US 2530444 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 21, 1950 A. E. wooos 7 2,530,444
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LOADING FREIGHT CARS Filed Oct. 16, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR. ALI-EEO E. Wooos welh w AT TOENEY.
Nov. 21, 1950 A. E. WOODS 2,530,444
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LOADING FREIGHT CARS Filed Oct. 16, 1946 :1 Sheets-Sheet 2 I: 4\ U INVENTOR. b\ LL ALFEAD 1 Wooas fizz 0 ATTOENEY.
Patented Nov. 21, 1950 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR LOADING FREIGHT CARS Alfred E. Woods, Larkspur, Califi, assignor to Fibreboard Products Inc., San Francisco, Calif.,- a corporation of Delaware Application October 16, 1946, Serial No. 703,499
' 6 Claims. 1
This invention relates to a method and apparatus for loading freight cars and particularly to the loading of box cars or the like with case goods susceptible to damage due to shifting or jostling in transit.
When a box car approximately eight feet Wide and forty feet in length is loaded with case goods or other relatively small rectangular packages, it is impossible to provide a perfect compact load, so that upon movement of the car the load shifts both endwise and lengthwise causing looseness or space which permits too free movement of the individual packages. This freedom of movement results in shifting and jostling of the packages to the extent that bottled, canned or other relatively fragile contents may become damaged or destroyed. This problem is accentuated with merchandise shipped in fibreboard or paperboard cases or cartons because they are not suited to the use of nailing strips or other conventionally employed bracing means. Glue has been employed for the purpose of securing together the individual cartons in a car load but with a questionable degree of success because if the glue is sufficiently adherent to satisfy the requirements of the problem at hand, the separation of the cartons. for unloading is often accompanied by damage and destruction of a large percentage of the cartons in each car load.
It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide a method and apparatus for loading cartons or the like in freight cars in a manner to prevent detrimental shifting of the load and in a manner which in no way mars or tends to destroy the individual packages making up the load. This and other objects and advantages of the invention are made apparent in the following detailed description of the inven tion in which reference is made to the accompanying drawings.
It will be apparent as the description proceeds that the invention is applicable to the loading of auto trucks, trailers or any other means of transportation as well as to railroad cars. While the term case will be used for convenience, it will also be understood that this term is to be taken as generally descriptive of any rectangular or uniformly shaped package, box or carton, no matter what material is used in its construction.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of approximately half of a box car with a top and one side removed to illustrate loading of a shipment of cased merchandise therein in accordance with the present invention;
Figs. 2 and 3 are similar but smaller views illustrating slight variations in loading methods Fig. 4 is a view in side elevation of a box car with the top and a, side removed illustrating a completed load; and
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of a car end with a shock cushion applied to it.
Generally speaking, the invention comprises loading a car in sections or blocks which are made up by arrangement of individual cartons to occupy uniform rectangular areas. Some or all of these blocks, which when combined completely fill the space to be loaded, may be separated by large panels or divider sheets of paperboard, corrugated fibreboard, or other similar inexpensive material and each block is individually covered by similar material which forms a cap adapted to be adhesively secured to the similar cap of an adjacent block or to the divider sheet which separates the blocks. Cushioning or shock absorbing means also made up of corrugated paperboard, fibreboard, or similar material are advantageously placed against the end walls of the 'car and layer pads of such material may be interposed in horizontal position between the superimposed cartons which make up the separate blocks.
Referring first to Fig. 1 of the drawings, a portion of a box car is illustrated as having side walls H3 and an end wall H. The car is shown as loaded with case goods arranged in blocks or tiers generally indicated for example at I2 and I3 and each of which extends throughout the full width of the car but occupies only a short portion of its length. These blocks or tiers may be made up in various combinations of positions of cases or cartons contained by them. The particular combination and arrangement of cases in each block depends upon the size of the case relative to the available space or width of the car. Thus, many combinations of positions may be employed so that the individual cases in each layer are arranged differently with relation to their positions in the car to the end that multiples of their length or width will substantially agree with the width of the car. For example, Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate typical arrangements of cases and Figs. 1 and 4 show cars loaded with cases of different dimensions so that the individual cases in some tiers vary in position although all of the tiers or blocks are of substantially rectangular shape. Preferably when the cases in one layer are arranged in irregular positions as illustrated in Fig. 2 of the drawings, these positions will be reversed for the next layer superimposed and supported on the first layer so that the cases in each layer of a block overlap each other to form interlocked or what are sometimes referred to as bonded bl c The conventional method of loading a freight car or other space having a central entrance consists of starting at both ends and progressing toward the central portion of the car. According to the present invention, the first tier or block l2 (Fig. 1) is. completely builtup-in the end of the car. and then. covered by cap members. illustrated at 14 which are in the form of sheets of corrugated fibreboard or similar material preferably pre-scored for bending so that they form top panels covering the block and side panels as.
shown which extend downwardly a short distance along the sides of the block. As the loading progresses and the next. adjacent tier,. such.
as that shown at is in Fig. l, is completed, it is similarly capped and its skirt or dependin portion is glued against the skirt or depending portion of the first tier. The glue or adhesive material employed, beingpreferably of liquid form, is applied to the skirt of the cap onthe first tier just before the second tier is completed. Divider sheets of material similar to that of which the cap I4 ismade maybe provided as indicated at 15 between adjacent tiers as frequently as necessary and where such divider sheets are employed the skirts of the capsare glued to opposite sides of the divider sheets, rather than to each other. The first skirt of. the first tier may be glued directly to the end It of the caror to a panel l6 which forms a part of an end cushion with which the car is preferably provided.
The end cushion'may be formed as shown in Fig. by strips H of resilient material such. as
thick corrugated board. preferably of more than a single thickness combined and secured to the car end by nailing or gluing to produce the desired: thickness and cushioning effect. The panel 1:6 covers a plurality of such stripsprovidmg'an even surface for contactwith the load.
Where the cases orcartons are of .a size and shape which precludes the formation of: interlocking tiers or bonded blocks, it is sometimes desirable to interp'ose horizontal layerpad as indicated at E8 in Fig. 3 to prevent the cases in superimposed layers from shiftin t'oo readily with relation to each. other. These layer pads are also formed of any suitable paperboard like material but need. not be glued or otherwise secured in place as the weight of the cartons in the layers retains them against shifting movement. v
The caps Hi. are herein shown as made up' of two: sections each being approximately one-half the width of. the car thoughthey may be made of. a single. section or of a plurality of sectionsif desired. It. is preferable that they be relatively large but: their formation in half car widths facilitates their. handling and application.
With the method and apparatus herein disclosed, the car'is loaded in the conventional manner starting at both ends and progressing toward the center and the individual cases are arranged in tiers or blocks which are separately covered with caps secured by an adhesive, notto the cases themselves. but to each other and to spaced divider sheets so that the car is in'efiect loaded with large blocks not likely to shift because of their unit weight and in which the individual packages are securely held against shifting and jostling by'thecap members which form covers and? skirts for the blocks. The skirts depend a sufficient' distance, preferably somewhat more than the height of one layer of cases in the. block, to provide adequate area for the application of an adhesive'by means of which they are secured together. The central or doorway section of the car is the only section in which caps of the character described cannot conveniently be placed over the block of cases. This section is, however, quite small as compared to the overall length of thecar and is itself protected by reason of the fact: that. the remainder of the load is: substantially held in large units against shifting movement.
1'. The method of loading cars and the like with cased merchandise which comprises arranging the cases in groups to form uniformly shaped blocks, covering each block separately with sheet like material extending over its top and downwardly adjacent its side and securing together the covering of adjacent blocks at its downwardly extending portions.
2. The method of loading cars and the like with: casedmerchandise which c'omprisesarranging the load: in: sections, covering the sections with sheet like material having portions extending downwardly between the sections and laterally of the car, and adhesively securin together said downwardly extending portionsofadjacent sections.
3; The method of loading cars and the like with cased: merchandise which comprises stacking cases at an end of. the car to form ablock like unit, covering. said unit with a cap member having. panels which. extends downwardly from its top and laterally of thecar, forming and covering similar-units and adhesivelysecuring together the downwardly extending portions of said panels.
4'. The method of loading cars with cased merchandise after end cushions have-been placed in the cars, which comprises placing divider sheets at" intervals transversely of the car to separate the load intounits, coveringsa-i'd units with cap members having panels which extend downwardly from their tops adjacent said divider sheets and cushions, and adhesively securing the panels to the end cushions and the divider sheets.
5. Apparatus for securing cased merchandise in cars which comprises cap members of paper like material shaped to cover units of casesiand to extend downwardly from the tops of said units laterally of the car to present surfaces adapted to be adhesively secured to like surfaces on adjacent units;
6. Apparatus for limiting shifting of carloa'ds of cased merchandise comprising vertical; panels extending transversely of the car and dividing the carload into relatively short units, cap members coverin said units and having portions extending downwardly from their tops to lie fiat against said panels, and adhesive means for securing the downwardly extending portions to each other and to saiddividing panels.
ALFRED E. WOODS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are ofv recordinthe file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,084,477 Peterson Jan. 13, 1914 1,085,285 Monesmith Jan. 27,, 1914 l,088;347 Koehler Feb. 24,1914 1,588,121 Markert June 8, 1926 1,921,228 Hetherington- Aug. 8, 1933 2,004,626 Hann June 11,1935