US 2528983 A
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A. WEISS Nov. 7, 1950 MEANS FOR SAVING FUEL IN INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed April 17, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOIL .n..HHrnN Nov. 7, 1950 A wElss 2,528,983
MEANS FOR sAvING FUEL IN INTERNAL-coMBusTloN ENGINES Filed April 1v, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 i IN VEN TOR. M44. ma BY 0MM/@mw HTSWz/m.
Patented Nov. 7, 1950 I UNITEDl STATES PATENT oFFlcE MEANS FOR SAVING FUEL IN INTERNAL- COMBUSTION ENGINES Abraham Weiss, New York, N. Y.
Application April 17, 1945, Serial No. 588,818
10 Claims. 1
This application relates to means for saving fuel in internal combustion engines for motor vehicles, or the like.
The principal object of this invention is the provision of means for controlling both the exhaust and intake valves of the cylinders by automatically operated sets of cams, so that accordingV to the speed of the engine or vehicle, the
valve action of said cylinders will be changed to render some or all of the cylinders ineffective, to save fuel.
With this and other objects in View, vmy invention consists in the novel construction, combination and arranagement of parts, as will be hereinafter more fully described and defined in the appended claims.
In the accompanying drawing, which constitutes part of this specification and in which similar reference characters denote corresponding parts:
Fig. l is a diagrammatic view of one embodiment of my invention employing mechanical means for controlling the action of the cylinder valves;
Fig. 2 is a similar view of another embodiment employing electric means for the same purpose;
Fig, 3 is a diagrammatic view of a third modication of the electric means;
Fig. 4 is a top plan View of a still other modiflcation, applicable to engines with overhead valves operated through rocker arms; and
Fig. 5 is a cross-section on line 5-5 of Fig. 4.
Referring rst to the modification shown in Fig. 1, I0 denotes a multiple cylinder engine, II and I2 denote the exhaust and intake valves of the different cylinders (in the present example. only two cylinders are shown).
Y I3 denotes an engine driven rotary shaft which is capable of longitudinal displacement in its bearings I3a and on which are xed pairs of cams I4 for the exhaust and intake valves II and I2, one pair for each cylinder. Each cam I4 is a composite of four inter-connected or integral sections arranged `contiguously to one another. Ihe sections of the cams are so shaped that according to their position relative to the corresponding cylinder valves, the latter will be caused toQeither operate normally, or open or close as will be hereinafter explained to render the cylin-J rset of cylinders, as for instance in a four cylinder engine, the first and third cylinder have each a single cam section I4a adapted to operate said valve normally; i. e., open and close during the cyclic operation of the engine. The cams I4 for the intake valves I2 of said pair have each a single cam section I4b adapted to open and close said intake valves normally. Contiguously disposed to one another and to each of said sections I4a on the cams I4 for the exhaust valves II of said pair of cylinders are two uniform end sections I4c, I4d adapted upon two successive displacements of the cam shaft I3 in the same direction to open and keep open the said valve. The cams I4 for the intake valves I2 of said pair of cylinders have two uniform similarly disposed contiguous sections I 4e, I4f adapted by the same displacements of said shaft to close and keep closed said intake valve. The cams I4 for the exhaust and intake valves of another pair of cylinders, say second and fourth, in a four cylinder engine may each be constructed as follows:
A section I 4g of each of said cams is adapted normally to open and close the exhaust valve II of said cylinder, a second section |471 of same shape similarly disposed and contiguous to said section I4g is adapted to continue to operate normally said exhaust valve on the first of the two above named displacements of the shaft I3 in the same direction, and an end section |42 contiguous to said section I4h adapted at the second displacement of said cam shaft to open and keep open the said exhaust valve. The cams for the intake valves I2 of the same pair of cylinders may each have a section |49 adapted to operate normally said valve, a similar contiguous section ,Mk to lcontinue the normal operation at the rst displacement of the cam shaft in the same direction, an end section I4l continuous to the last named section adapted at the second displacement of the shaft to close said valve.
Each cam at its opposite end has a cam section Ilm adapted on the displacement of the shaft in opposite direction to cause al1 valves to close, so that the pistons working in said cylinders will produce a braking effect. This may .be desired when the vehicle travels down a steep grade.
The means for causing the displacement of the cam shaft I3 according to the speed of the engine are automatically controlled through the accelerator and brake pedals A, B, respectively, as well as a speed actuated means G, such as a governor, in the manner to be presently described.
In the example shown, the cam shaft I3 is operatively connected by suitable means, such as a system of levers I5, or the like, to a second longitudinally movable shaft I6 extending through a housing Il, partitioned as at |11 into two comond plunger I9. This plunger is connected to the shaft by slot and pin |9a and I9b, or the like, so as to be capable of a limited independent displacement thereon. The plungers I6 and I9 are adapted to be acted upon by pressure fluid from an engine driven pump 20 in the following manner:
2| is a fluid pressure distributing chamber which' through conduit 22 communicates with the pump 20 and by conduits 23 and 23a is connected tol the compartments I1a and I1b. The flow of the pressure fluid through the conduits 23, 23a into the compartments I 1a, |1b is controlled automatically through a cock mechanism 241, 242 capable of being actuated by the accelerator and brake pedals A, B, respectively. The flow of the fluid into the compartment |1a through the conduits 23 is additionally controlled by the speed actuated mechanism G. The conduit 23h serves as a uid return conduit and under the control of governor G leads from the compartment Ila back into the pump 20 or its reserve tank 20a.
When the cock 241 is open, as shown, the fluid pressure entering the compartment I1b at the rear of plunger I9 will move said plunger I9 to the left, and after its independent motion on the shaft I6 due to its play thereon, move the latter in the same direction, whereby cam shaft I3 will receive a partial displacement to the right and thereby place the sections I4c, I4e, |4h and I4lc adjacent to the normally operating cam sections I4, I 4b, |4g and I 47, respectively, in range with the corresponding cylinder valves. The uid pressure entering the compartment I1a when the governor actuated valve 25 is open will displace the plunger I8 more to the left, as a result of which the shaft I6, and consequently the cam shaft I3 will receive a second displacement in the same direction as before, and bring the next adjacent cam I4d, I4f, |41' and |41 into the range of the corresponding valves.
The cock 241 controls the passage of the fluid pressure from pump 20 into the conduit 23 and the cock 242 controls theA passagek f the pressure fluid from compartment I1a back into the pump or its reserve tank 2Ila.` The cock mechanism is actuated through a push rod 26 projecting into the path of the accelerator A and an auxiliary push rod 261 projecting into the path of the brake pedal B and slidably connected to push rod 26.
To be actuated by thebrake pedal B is a uid distributing valve 21, or the like, which when said-pedal is depressed through a lever 28, or the like, will open communication between pump 20, distributing chamber 2| and compartment I 1b in front of plunger I9. This will cause the plungers I8 and I9 to move to the right, whereby the cam shaft I3 will be moved to the left.
'Ihus when accelerator A and brake BA are off, as shown, and the vehicle is running with slow speed, or idling, the particular sections of the cams I4 on the partially displaced cam shaft I3 will cause the exhaust valves II of some of the cylinders to open, while the intake valves I2 of said cylinders will be caused to close, admitting no fuel, and thus rendering said cylinders entirely ineffective. i
The same will be true if the vehicle assumes a certain speed, with the accelerator pedal off; i. e., some of the cylinders will be rendered ineffective, for the governor actuated valve being then open will permit pressure fluid to enter also compartment |1a, and effect a second displacement in the same direction of shaft I6 to the extent of the play between the latter and plunger I9. By this second displacement, the exhaust valves of the same set of cylinders will continue to remain open and the intake valve closed, as in the first position, so that said set ofv 'cylinders will be again ineffective and not consume fuel.
On the .depression of brake B, pressurefluid from pump \2I) in front of plunger I9 will displace shaft I6 in the opposite direction, with the result that cam shaft I3, too, will be shifted in the opposite direction, causing the operation of all cylinder valves at timed periods.
In the modification shown in Fig. 2, the operation of the cylinder valves II, I2 through multiple cam sections I4 mounted on a driven and longitudinally displaceable shaft I3 is the same as in the first modification. Here, however, the operation of the ycam shaft is controlled electrically. To this end; the ,displacement of the shaft I6, and consequently of cam shaft I3, is effected through three separate solenoids 32, 33 and 34 mounted around metal shaft I6. 'Ihese solenoids are energized by electric circuits controlled from the accelerator pedal A and brake pedal B. Included in these circuits are manually operable make and break mechanism 35 and a speed actuated make and break mechanism 36. The first named make and break mechanism comprises two pairs of contact ngers 35a, 35h rotatably mounted on a pin or axle 31 and manipulable by an arm 3B projecting into the path of the accelerator pedal A from a sliding bar 39 having a catch 40. This catch when the pedal A is fully depressed will engage arm 311 and displace the contact fingers 35a, 35h.
The make and break mechanism 36 of wellknown construction has a number of contacts 4|, 4Ia, 4Ib, 4Ic that through the action of a generator (not shown) or other speed control will make or break said contacts. At low speed when the solenoid 42 is disenergized, the contacts 4Ia, 4|b, 4|c will be open, while contact 4I will be closed, and vice versa. With the accelerator A in off position, the current will flow from the source of power E along wires a and closed contact 4I to solenoid 32. At high speed the current will flow along wire a, contact 4|a to solenoid 32 and also through wires b and contact; 4Ib to solenoid 33. When the brake pedal B is depressed at high speed, the solenoid 34 will be energized by the current flowing from the source along lines c and closed contact 4 I c.
'I'he solenoid 32 is mounted around a metal core I 6a which by slot and pin |61, |62 is connected to the shaft I6 so that when said solenoid is energized it will c/ause a limited displacement of the shaft I6 equal to the width of a cam section, as in the flrst described modification.
When the solenoid 33 is energized, it will cause a further displacement of the shaft I6 and consequently of the cam shaft I3, with the same results as heretofore described.
When the accelerator A is fully depressed, it will cause the contact fingers 35a, 35h to break the contacts for the solenoids 32, 33 permitting the shaft I6 by its spring force to return to normal. By depressing the brake pedal B at speed, the current will flow through wires c, contact 4lc, energizing solenoid 34 in reverse direction and thereby causing the cam shaft I3 to move so as to operate all valves, with the results as already described.
In the modification shown in Fig. 3, two sepated means adapted in cooperation to control the displacement of said means, and means capable of restoring the effectiveness of said cylinders irrespective of speed.
arate pedals A, A1. and a brake pedal B are employed. In this case, the manual make and break mechanism 35 is eliminated. The arrangement of the solenoids 32, 33 and 34, rshaft I6 and cam shaft I3, valves Il and l2 are the same as in the aforedescribed modification of Fig. 2, and for simplicitys sake are omitted. When both accelerators are in oi position and the speed of the engine or vehicle is low, the current will flow from the source along the wires a and closed contact 4I to the solenoid 32 and at high speed along both wires a, b to both solenoids 32, 33, and when the brake pedal is depressed it will flow along the wire c to solenoid 34 with the effect already described.
By depressing only accelerator A, with the brake B being off, the circuit through all solenoids will be broken and the shafts I6 and I3 moved by spring force into normal position, so that all cylinder valves will be caused to operate normally.
By depressing only accelerator A1 at low speed, the circuit will flow only 'through solenoid 32. so that only part of the cylinder will be rendered ineffective.
In the modification shown in Figs. 4 and 5, t3 denotes a multiple cylinder engine having overhead valves 44, 45 which are Operated by rocker arms t6 impelled from a driven cam shaft 4l in well-known manner. To control the valves according to the speed of the engine, each rocker arm 86 is not fixed to the rocker shaft 48, but straddles thereon', through a depending yoke 461. Fixed to the rocker shaft is a cam 50 which is capable of lifting the rocker arm suiiiciently out of the path of the cylinder valve so as not to affect the latter during the operation of the engine. The rocker shaft 43 is operatively connected as at 5| to the armature 52 of the solenoid 53, which may be energized by a generator (not shown). The cams 50 on the rock shaft 48 may be of appropriate shape calculated according to speed to lift the corresponding rocker arm so as to close or open the corresponding cylinder valves and produce the effect heretofore described.
Various other modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of my invention, and I therefore do not wish to restrict myself to the details described and shown.
' What I claim is:
i. In a multiple cylinder internal combustion engine having an intake and exhaust valve in each cylinder, means for automatically causing the intake valves to close and the exhaust valves to open so as torender said cylinders temporarily ineffective at predetermined speeds of said engine, said means including .driven displaceable members adapted to actuate said valves, speed responslve means and manual means, both said last means being adapted in cooperation to control y the displacement of said members, and means capable of restoring the effectiveness of said cylinders irrespective of speed.
2. In a multiple cylinder internal combustion engine having an accelerator, an intake and exhaust valve in each cylinder, means for automatically causing 'the intake valves to close and the exhaust valves to open so as to render said cylinders temporarily ineffective at predetermined speeds of said engine, said means including driven displaceable means adapted to actuate said valves, speed responsive means and accelerator actu- 3. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having an intake and an exhaust valve, means' for automatically causing the intake valve to close and the exhaust valve to open at a predetermined speed of the engine to render said cylinder ineffective, said means including a driven set of contiguous valve actuating cams of predetermined shapes displaceable'relative to said valves and speed responsive means andA manual means adapted in cooperation to cause the displacement of said cams.
4. In a multiple cylinder internal combustion engine, each cylinder having an intake andan exhaust valve, means for automatically causing some of the cylinders to become ineiiective at a certain low speed, and all cylinders to become in:- effective at a certain high speed, said means including a set of contiguous valve actuating cams, of predetermined shapes for each valve, said cams being displaceable. in unison relative to said valves, so that according to the extent of displacement of said cams and their shapes, the intake valves of some or all of the cylinders will be caused to close and the exhaust valve thereof to open, and speed responsive means and manual means adapted in cooperation to cause the displacement of said cams.
5. In an internal combustion engine having an exhaust and intake valves, means for causing said valves of some of said cylinders at predetermined speeds of the engine to render said cylinders temporarily ineffective, said meansy shaft and cams transversely to said valves, said means including duid pressure means, speed actuated means and manual means, both said last named means serving to control the said fluid pressure means.
6. In a multiple cylinder internal combustion engine having exhaust and intake valves, means for causing said valves at predetermined speeds of said engine to render some of said cylinders temporarily ineffective, said means, including a driven displaceable shaft, a plurality of cams thereon for actuating each valve, means for causing the displacement of said cam` shaft and cams transversely to said valves, said means including a housing, displaceable members therein operatively connected to said cam shaft, means for operating said displaceable members, speed actuated means and manual means, vboth said last named means serving to control the .operation of said displaceable members.
'7. In an internal combustion engine according to claim 6, in which said displaceable means include a shaft and a, pair of plungers mounted thereon, one of said plungers being capable of limited movement on said shaft independent of the second plunger, for the purpose specified.
8. In a multiple cylinder internal combustion engine having exhaust and intake valves, means for causing the intake valves to close and the exhaust valves to open at predetermined speeds of saidv engine, said means, including a plurality of driven displaceable members for actuating each valve, means for causing the displacement of said members relative to said valves, including electric means for actuating said last named means, speed actuated means and manual means,
both said last named means serving in coopera tion to control said electric means.
9. In a multiple cylinder internal combustion engine, according to claim 5, in which said iluid pressure means include a iluid pressure pump and a fluid pressure distributor.
10. In a multiple cylinder internal combustion engine according to claim 8, in which said elec` tric means include a plurality loi.' solenoids, speed actuated make and break mechanism and manually actuated make and break means, said speed actuated make and break mechanism and said manual means in cooperation with one another serving to control the-circuits through said solenoids.
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