US 2526695 A
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Oct. 24, 1950 M. SCHLUMBERGER 2,526,595
WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Original Filed Aug. 1, 1941 Y 3* 4 jg? INVENTOR. MAC'EL 56w; (/MBE/PGZ/P Oct. 24, 1950 M SCHLUMBERGER 2,526,695
I WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS Original Filed Aug. 1, 1941 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 51 50 Z6 a I I 5a 72 56 I ,7] 75 73 65 i 67 [a '59 .JNVENTORJ -/I4fia SC/ll/MBERGEI? Oct. 24, 1950 M. SCHLUMBERGER WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Original Filed Aug. 1, 1.941
1950 M. SCHLUMBERGER 2,526,695
WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS Original Filed Aug. 1, 1941 4 sheets-sheet 4 I N V EN TOR. 4/4205; Jay/z UMBEAGZ'A d] TUBA E1 6 Patented Oct. 24, 1.950
;;:-f-U .T D S TE A -E T-goFFlC "12 WELL CONDITIONING APPARATUS Marcel Schlumberger, Paris, France, assignor to Schlumberger Well Surveying ;Corporation, Houston, Tex., a corporation of Delaware Original application August 1, 1941, serial No.
405,024, now Patent No...2,381,929, dated August 14, 1945.
Divided and this application June 2, 1945, Serial No. 597,218
This application is a division of U. S. application Serial No. 405,024, filed August 1, 1941, by the present applicant; now Patent No. 2,381,929, granted August 14, 1945.
The present invention relates to new and improved apparatus for sealing off the space between the wall of a bore hole and its casing at any desired depth or depths therein.
In the exploitation of oil wells drilled into the earth, good engineering practice requires that the space between the wall of the bore hole and the casing which is usually inserted therein be sealed. 011 at a predetermined location or locations in' order to prevent the flow of fluid or gas therealong from one subterranean bed to another. This is also essential in order to permit the oil bearing layers to'be exploited. separately.
- 'Heretofore, it has been the practice to pump a suitable cement slurry through the casing to thebottom of the bore hole and up into the space between the casing and the wall of the bore hole. This method is adequate for sealing off the casing at points near the bottom of the bore hole, but it has not been found satisfactory for sealing off the casing at points relatively great distances from the bottom of the bore hole. In the latter cases, the method iscostly because of the large quantitiesof cement required and the seals pro- .duced are often ineffective because the cement is frequently not evenly distributed about the casing. Y r 7 It is an object of the present invention, ac-- cordingly, to provide new and improved apparatus for sealing off the space between the wall of the bore hole and its casing which are free from the disadvantages of the prior art 'noted above, and which are more simple, flexible and economical in operation.
Another object of the invention is to provide new and improved apparatus of the above character which is adapted to perforate the casing, and also to inject sealing material into the space between the wall of the bore hole and the casing through the perforation or perforations formed therein.
Another object of theinvention is to provide new and improved apparatus of the above character wherein the means for injecting the sealing material forms a part of the perforating m'eans' andincludes detachable means for plugging the perforation in the casing after the sealing material has been injected therethrough.
In the preferred construction the perforation thus formed is subsequently plugged by a detachable punch which is disengaged'from the per- Claims. (01. 156-1) 2 forating body upon retraction of the latter. However, in the broadest aspects, the invention provides for the perforation of casing and establishing communication between the interior of the perforating body and the exterior of the casing with means to force a sealing material from the interior of the body tothe space exteriorly of the casing. In more specific form, as indicated above, the perforation thus formed for the purpose indicated may be plugged by the punch after the sealing material has been introduced into the space exteriorly of the casing in the embodiments in which the punch is disengaged from the perforating body uponretraction of the latter. I Further objects of the invention have to do with specific forms of perforating bodies and punches.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent from the following detailed description, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which: Fig. 1 isa View in vertical section illustrating apparatus constructed according to the present invention for perforating the casing of a bore hole and for injecting sealing material into the space between the wall of the bore hole and the casing.
- Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 2-2 of' Fig. 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows, showing the perforating means in the normal inoperative position. 7
f Fig. 3 illustrates the perforating means shown in Fig; 2 after the perforation of the casing has been completed.
Fig. 4 shows the perforating means of Fig. 2
in the retracted position after the perforating and sealing operations have been completed. I Figs. 5,6; 7 and 7a, 8, 8a and 8b, 9, 9a and 9b, 10, 10a'a'nd 10b, illustrate a number of difierent forms of perforating punches constructed accordingto the present invention. 7 Referring to Fig. 1, a bore hole It) is shown having a casing ll therein slightly smaller in diameterthan the diameter of the bore hole Ill, forming an annular space 12 between the wall of the bore hole Ill and the casing II. For con veni'ence it will be assumed that it is desired to form a seal in the space [2 in the vicinity of the upper boundary of an oil bearing formation l3 traversed'by the bore hole I 0.
-Within the casing I l and in the vicinity of the formation I3 is disposed apparatus for perforat'-' ingthe casing-and for introducing the sealing material into the space l2 between the wall of 3 the bore hole It] and the casing II. This apparatus comprises a body I4 made of steel or other suitable material, having a cylindrical chamber I5 formed in the upper portion thereof within which is slidably mounted a piston I6. of relatively large area. The piston I6 is maintained normally near the top of the chamber I5 by means of a compression spring I! which is seatedin an annular recess I8 formed in the bottom of the chamber l5 and the upper end ofwhich engages the lower face of the piston IL The lower portion of the piston I6 is formed as a coaxial cylindrical plunger I9- which is considerably smaller in diameter than the piston I6,
I 5. The bore communicates through a passage.
2I with a cylindrical chamber 22 which extends transversely of the body I4 and which terminates in an opening 22a formed in the wall of the body I4. The portion of the chamber- 22 which-is nearest the opening 22a isinternally threaded at '23 to receive an externally threaded barrel 24 having a central bore 25 formed-therein within which a cylindricalperforating and .injecting'element 26 is slidably fitted.
Located below the chamber '22 and communicating therewith through a. passage 42a is a second chamber'ZZ in whichqis slidably mounted a perforating and injecting element 26'. Correspondingrparts in the. lower element 25' and associated apparatus are designated by primed reference characters. Usually therewill be a pluralityof perforating and injecting. elements located about the periphery of the body I4. For'the sakeof simplicity; however; only two-aretshownin Fig; 1.
Referring nowto Fig. 2,ithe injecting and perforating element 26' is slightly smaller in diameter than the diameterof the chamber. 22'- and it has a laterally extending rearportion 21 which cooperates withthe barrel portion 24 to limit the extent of movement'of the perforating and injectingmeans 26. The rear portion 21 of theinjecting and perforatingelement- 26" is provided'with a; circumferential: groove 28 within which is'disposed suitable packing material 29" for providing a tight joint.
In one side of the perforating and injecting means 26" is formed an aperture 30' providing communication with thehollow interior 3 I thereof. At the forward end of the perforating and injecting means '26 is provided a. closuremember 3-2: within-whichare formed a plurality of longitudinal extendingpassages 33"- and 34. Mounted on the closure member 32' and secured thereto by means of a suitable screw 35' is a punch 36' within which are formed a' plurality of. longitudinal grooves 3'! and 38 which are adapted to registerwith the passages 33 and'34', respectively, permitting sealing material to be injected from the, interior 3I- of the perforating and injecting means 26 through the passages-33' and 34 and the grooves S'I and-38intothe space I2 between the wall of the bore hole I 01' and thecasing I I-, as described-in greater detail hereinafter.
Formed in the piston I6 is alongitudinally extending passage'39 which communicates with a longitudinally extending aperture 40 formed in the side wall of the-plunger I9. The dimensions of the aperture 46 are so chosen that it is entirely closed when the piston I6 is in its uppermost position, but when the piston 56 is in its lowermost position itcommunicates with an aperture 4I-a; formedinthe wall 'ofthe chamber 20. The aperture -41 a communicates with a downwardly extending passage 4| formed in the body I4 which in turn communicates with an aperture 42 formed in the wall of the bore 25 in the barrel 24.
-The passage 4| continues downwardly through the. body I4 and .throughthe barrel portion 24 to an aperture 42 formed in the wall of the bore 25 in the barrel 24' located in the body I4 below the barrel 24.
In this embodiment of the invention, the apparatus is lowered into the casing II on a conventionalstring of drill pipe 43, at the lower end of which is formed'a laterally extending flange 44 which is adapted to be rotatably received within a corresponding groove 45 formed in a head piece 46. The drill pipe 43 is provided with an aperture 4! which is adapted to register with a laterally extending passage 48 formed in the head piece 46 when the string of pipe 43' is rotated with respect to the head piece 46 for the purpose of placing the hollow interior of the drill pipe 43 in communication with thei'liquid'withinthe casing- I-I.
At the surface of theearth; thestring of drill pipe 43.is connected to a length of flexibletubing 49 to which fluid under pressure is supplied from suitable pumping means located at the surface of theearth.
Inoperation, the body I4 is lowered on the string of drill pipe 43.-until-the.-perforating and injecting elements 26 and 26' are located'approximately at the depth of the'upp er boundary of the formation I3 where it is desired. to form the seal. A liquid cement mixture is then pumped from the pumping means. 50 "through theflexible tubing-.49 and through the string of drill pipe 43 into the chamber- I5. At this time; of course theaperture 47 in the drill pipe-43 will be out of registry with the passage: 48in the head piece46.
The fluid pressureof the. cement mixture-withinthe-chambcn I5; forces the piston I6 downwardly against the pressureof the spring I'I, mov ing the-plunger- I9'downwardly and applying'pressure to a body of pressure-*transmitting fluid such as'oil 20a, for example; contained within the bore 26 andthe chambers 22 and 22'. The pressure 7 of the oil 20a forces the perforating and injecting means 26 and 26! outwardly'and'radially against the casing II, as shown in. Fig. 1.
The a-pplicationof pressure-by the pumps 50 is continued untilthe punches: 36 and 36 on the perforating and injecting elements-26 and 26', respectively, are forced through the casing II as shown in Fig. 1. At this time: it will be noted thatthe aperture 40 in the plunger I-iiis in registry withtheaperture 41a in the wall of the bore 20whilethe aperture 42 is in communication with the hollow interior '3l-of theperforating and injecting means-26 throughthe aperture 39 therein. Accordingly, the cement mixture above the piston. I6 is forced'through the passage-39, the aperture 40,- the aperture-Ma, the passage 4|, the aperture. 42 in the perforating and injecting means 26, thepassages 33rand 34 therein and the grooves-3'! and 38, respectively, in the punch 36 into the space I2 between. the wall of the bore hole III and the casing I I. In similar fashion; cement is alsoinjected through the" perforating and injectingmeans-ZS, into the space l2.
When a sufficient quantity of cement has been deposited in the space I2 to form'a sealing ring therein, the-operation of the pumping means 50' is stopped and the stringof drill pipe--43 is rotated to bring the aperture: 41 therein into registry with thepassage 48' in the head piece46=- Fresh water is then pumped through the flexible tubing 49- forithe purpose of cleaning out.theinteriorrofthe string of drill pipe 43 andremoving any ex cesscment therefrom.
Th'e reduced pressure inthe chamber I5 per:- mits the coil spring II torestore the piston It to its uppermost position, thereby reducing the oil pressure in the bore 20. When this occurs aforce of-considerable magnitude is applied to theperf forating and'injecting means and 26' by'the pressure of the fluid contained in the bore hole 'I0 ,"w'hich force results in the withdrawal of-the perforating and injecting means26 and 26' from thec'asing I I and into their normal positions as shown-in Fig. 2. If the punches described'below on the perforating and injecting means 26 and 26 jamin the well casing I I, as will usually occur, the punches remain in the well casing I I and the remaining parts of the perforating and'inje'cting means 26 and 26 take the positions shown in Fig-,4 s V s;
"As shown in greater detail in Fig.2, the punch 36"is provided with a conical forward portion 5I an intermediate portion 52 which is slightly smaller in diameter than the greatest diameter of the conical portion 5| and a rear portion 53' which diverges outwardly and abuts the forward end of the perforating and injecting element 26. Experience has shown that a punch of this shape has a marked tendency to become jammed in the metal casing. As a result, a relatively large force is necessary to withdraw the punch after the casing has been perforated, from one to two tons being required for a perforating pressure of about fifteen tons.
c' The screw which secures the punch 36? .to' I the closure member 32' is made of relatively small section and is designed to break under a tensile stresswhich is less than that required to withdraw the punch 36' from the casing II. Accordingly, when a force is applied to restore the perforating and injecting means 26' to its normal position, the screw -35 will break, leaving the punch 36' jammed in the casing II, as shown in Fig. 4, forming an effective closure for preventing fluid transfer between the interior of the casing II and the space I2 between the wall of the bore hole land the casing II.
After the screw 35"has been broken, the perforating and injecting means 26 will return to its normal retracted position within the chamber 22, as shown in Fig. 4. Similarly, the perforating and injecting means 26 will be restored to its normal'inoperative position. The body I4 may then be moved to another position in the bore hole or it may be withdrawn therefrom.
In'Figs. 5 and 6 are illustrated a plurality of different punches which are not designed to form a closure for the perforation in the casing after the sealing material has been injected therethrough. In the embodiment shown in Fig. 5,'the punch 52a is provided with a sharp conical point 53a and the sealing material is adapted to be supplied through an aperture 54 and a longitudinal passage 55 to a laterally extending passage 56 therein. By virtue of the laterally extending passage 56, a gyratory movement around the casing I I is imparted to the sealing material, thus forestalling an uneven distribution of sealing material about the casing I I.
In Fig. 6, the punch 51 tapers inwardly from the front to the rear so that its front diameter is slightly greater than its rear diameter. A punch of this character produces a perforation in the casing II which is similar to that produced by a perforating bullet. The sealing material passes through passage 58 in the perforating and injecting element 26 and through the space between the punch 51 and the perforation in the casing I I into the space I2 between the bore hole In and the casing I I. r
The embodiment shown in Figs. '7 and 7a is adapted to form a closure for the perforation in the casing after the sealing material has been injected therethrough. In this embodiment, the injecting means 26 is provided with a forward closuremember 60 in which is formed a centrally located aperture 6 I. In the front face of the perforating and injecting means 26 is formed a cylindrical recess 62 within which is tightly fitted a cylindrical member 63 provided with a central bore 64 within which is mounted the shank B5 of a punch 66.. I'Ihe rear portion of the shank is externally threaded at 6! to receive a threaded conical mem ber 68 which is very weakly secured to a rod 69 on the end of which is formed a laterally extending disk III for limiting the'longitudinal movement of the punch 66. The disk Iii is provided with one or more apertures 'II therein for permitting sealing material to pass from the hollow interior 3! of the perforating and injecting means .26 therethrough. The sealing material passes through the space between the aperture 6! and the rod 69 and. through suitable aper-'- tures I2 and I3 formed in the cylindrical member 63 and the spaces I4 and I5 between the front face of the cylindrical member 63 and the rear face of the punch 66.
When the injection of the sealing material has been accomplished and force is applied to the perforating and injecting element 26 to withdrawit from the casing II, the cylindrical member 63 becomes disengaged from the recess 62 and the weak connection between the conical member 68 and the rod 69 is broken, leaving the cylindrical member I53 tightly jammed within the perforation in the casing II as shown in Fig. 7a. It will be seen that the elements shown in Fig. '7aform a valve which serves as a closure for preventing fluid flow between the interior of the casing II and the space I2 between the wall of the bore hole I0 and the casing I I.
In Fig. 8 the punch, which otherwise works 'in the same way as that shown on Figs. 2-3 and 4, comprises a triangular point I45 in front,
which continues by flats M6, and it is slightly' conical at the back I47. It is screwed to the end of screw 35, which is slidably fitted inside a passage contained in the closure member 32 7 similar to that in Figs. 23 and 4, the screw 35' being, however," longer than in the embodiments mentioned above, so that the punch can perforate the casing completely and allow the cement arriving by apertures 33 to flow around its outer surface (Fig. 80.). As is seen on Fig. 8%), during the return stroke of the perforating and cementing means, the punch returning through the hole which it has perforated jams there due to its conical portion I41 and the contraction of the metal constituting the well casing I I. Screw 35 breaks, as in the preceding case, while the punch plugs the hole which it has perforated.
The punch shown in Figs. 9, 9a and 9b is similar to that shown in Figs. 8, 8a and 8b, but it is formed. of two parts I48 and I49 both screwed on screw 35', whose weak point is located at the joining of these two parts. When the closure member 32 returns to its normal position, the shaft breaks at this point and only the front part I48 of the punch remains jammed in the casing,
While :the .rear portion is carried back by the .pcrforatingxand injecting ,-means. This device has the following advantage: after the operation, no part of the punch protrudes inside the casing.
In Figs. 10, 10a and l0bhas been shown also adetachable punchiE-J, which is carried by the perforating and injecting means i5! by means of a flange I52. Both'the punch andthe perforating and injecting means comprise a central passage 153 for the cement. Inside this passage, a screw 156 having at its front end a valve head !55 is attached by its rear portion to the perforating and. injecting means by a nut 56 containing apertures i5! permitting the free passage of the cement. Punch I50 perforates a hole in the casing and jams there, being held in front by shoulders E58 and behind by teeth I59 (Fig. 10a). The cement can then flow out through passage I53. During the return stroke of the perforating and injecting means, valve i55 jams inside punch communication with the interior of the perfo- 1 rating bod so that sealing material can be discharged around the casing. In the preferred form the punch is disengaged from the perforating body upon retraction of the latter so as to prevent the return flow of sealing material from the exterior of the casing to the interior. The claims are intended to cover both the broader and more specific features.
The several specific embodiments described.
above are intended to be illustrative and not restrictive of the invention. Those embodiments are obviously susceptible of numerous changes in form and detail within the scope of the appended claims.
I. In casing perforating means, the combination of a body adapted to be driven towards the casing, and to be retracted, and having a passage communicating with the interior thereof, a J,
punch mounted at the forward end of said body, and stop means capable of limited reciprocating movement relative to the body and linking both said punch and the body, at least a portion of said punch being adapted to become disengaged when the body is retracted from a perforation in the casing and to remain in the perforation in the casing.
2. In casing perforating means, the combinationof a-body adapted tob'e driven-towards the casing and perforating it, and to be retracted, and havinga passage communicating with'the interor thereof, a'punch mounted atthe forward end of said body and having means forming a closure for saidpassage, and means securing said punch to thebody and permitting limited reciprocating-movement of said punch with respect to said body.
3. In casing perforating means, the combination of a body adapted tobe driven towards the casing and perforating it, and to be retracted, and having a'passage communicating with the interior thereof, apunch mounted at the forward end of said-bodyand having means forming 'a. closure for saidpassaga'and means weakly securing said punch to the body and permitting limited reciprocatng movement of said punch with respect to said body, whereby said punch will become disengaged from thebody Whenthe latter is retractedafter perforating the casing.
4. In casing perforating-means, the combinationof-a body adapted to bedriven towards the casing and perforating it, and to be retracted, and having a passage communicating with the interior thereof, a two-part punch mounted at the forward-end of said body and having means forming a closure for said passage, the forward part of said punch being weakly secured to the other part thereof so as'to become disengaged therefrom when the punch is retracted from a perforation to former closure'therefor, and means securing said punch to the body andpermitting limitedreciprocating movement of said punch with respect to"the body.
5. In casing perforating means, the combination of a body adapted to be driven towards the casing-and perforating it, and'to be retracted, and having a passage communicating with the interior thereof, a punch weakly secured to said body at the forward end thereof and having passage means therein communicating with said passage in-the.-body,.closure means for the forward end of said passage means, and means 5 weaklysecuringsaid closure means to the body and permitting limited :reciprocating movement between said-closure means and the body.
. MARCEL SCHLUMBERGER.
REFERENCES CITED Thef'ollowing references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,381,929 Schlumberger Aug. 14, 1945