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Publication numberUS2528531 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 7, 1950
Filing dateJul 27, 1948
Priority dateJul 27, 1948
Publication numberUS 2528531 A, US 2528531A, US-A-2528531, US2528531 A, US2528531A
InventorsDonald E Marshall
Original AssigneeMicro Proc Equipment Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Continuous process for making a composite soap bar
US 2528531 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 7, 1950 D. E. MARSHALL 2,528,531

CONTINUOUS PROCESS FOR MAKING A COMPOSITE SOAP BAR Filed July 27. 1948 I N VEN TOR.

Mam/023mm; ylowq 1- 4 m HTTOE/VEYS Patented Nov. 7, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CONTINUOUS PROCESS FOR MAKING A COMPOSITE SOAP BAR Donald E. Marshall; Summit; N. J., assignor to Micro Processing Equipment Inc., Des Plaines, 111., a corporation of Illinois Application July 27, 1948, Serial. No. 40,838

11 Claims. 1-

This invention relates to a process for making a composite soap bar, and more particularly, toa methodof forming bars of soap with inlaid decorations or other insertions.

Bars of soap with inlaid decorations or markingshave been suggested in the prior art where a recess is first pressed or otherwise produced in'a bar of soapand then a body of a distinctive: type of soap or other material pressed into such recess, but such operations have not proved practicable.

In accordance with the present invention, the soap bar is built up of a plurality of laminations, certain or all of which contain inlays or inserts of -distinctive types of soap or other material. Therlaminations are preferably made by a rapid continuous process by simple die-cutting or pressing operations upon a ribbon of soap. For example, an extruded ribbon of soap can easily be diecut or pressed to produce openings therein'while at the same time corresponding inserts of a distinctive type of soap can be die-cut or pressed from: another ribbon of soap after which the inserts can be pressed into the openings of the first-mentioned formed ribbon; The first ribbon can be cut or formed into pieces havingthe correct size for forming a bar of soap at the same time or before theopenings are formed'therein, or alternatively, a composite ribbon can be first produced containing inserts and the ribbon laterout into lengths for forming a bar ofsoap. The various laminations may be superimposed to form a soap bar andthe resulting soap bar pressed t'o adhere the laminations together.

Prior to the'present development, bars of soap made up of laminations have not. been practical since with ordinary milled soaps, the laminations do not-sufiiciently adhere to each other but separate during use of the soap-bar. In accordance with the present invention, the adhering: qualities of soap in the submicro-crystallinephase peculiar to transparent soapis employed to weld together the surfaces of the various laminations.- All of the laminations'may be entirely made of the submicro-crystalline soap referred to or alternate laminations may be made of such soap with the other laminations being made of'crdrnary milled soap. In other words, the submicrocrystalline soap will securely weld to other: laminations-of. the same type of soap or to ordinary milled soap. Alternatively, major'portions of allv of the laminations or of alternate laminations may be made of the.submicro-crystalline soap with insertions in the various laminations either of ordinarymilled soap or of the submicro-orystalline soap. Furthermore, relatively-thick laminations of ordinary milled soap may be adhered,

together with relatively thin laminations of submicro-crystalline soap. By either employing laminations all of which are of submicro-crystalline soap or alternate laminations of submicro-crystalline soap, so that at least one of the contacting surfaces is of this material, a laminatedbar may be built up which does not separate in use. I

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an improved method of making composite soap bars having insertions of distinotive types of soap or other material. therein.

Another object of the invention is to provide an improved method of producing composite soap bars in which ribbons of soap are formed such that a portion of one ribbon interfits a. portion ofanother ribbon to produce soap laminations having inserts therein and in which the laminations are formed into a composite bar having insertions extending entirely through the bar or any desired portion thereof.

A further object of the invention is to provide an improved method of making soap bars having inserts therein in which apertures in a ribbon of 'soap are filled'with insertsformed from another ribbon of soap'and the resulting composite soap elements employed to produce a laminated composite bar ofsoap. a

A further objectof the'invention is to provide an improved process of forming a soap bar having. inserts therein in which laminations of soap having inserts therein are adhered together by making use of the properties of submicro-crystalline soap peculiar to soap in the transparent phase.

Other objects and advantages of'the invention will appear in the following description of preferred embodiments of the invention given in connection with the attached drawing, in which:

ig. I; is a diagrammatic side elevation of an apparatus for carrying; out the present inven tion;

Fig. 2 is' a diagrammatic side elevation of the pressing elements of a soap press.

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary plan view showing a shape in which one ribbon of soap may be formed in the apparatus ofFig. 1; I

Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 3 illustrating a shape into which another. ribbon of. soap may be formed in the apparatus of Fig. 1;

Fig. 5 is a. view similar to Fig; 3 showing a composite ribbon produced from the ribbons of Figs. 3 and 4;

Fig: 6 is a view: similar to Fig. 3 showing the ribbon'of Fig. 5 with one edge trimmed;

Fig. 7-is'a View similar to Fig.3 showing the ribbon of Fig. 6 with. an edge portion applied asas, 531

- 3 thereto and adhered to the trimmed ribbon;

Fig. 8 is a view similar to Fig. 3 showing the composite ribbon after being cut into soap bar elements; and

Fig. 9 is a side elevation of a pressed bar of soap.

Referring more particularly to the drawings, a ribbon of soap 2| from any suitable source of supply may be delivered from a guide member 22 upon an endless band 23 supported on pulleys or sprockets 24 driven so as to carry the soap ribbon 2| beneath a die roller 25. The ribbon of soap may be produced by extrusion or in any other suitable manner. The die roller 25 may be provided with a plurality of die portions 26 for forming the ribbon 2| into the form shown in Fig. 3 to produce a modified ribbon 2! carrying a plurality of inserts 28 attched to an edge portion 29. The endless band 23 may be driven in timed-relationship with the die roller 25 and may be supported at its area of contact with the die roller 25 by means of a guide 3| shown in Fig. 1.

Similarly, another ribbon of soap 32 of distinctive color or other characteristics may be delivered frorn'the guide member 33 upon an endless band 34 supported on pulleys or sprockets 36. The band 34 may be driven to carry ribbon 32 beneath a die roller 31 also provided with die portions 38 for forming the apertures 39 in the ribbon as illustrated in Fig, 4. It will be noted that the apertures 39 areof the same form as themserts of Fig. 3. Otherwise the band 34 may have the same construction as the band 23 and may be supported by a guide 4| in the area of contact between band 34 and die roller 31. The resulting formed ribbon 42 of Fig. 4 may be carried by the band 34 beneath the ribbon 21 and the ribbon 21' may be transferred from the band 23 so as to be superimposed on the formed ribbon 42 by means of a transfer member 43. Both formed ribbons may then be transferred to an endless band 44, supported on sprockets 46, by means of a transfer member 4'! and passed beneath a pressing roller 48 so that the insertions 28 of Fig. 3 are pressed into the apertures 39 of the ribbon 42 of Fig. 4 to produce the. composite ribbon 49 of Fig. 5, which has a body portion 42 and an insert portion 21 made up of the insert 28 and an edge portion 29.

The edge portion 29 of Figs'. 3 and serves merely as a carrier for the'inse'rts 28 and is in general of a distinctive type of soap from that of the body portion 42. If it is desired to have the laminations all of the same type of soap except for the inserts 28, the edge portion 29 may be trimmed from the composite soap ribbon 49 by means of the trimming disc 5| of Fig. 1 to leave thecomposite ribbon -52 of Fig. 6. The waste from the trimming operations performed by the disc 5| may be collected and returned for reworking and extrusion.

In order to' cover the edges of the insert 28 a narrow ribbon 53 may be delivered from a guide member 54 onto the transfer element 55 to a position adjacent the ribbon 52 and the resulting composite ribbon passed beneath a flanged pressing roller 51 in order to adhere the narrow ribbon 53 to the composite ribbon 52 of Fig. 6 and produce the resulting composite ribbon 53 of Fig. 7.

This ribbon may then be passed beneath a cutting drum 59 to cut the composite ribbon 58 into soap bar elements 6| which are discharged from the endless band 44 into a stacker illustrated diagrammatically at 62. The resulting stacks of elements may be removed from the stacker 6 y conditions.

means not shown and pressed between the pressing elements 33 illustrated in Fig. 2 to form the composite bar 64 of Fig. 9.

All of the soap employed to make the composite laminations 61 of Fig. 8 in the apparatus of Fig. 1 may be soap in the submicro-crystalline phase. The surfaces of such soap readily Weld to each other by merely moistening and pressing them together. In such cases, one surface of each of the composite laminations may be sprayed with Water through a spray nozzle indicated at 66 in Fig. 1 just prior to stacking and pressing. If the formed ribbon 42 of Fig. 4 as well as the edge portion 53 of Fig. '7 are of submicro-crystalline soap, the insert ribbon 2! of Fig. 3 may be of ordinary milled soap since the major portion of the composite laminations 6| of Fig. 8 will be of submicro-crystalline soap, so that good adherence will be secured between the laminations. Adequate adherence between the various laminations requires that one of the adhering surfaces only be of submicro-crystalline soap so that it is entirely possible to form laminations of ordinary milled soap in an apparatus duplicative of that shown in Fig. 1 or any other suitable apparatus and stack them alternately with laminations of submicro-crystalline soap. Even in such cases, the only requisite for adequate adherence is that at least one of the contacting surfaces between alternate laminations of the soap be moistened prior to the pressing operation. 1'

While a preferred operation including the employment of continuous automatic machinery for formin cutting and assembling the. various laminations has been specifically described, it will be apparent that equivalent operations may be carried out by hand or by a series of manually operated machines. For example, the various soap elements may be stamped in a series of manually fed or operated presses, assembled by hand into composite laminations, the laminations making up the bars also assembled by hand and the resulting assembly pressed into a complete bar.

Soap in the submicro-crystalline phase peculiar V to transparent soaps may be either transparent or translucent and may even be'aerated to render it substantially opaque. Such submicro-crystalline soaps suitable for employment in the present invention are known to the art and are composed of fine ultra-microscopic crystallites which, according to the findings of investigators McBain' 8: Ross, Oil and Soap, vol. 27, No. 4, April 1944, pages 97 and 98, are arranged at random and are too small to provide optical discontinuities for transmitted light having. wave lengths in the visual range. Such soaps may be produced by employing materials known in the art as retarders, examples of such retarders being glycerol,

various monohydroxy alcohols, glycols, sugar,

rosin soap, castor oil soap, etc. Such retarders control the solidification process when soap changes from a liquid or semi-solid stage to produce the ultra-microscopic crystallites referred to above, instead of the larger crystals found in ordinary opaque soaps. Other investigators have discovered that ultra-microscopic structures in soap may be produced from ordinary opaque soap without the use of retarders by special milling Several repeated milling operations, for example milling 5 or 6 times, at low temperatures, break down the large crystals into the ultra-fine structure approaching that of transparent soaps but with more opacity, the milling being carried on so that the heat produced thereby does not raise the temperature of the soap substantially above 65 F. Refrigeration of the soap milling rolls duringmilling is usually necessary for ,-efiective production of ultra-microscopic crystalline soap in this manner. This unadulterated semi-transparent soap. I have discovered, retains all of the desirable properties of prior transparent soaps made with 'retarders for the purposeof combining synthetic detergent in a bar. It has even greater structural strength, improved wearing properties and less-expansion and contraction characteristics under varying humidity conditions during storage. It also absorbs moisture throughout its body when left in contact with water and has greater detergent and lathering properties since retarders.

it is not diluted with All or a portion of the inserts in the various laminations making up the composite bar ofthe present invention may be of solidsynthetic deterT gents. The synthetic detergents contemplated by the present invention are usually sodium salts of long chain organic compoundscontaining sulfate or sulfonate groups. As is well known'in the art, such synthetic detergents may also con- 'tain an aryl group. Also, instead of being-sodium salts of the compoundsmentioned above, they may be ammonium salts orsalts of'other alkali metals such as potassium. As is also well known in the art, groups other than'sulfates or sulfonates may be employed to produce water-soluble synthetic detergents, for example, a series of hydroxyl or ether groups.

The term synthetic detergent is a well understood term in the art and refers to any watersoluble surface active agent having a long chain organic radicalwhich, unlike soap, has the property of dispersing or dissolving calcium or magnesium soaps instead'of forming such insoluble alkaline earth soaps as is the case with ordinary detergent soaps in hard water washing. In general, such synthetic detergents are much more effective for breaking the interface between 011 and water than soap, and thus more effectively wet greasy surfaces and more effectively'disperse oil andzgrease to enable its removal from surfaces being washed. The present invention is concerned with solid synthetic detergents only, that is to say, suchxsolid water-soluble synthetic organic non-soap detergents as will form a solid body capable of being attached to a body of detergent soap.

Suitable synthetic detergents given by way of example and not of limitation are as follows:

Sodium Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate- Sodium Alkyl Benzene Sulfonata Sodium Alkyl Sulfonate.

Sodium DihexylSuliosuccin-atou Sodium Secondary Tridecyl Sulfate.

Ill)

From the above description of the invention, it is apparent that I have provided a rapid and con- 'tinuous process of producing composite soap bars made up of laminations securely adhered together which laminations may contain any desired inserts of soap or other material.

I claim:

'1. The process of producing a composite soap bar, which comprises, forming apertures in a soap lamination, forming inserts corresponding to said apertures and pressing said inserts into said apertures, stacln'ng a plurality of soap laminations, at least a portion of which contain said inserts, at least one of the contacting surfaces between adjacent laminations being of moistened submicro-crysta-lline :soap which is characterized by cold welding properties, and pressing said'stacked laminations together to produce a composite soap bar in which a plurality of soap laminations are adhered together by the cold welding properties of said submicro-crystalline soap, whereby said laminations will remain joined together during storage and use.

2. The process of producing a composite soap bar, which comprises, forming apertures in a soap'lamination, forming inserts corresponding to said apertures and pressing said inserts into said apertures, stacking a plurality of soap laminations, at least a portion of which contain said inserts, at least alternate ones of the laminations being of submicro-crystalline soap which is characterized by cold welding properties, pressing said stacked laminations together, and moistening at least one of the contacting surfaces between adjacent laminations prior to said pressing to produce a composite soap bar in which a plurality of soap laminations are adhered together by the cold welding properties of said submicrocrystalline soap, whereby said laminations will remain joined together during storage and use.

3. The process of producing a composite soap bar, which comprises, forming apertures in a soap lamination, forming inserts corresponding to said apertures and pressing said inserts into said apertures, stacking a plurality of soap laminations, at least a portion of which contain said inserts and at least alternate ones of said laminations have major surfacesv of submicro-crystalline soap which is characterized by cold welding properties, moistening at least one of the contacting surfaces of said laminations, and pressing said stacked laminations together to produce a composite soap bar in which a plurality of soap laminations are adhered together by the cold welding properties of said submicro-crystalline soap, whereby said laminations will remain joined together during storage and use.

4. The process of producing a composite soap bar, which comprises, die-forming spaced apertures of a desired shape in a first ribbon of soap, said apertures intersecting one edge of said ribbon, die-forming another ribbon of soap to produce inserts corresponding in'shape and orienta: tion to said apertures, said inserts beingattached to an edge portion of said other ribbon of soap and spaced therealong distances corresponding to said apertures, superimposing the die-formed ribbons with said inserts registering with said apertures, pressing said die-formed ribbons together to press said inserts into said apertures to form a composite soap ribbon, dividing said composite ribbon into soap bar laminations, stacking a plurality of soap bar laminations, at least a portion of which contain said inserts,

-7 and pressing said laminations together to form a composite soap bar.

5. The process of producing a composite soap bar, which comprises, die-forming spaced apertures of a desired shape in a first ribbon of soap, said apertures intersecting one edge of said ribbon, die-forming another ribbon of soap to produce inserts corresponding in shape and orientation to said apertures, said inserts being attached to an edge portion of said other ribbon of soap and spaced therealong distances corresponding to said apertures, superimposing the die-formed ribbons with said inserts registering with said apertures, pressing said die-formed ribbons together to press said inserts into said apertures to form a composite soap ribbon, cutting said composite ribbon into soap bar laminations, stacking a plurality of soap bar laminations, at least a portion of which contain said inserts, and at least alternate ones of which are of'submicro-crystalline soap which is characterized by cold welding properties, moistening at least one surface of said laminations prior to said stacking, and pressing said laminationstogether to form a composite soap bar in which the laminations are held together by the cold welding properties of the said submicro-crystalline soap, whereby said laminations will remain joined together during storage and use. 7 r 6; The process of producing a composite detergent bar, which comprises, die-forming spaced apertures of a desired shape in a first ribbon of submicro-crystalline soap which is characterized by cold welding properties, said apertures intersecting one edge of said ribbon, die-forming another ribbon of detergent to produce inserts-corresponding in shape and orientation to said apertures, said inserts being attached to an edge portion of said other ribbon of detergent and spaced therealong distances corresponding to said apertures, superimposing the die-formed ribbons with said inserts registering with said apertures, pressing said die-formed ribbons together to press said inserts into said apertures to form a composite detergent ribbon, cutting said composite ribbon intd detergent bar laminations, stacking a plurality of detergent bar laminations, at least a portion of which contain said inserts and of which atrleast alternate laminations are of said submicro-crystalline soap, moistening at least one of the contacting surfaces between adjacent laminations prior to said stacking, and pressing said laminations together to form a composite detergent bar in which the laminations are held together by the cold welding properties of the said submicro-crystalline soap, to thus re-' main joined together during storage and use.

'7. The process of producing a composite soap bar, which comprises, die-forming spaced apertures. of a desired shape in a first ribbon of soap, said apertures intersecting one edge of said ribbon, die-forming another ribbon of a distinctive type of soap to produce inserts corresponding in shape and orientation to said apertures, said inserts being attached to an edge portion of said other ribbon of soap and spaced therealong distances correspondingto said apertures, superimposing the die-formed ribbons with said inserts registering with said apertures, pressing said die-formed ribbons together to press said inserts into said apertures to form a composite soap ribbon, trimming said edge portion from said composite ribbon, replacing said edge'portion" with a'narrow ribbonof the same type of soap' as the soap of said first ribbon, dividing 8 said composite ribbon into soap bar laminations, stacking a plurality of soap bar laminations, at least a portion of which contain said'inserts, and pressing said laminations together to form a composite soap bar. a

8. The process of producing a composite detergent bar, which comprises, die-forming spaced apertures of a desired shape in a first ribbon of submicro-crystalline soap which is characterized by cold welding properties, said apertures intersecting one edge of said ribbon, die-form'- ing another ribbon of detergent to produce in serts corresponding in shape and orientation'to said apertures, said inserts being attached to an edge portion of said other ribbon of detergent and spaced therealong distances corresponding to said'apertures, superimposing the die-formed ribbons with said' inserts registering with said apertures, pressing said die formed ribbons together to press said inserts into said apertures to form'a composite detergent ribbon,trimming said edge portion from said composite ribbon, replacing said edge portion with a narrow rib"- bon of said submicro-crystalline soap, cutting the resulting composite ribbon into detergent bar laminations, stacking a plurality of detergent bar laminations, at least a portion of which contain said inserts and of which at least alternate laminations are of said submicro-crystalline soap, mois'tening at least one of the'contacting surfaces between adjacent laminationsprior to said stacking, and pressing said laminations together to form a composite detergent bar in which the laminations are held together by the 'cold welding properties of the said submicro-crystalline soap, to thus remain joined together during storageandusa 9. The process of producing a composite detergent bar, which comprises, die-forming soap laminations to produce apertures of adesired shape therein, die-forming inserts corresponding in shape to said apertures, pressing said inserts into said apertures to form composite laminations, stacking a plurality of soap laminations of which at least a portion are said composite laminations and pressing said stacked laminations together to produce said composite bar.

'10. The'process of producing acomposite de-,

tergent bar, which comprises, die-forming laminations of submicro-crystalline soap which is characterized by cold welding properties to produce apertures of a desired shape therein, dieforming inserts corresponding in shape to said apertures, pressing said inserts into said apertures to form composite laminations, stacking a plurality of soap laminations of which at least alternate laminations are said composite laminations and pressing said stacked laminations together to produce said-composite bar in which the laminations. are held together by the cold welding properties of the said submicro-crystalline soap, to thus remain joined together during storage and use. 7 v 5 11. The process of producing a composite detergent bar, which comprises, die-forming laminations ,of submicro-crystalline soap which is characterized by cold welding properties to produce apertures of a desired shape therein, dieforming inserts corresponding in shape to said apertures, pressing said inserts into said apertures to form composite laminations, stacking a plurality of soap laminations of which at least alternate laminations are said composite 1ami-' nations, pressing said stacked laminations together, and moistening at --least one of the con- V tacting surfaces between adjacent laminations prior to said pressing to produce said composite bar in which the laminations are held together by the cold welding properties of the said submicro-crystalline soap, to thus remain joined together during storage and use.

DONALD E. MARSHALL.

REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

Number Block July 8, 1947

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2987987 *Jun 27, 1958Jun 13, 1961Avco Mfg CorpPelleting apparatus
US7241359 *Mar 3, 2006Jul 10, 2007Sony CorporationMethod of manufacturing hard disc device with a printed wiring board fixed thereto
US20060185785 *Mar 3, 2006Aug 24, 2006Sony Chemicals Corp.Method of manufacturing hard disc device with a printed wiring board fixed thereto
Classifications
U.S. Classification156/245, 156/306.3, 264/246, 510/440, 156/293, 510/152, 510/146, 156/264, 510/147, 156/308.2
International ClassificationC11D13/00, B29C43/22, C11D17/00, B32B27/00, B26D1/04
Cooperative ClassificationB26D1/04, C11D17/00, B32B27/00, C11D13/00, B29C43/22
European ClassificationB26D1/04, B29C43/22, B32B27/00, C11D17/00, C11D13/00