock operating position, said key including cylinder engaging means, said lock having a "plurality of longitudinally spaced radial bores therein, each of said bores comprising a depression in said case member and radial bores in said cylinder member and said key member, the depth of said depression being substantially equal to the distance between the peripheries of said stem member and said keyhole, and a ball in each of said longitudinally spaced radial lock bores of a diameter substantially equal to but not in excess of the thickness of said cylinder member plus the depth of said depression, whereby when said key member is out of said keyhole said retractable member holds said balls out of said keyhole to lock said cylinder member againstrotary movement, and when said key member is in lock operating position said balls are in position to permit said key member and said cylinder to rotate relative to said case member.

10. In a look, a case member, a cylinder member fitted for rotation in a bore in said case member and having a cylindrical keyhole therein, a cylindrical stem member mounted centrally in said keyhole, spring pressed retractable means around said stem member closely fitted for longitudinal movement in said keyhole and preventing access thereinto, a hollow cylindrical key member insertable in said keyhole over said stem member adapted to push said retractable member ahead along said stem as said key is,

moved into lock operating position, said lock having a plurality of angularly and longitudinally spaced radial bores therein, each of said bores comprising a depression in said case member and radial bores in said cylinder member and said key member adapted to be brought into alignment when said key member is in lock operating position, the depth of said depression being substantially equal to the distance between the peripheries of said stem member and said keyhole, and a ball in each of said angularly and longitudinally spaced radial lock bores of a diameter substantially equal to but not in excess of the thickness of said cylinder member plus the depth of said depression, whereby when said key member is not in said keyhole said retractable member holds said balls out of said keyhole and in position to lock said case member and cylinder member against relative rotary movement, and when said key member is in lock operating position said balls are in position to permit said key member and said cylinder member to rotate as a unit.

11. In a look, a case, a cylinder rotatable in a longitudinal bore in saidcaseand provided with a keyhole, said case having a depression opening into said longitudinal bore, said cylinder having a transverse bore therein opening into said'longitudinal bore and said keyhole adapted to be brought into registry with said depression to provide a lock-piece receiving chamber, a lockpiece adapted to be housed in said chamber to lock said cylinder and said case against relative rotative movement, and retractable means in said keyhole adapted in the extended position to obstruct the keyhole end of said transverse bore to maintain said lock-piece in looking position, said retractable means adapted in the retracted position to clear said transverse bore whereby said lock-piece may be moved out of said depression and into said keyhole to unlock said case and said cylinder for relative rotative movement.

12. In a look, a case, a cylinder rotatable in a longitudinal bore in said case and provided with a keyhole, said case having a depression opening into said longitudinal bore, said cylinder having a transverse bore therein opening into said longitudinal bore and said keyhole and adapted to be brought into registry with said depression to provide a lock-piece receiving chamber, a lockpiece of a dimension approximating the length of said chamber and having oppositely disposed portions of generally semi-circular cross-section, said lock-piece adapted to be housed in said chamber to lock said cylinder and said case against relative rotative movement, and retractable means in said keyhole adapted in the extended position toobstruct the keyhole end of said transverse bore to maintain said lock-piece in looking position, said retractable means adapted in retracted position to clear said transverse bore whereby said lock-piece may be moved out of said depression into said keyhole to unlock said case and said cylinder for relative rotative movement.

13. In a look, a case, a cylinder rotatable in a longitudinal bore in said case and provided with a keyhole, said case having a depression opening into said longitudinal bore, said cylinder having a transverse bore therein opening into said longitudinal bore and said keyhole and adapted to be brought into registry with said depression by the rotation of said cylinder in said case to provide a chamber, a ball of a diameter approximating the length of said chamber adapted to be housed in said chamber to lock said cylinder and said case against relative rotative movement, retractable means in said keyhole adapted in extended position to obstruct the keyhole end of said transverse bore to maintain said ball in locking position, said retractable means adapted in retracted position to clear said transverse bore whereby said ball may be moved out of said depression into said keyhole to permit rotation of said cylinder relative to said case, and means in said keyhole adapted to limit the movement of said ball into said keyhole.

14. In a look, a case, a cylinder rotatable in a longitudinal bore in said case and provided with a keyhole, said case having a depression opening into said longitudinal bore, said cylinder having a transverse bore therein opening into said longitudinal bore and said keyhole adapted to be brought into registry with said depression to provide a lock-piece receiving chamber, a lock-piece adapted to be housed in said chamber to lock said cylinder and said case against relative rotative movement, retractable means in said keyhole adapted in the extended position to obstruct the keyhole end of said transverse bore to maintain said lock-piece in looking position, said retractable means adapted in the retracted position to clear said transverse bore whereby said lock-piece may be moved out of said depression and into said keyhole to unlock said case and said cylinder for relative rotative movement, and a cylindrical key insertable in said keyhole to move said retractable member from the extended to the retracted position, said key having a transverse bore therein adapted to be brought into registry with said first mentioned transverse bore by rotation of said key relative to said cylinder to pro- REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 913,942 Bodge Mar. 2, 1909 Raymond Oct. 31, 1939 Certificate of Correction Patent No. 2,525,344 October 10, 1950 GEORGE WINSLOW GARNISS It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows:

Column 6, line 39, for the claim reference numeral 5 read 6;

and that the" said Letters Patent should be read as corrected above, so that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Oifice. signedg' -jand sealed this 6th day of February, A. D. 1951.

THOMAS F. MURPHY,

Assistant Oommz'ssioner of Patents.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US913942 *Dec 21, 1907Mar 2, 1909John W BodgeLock.
US2177996 *Jul 29, 1938Oct 31, 1939Eagle Lock CompanyLock
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2911816 *Jun 28, 1957Nov 10, 1959Herbert O JonesSealed rotary control
US3509748 *Apr 24, 1968May 5, 1970Fort Lock CorpAxial pin tumbler lock
US3681955 *Dec 3, 1968Aug 8, 1972Sturgeon Ronald FMultiple-axial-pin tumbler lock
US5121618 *Jul 25, 1991Jun 16, 1992Rita ScottAttachment for transforming lock cylinders into interchangeable cores
US6125673 *Jul 8, 1999Oct 3, 2000Trimel Securities Pty Ltd.Electronic cylinder lock and computer security system
US7040126Apr 8, 2003May 9, 2006Master Lock CompanyDiscriminating mechanism for a pin tumbler lock
US7637131 *Sep 3, 2006Dec 29, 2009Essence Security International Ltd.Electronic cylinder internal key apparatus and method
US20050072199 *Apr 8, 2003Apr 7, 2005Edwards Billy B.Discriminating mechanism for a pin tumbler lock
DE1057495B *Jul 29, 1954May 14, 1959Zeiss Ikon AgZylinderschloss, das in bezug auf die quer zur Zylinderachse verlaufende Mittelebene des vom Schliesszylinder getragenen Schliessgliedes unsymmetrisch gestaltet ist
WO1998051891A1 *Apr 23, 1998Nov 19, 1998Dyhlen KennethA lock device
Classifications
U.S. Classification70/492, 70/388, 70/386
International ClassificationE05B35/04, E05B35/00, E05B27/00, E05B19/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05B27/00, E05B19/0047
European ClassificationE05B27/00