US 2530465 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 21, 195% c. R. B. HARDING WALL. AND WALL PANEL 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed March 26, 1945 Summer 6. R. B. HA/POl/VG Nov. 21, 1950 c. R. B. HARDING WALL AND WALL PANEL 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed March 26, 1945 Z'mnentor CR8. HARD/N6 Patented Nov. 21, 1950 'WALL AND WALL PANEL Cyril R. B. Harding, Grosse Isle, Mich, assignor to National Steel Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Application March 26, 1945, Serial No. 584,749
between the adjacent edges.
Porcelain enamel panels, in addition to their use in the walls of bathrooms, kitchens, and other interior locations, are bein used more and more on exterior walls where they are exposed to the weather, including driving rains. The joints between the panels are filled with mortar or a mastic compound as a caulking to provide a watertight construction. It is difficult, if not impossible, to insure that the joints will be permanently watertight and will not permit water to leak through into the interior portion of the wall where it will cause considerable damage. The watertightness of these joints is dependent on the quality and characteristics of the caulking compound and even though it be of good quality, poor workmanship in its application often results in leaky joints despite the fact that the joints are successfully sealed in the original installation. The life of the caulkin compounds, so far developed, is much shorter than the life of the porcelain enamel panels so that the building develops leaks in a relatively short time and requires frequent and continuing maintenance. Caulking such a large number of joints even in a small building is a relatively costly and slow process. Another important difliculty involved in the use of caulking compounds is that any movement of the porcelain enamel panels due to temperature changes, settlement of the building or other causes, tends to destroy the Watertightness of the mortar-filled joints and causes spalling of the enamel because the panels are rigidly fastened to the building structure. Attempts have been made to provide weatherproof walls without the use of a caulkin compound in the joints, but these attempts have not, in general, met with success. One reason for thislack of success is that there is nothing preventing the rain from driving through the seam and into the interior of the wall.
It is an object of this invention to provide an improved interlocking panel which is economical to manufacture and which may be readily assembled with other, like panels to form a weathertight wall without the use of a caulkin compound in the joints between the panels.
A further object of this invention is to provide a novel wall including porcelain enamel panels that will have a life determined by the relatively 2 long life of the porcelain enamel coating and not by the relatively short life of the caulkin compound that has heretofore been used.
It is also an object of this invention to provide a new and useful watertight wall with drainage channels in back of the seams between the adjacent panel edges which will prevent the en trance of any water into the interior portion of the wall where it may cause damage. a I
Another object of the present invention is to provide means for fastening the panels together which will normally hold the panels against movement but which will tend to center the panels if erected slightly off center and which will permit slight floating movement of the panels when settling of the building, temperature changes or other causes tend to shift the panels so as to prevent or reduce spalling of the enamel.
The present invention provides a new and novel interlocking panel and these panels may be readily assembled into a novel Waterproof wall without a caulking compound in the seams between the adjacent edges of the panels. The wall comprises a plurality of panels assembled with their closely adjacent edges forming non-watertight, aligned seams therebetween. Relatively large expansion and drainage channels are provided in back of the horizontally and vertically aligned seams. These channels reduce the velocity of any water driven through the seams into the channels and since the velocity of the entering water is immediately reduced, the water will not be driven beyond the limits of the channels and the channels will drain away the water driven through the seams and into the channels. The panels are fastened to the supporting means by resilient elements which hold the panels against normal movement but permit some floating movement of the panels when there is a tendency for the panels to shift which may be caused by temperature changes, settling of the building or other causes. My novel panel is economical to produce and may be readily erected at low cost to form an improved wall.
While this invention is primarily concerned with porcelain enamel panels normally comprising a piece of sheet metal decorated with a porcelain enamel coating, it is not limited to such materials. The panels may be formed of any other suitable material such as opaque, translucent or transparent plastics or glass, molded wood products, and the like, having the necessary weathering properties and decorative surfaces. While I am primarily concerned with vertical walls, my invention is not limited to such walls and, may be used for ceilings, roofs and other horizontal or inclined walls.
These and other objects and advantages will become more apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure l is a front elevational view of a plurality of panels assembled into awall and embodying the present invention;
Figure 2 is an isometric view of one of the panels of Figure l with portions broken away to show the internal structure and embodying the presentinvention;
Figure 3 is an enlarged isometric view of the upper right hand corner of the panelof Figure 2 and the supporting channel showing the means for fastening and supporting the. panel.
Figure 4 is a front elevational view of a portion of the supporting channel of Figures 1 and 3;
Figure 5 is a fragmentary sectional view taken along line 5-5 of Figure 1;
Figure 6 is a fragmentary'sectional viewtaken along line 66 of Figure 1'; and,
Figure 7 is an isometric view of the clip also shown in Figure 3 for fastening the panel in place.
Referring to the drawings, the wall shown in Figure 1 comprises a plurality of panels I fastened to and supported by the vertical channels or studs II as will be more fully herinafter described in detail. The channels I I may be formed of relatively light weight sheet steel or other material where they support only the weight of the panels It or may be formed of relatively heavy material when supporting part or all of the weight of the building. The adjacent edges of the panels are shown as being spaced apart a very slight distance suiflcient to prevent damage to the porcelain or other decorative coating along the edges when the panels are being assembled, but the edges may be in contact with each other. In either arrangement, the panels are assembled with their adjacent edges forming aligned, vertical, non-watertight seams I2 and aligned, horizontal, non-watertight seams I3 therebetween.
The hollow, pan-shaped panel Ii] is formed by forming a thin sheet of steel to which the porcelain coating is then applied. Each panel In comprises a front wall I4 which may be flat, as shown, or which may be embossed, stamped or otherwise deformed, coated or treated to present the desired decorative efiect. The edges of panel wall M are preferably slightly rounded as it is possible to more evenly enamel a round corner as compared to a sharp corner. An inwardly turned flange I extends along each of the two opposite, end edges of wall I4 and an inwardly depressed channel portion I6 extends across the upper edge of the front wall I l. The upper end portion of each flange is deformed to form a continuation of channel portion IS. The channel shaped portion I6 includes an inwardly bent, horizontal bottom shoulder IT, a web I8 parallel to wall I4, and asubstantially perpendicular outer flange l9 extending along the edge of web I8. The shoulder [1, web IB andflange I9 define a U-shaped channel with its open side toward the front of the panel. Near each end of the channel portion I6, there is formed a recess 21 and the flange I9 is lanced adjacent each end at 20 and opposite the recess 2i for the reasons more fully hereinafter described. An inwardly directed flange 22 extends across the bottom edge of the wall I4 and terminates in a downwardly bent lip 23.
A hook-shaped clip'25 is fastened to the-web I8 by rivets 24 and extends along the channel substantially as shown in Figures 3 and 5. The clip includes tabs 26 which are bent back to receive and hold the lip 23 of an adjacent, upper panel Ill. Other means may be used for fastening the clip 25 in place.
Channels II are supported in horizontally spaced apart positions-as indicated in Figure 1, and each drain channel includes a back web 21 having an outwardly bent flange 28 extending along each vertical side so that the web 2'! and channels 28 define a U-shaped channel passage with its open side toward the panels. Each flange 28 is provided with a notch 29 for each supported panel I9; At the bottom of notch 29 there is an inwardly extending, horizontal tab 30 and at the back of notch 29 there is a vertical, inwardly bent flange portion 3 I. A second relatively small inwardly bent tab 32 is provided at the upper side of notch 29.
When erecting a wall, the channels II are first properly positioned. The bottom panels are first fastened in place and then the next higher panels and so on, similar to the sequence used in fastening shingles in place. A lower panel is first placed in position with the end flanges I5, each in-a corresponding channel II, and then pressed into place so that the depressed channel shaped portion It fits into the corresponding pair of notches 29. The recessed portion 21 contacts the inwardly bent flangev portion 3|, as shown more clearly in Figures-6 and '7, and the shoulder I! of channel portion I6 rests on the tab 3%} at the bottom of notch 29. Thus, the weight of each panel i8 is supported by two flanges-28. The panel'is removably fastened to the channel II by a spring clip including two leg portions 35, each terminating in a hook portion 36. The spring clip 33 is placed in position so that its straight portion 3& extends across the top of flange I9 and the upper edge of flange ill with one leg 35 in back of flange portion 3| so that its hook portion 36 engages the upper end of flange I5 at and with the other leg 35 fitting the lancedportion 2!! of flange I9 so that its hook portion 36 engages the end of flange I9. The inwardly bent tab 32 holds the clip 33 in position. The clip-33 urges the web I5 away from flange SI and is normally compressed so that, as shown in Figure 3, the clip tends to urge the panel toward the right. The two opposed clips 33 thus tend to center the panel I0 with respect to the channels II. Each spring 33 resiliently urges each panel I8 toward the center of the adjacent, corresponding channel II, urges each panel I8 inwardly against flange portion 3I, and urges each panel downwardly toward the clip 25 in the channel portion I6 of the adjacent lower panel. The springs 33 can bereadily removed to permit'dismantling of the panels.
As shown more clearly in Figure 6, the flange 31 normally. does not quite touch the flange I5 of the next adjacent upper panel. The flange portion .3I does not contact the. back of the upper portion of flange I5 and the flanges I5 of two horizontally adjacent panels do not touch. Thus, each panel can shift horizontally a slight amount, that is, the panel has some. horizontal float. If there is atemperature change or settling of the building or any other causes tending to slightly shift or move the panels, this floating movement is sufficient to permit the panels to move and prevent or greatly-reduce spalling 0f the porcelain coating. The clips 33 are normally strong enough to prevent movementv of .the panels by windor by rial and form a seal.
hand. At times, when erecting a wall, the panels may not be positioned in perfect vertical alignment and the clips 33 will tend, over a period of time, to center the panels with respect to the previously described.
Insulating material may, if desirable, be added to the back of each panel front wall it. Enough clearance must be left so that the panels can be assembled. The flange i9 is slightly nared outwardly and if there is insulating material on the back of the adjacent upper panel, the resilient flange [9 will press against the insulating mate- The springs 33 holding each panel in place urge the panel downwardly against clip 25 and if insulating material is present, they urge the insulation against resilient flange 19.
Referring more particularly to Figure 5, the U-shaped channel portion it defines a velocity- -reduoing passage or channel 38 which is in back vofand above the seam i3. When, for example,
a driving rain strikes the panels, water is driven through horizontal seam l3 into the channel 35. The cross sectional area of channel 38 is much greater than that of scam 83 so that the water entering the channel from the seam has its velocity reduced and it immediately drops to the bottom of channel 38 and drains into the vertical drain channel H. Because of the reduction in velocity and the relatively large size of the channel 38 as compared to seam it, the water does not tend to push between the edge of flange I9 and wall It at 39 and enter the building structure where it will cause considerable damage.
As shown more clearly in Figure 6, the seam l2 opens into the velocity-reducing channel or passage defined by studs l i so that any water driven through seam l2 enters this vertical drain channel where its velocity is greatly reduced so that it immediately drains to the bottom of the channel. As the horizontal drain channels 33 communicate with the vertical drain channels defined by the studs H. all of the water entering the seams l2 and it eventually flows out of the bottom of channels ii to the ground or other locations where it will do no harm. If the channels H and panels Iii are assembled to form, for example, a roof, the lower ends of the channels may be directly above the eaves trough so that water draining from the channels ll will flow into these troughs and be drained away in the usual manner.
The panels Hi can be very rapidly and easily assembled once the channels ll are in place for it is only necessary to place each panel in position and snap two wire clips 33 into position. The assembled panels and channels provide a weatherproof Wall Without the use of a caulking compound and the wall is so constructed that the life of the wall is not limited to the life of the caulking compound and the panels are so supported that there is little or no tendency for the porcelain enamel coating to spall off under ,a change of temperature or settling of the building.
Having shown and described a preferred embodiment of my invention, it is to be understood that my invention is not limited to the structure shown and described and that some features may be used without others, all without departing from the spirit or scope of my invention, except as specifically set forth in the accompanying claims.
1. A wall comprising a plurality of panels assembled with their adjacent horizontal and vertical edges forming horizontally and vertically aligned non-watertight seams therebetween; a plurality of vertical members supporting said panels and each member defining a vertical drain channel in back of the corresponding vertically aligned seams; a depressed channel shaped portion extending along the upper edge of each panel and integral therewith and defining a horizintal channel in back of and above the corresponding horizontal seam; means in said channel shaped portion securing thereto the lower edge portion of an adjacent upper panel; and means fastening the panels to the corresponding vertical members.
2. A wall comprising a plurality of panels assembled with their adjacent horizontal and vertical edges forming horizontally and vertically aligned non-watertight seams therebetween; a plurality of spaced vertical members supporting said panels and each member defining a vertical drain channel in back of the corresponding vertical seams; a notch in each of said vertical members for each supported panel; a channel shaped portion integral with and extending along the upper edge of each panel and defining a horizontal channel in back of and above the correspond ng horizontal seam, said channel shaped portion including an inwardly bent shoulder, a web and a flange extending along the outer edge of said web, each of said channel shaped portions fitting into two of the notches in two vertical members; securing means in each of said channel shaped portions securing therein the lower edge portion of the adjacent upper panel; and means fastening the panels to the corresponding vertical members.
3. A wall comprising a plurality of panel walls assembled with their adjacent horizontal and vertical edges forming horizontally and vertically aligned non-watertight seams therebetween; a
plurality of horizontally spaced apart vertical members supporting said panel walls and each member including a web, an outwardly extending flange along each vertical edge of said web and a notch in each flange for each supported panel wall, said web and said flanges defining a vertical drain channel in back of the corresponding vertically aligned seams; a depressed channel shaped portion inte ral with and extending along the upper edge of each panel wall and including an inwardly bent bottom shoulder and a web parallel to the front wall, said channel shaped portion fitting into the two corresponding notches in the flanges of two adjacent verticalmenibers; means securing the lower edge of an adjacent upper panel in said channel shaped portion; resilient means removably fastening the panels to the vertical members.
A Wall comprising a plurality of panel face walls assembled with their adjacent horizontal and vertical edges forming horizontally and vertically aligned non-watertight seams therebetween; a plurality of horizontally spaced apart vertical members supporting said panel face walls, each member defining a vertical drain channel in back of correspondin -vertically aligned-seam, and each member including a web, an outwardlyextending :flange along each edge efsaid web, anotch in each flange for each supported panel, a'horizontally inwardly bent tab at the bottom of each notch, an inwardlyqbent and vertical flange portion at the back of each notch; an inwardly bent flange extendinga-long two opposite ends of each panel face-wall and extending :into the corresponding channel :Vdefined by a vertical member; a depressed channel shaped portion extending along the upper edge of each ofsaid panel walls andfltting into the two corresponding notches, each channel ,shaped'portion including an :inwardly bent :bottom -'shoulder engaging two of the corresponding, inwardly :bent tabs at the bottom of these two-notches, a web parallel to the panel face wall and contact 'ing :two of the inwardly bent vertical flangeportions, and an upper flange extending .alongthe upper edge of said web; and means extending along said channel shaped portion securing therein the lower edge of an adjacent upper panel; and resilient means holding the channel shaped portion in th corresponding notches.
5. A unitary panel comprising a. front wall; an inwardly bent flange extending along each of the two opposite end edges of said well; an inwardlydepressed channel shapedportion extending-along the upper edge of said well and including an inwardly bent horizontal shoulder adjacent said wall, a web parallel to said well and extending along the inner edge of said-shoulder, and a horizontal flange extending along the upper edge of said web; an inwardly bent lower edge portion extending along the lower edge or said wall and terminating in a downwardly bent lip; and a clip fastened to said web for receiving and holding the downwardly bent lip of the lower edge portion of an adjacent upper panel.
6. A unitary panel comprising a front wall; an inwardlybent flange extending along eachoi the two opposite end edges of said wall; an inwardly depressed channel shaped portion extending along the upper edge of said walland including an upwardly bent horizontal shoulder adjacent said wall and a web parallel to said wall and extending along the inner edge of said shoulder, and a horizontal flange extending along the upper edge of said web; an inwardly bent lower edge portion extending along the lower edge of said wall; and a clip fastened to said web for engaging and holding the lower edge portion of .an; adjacent upper-panel.
'7. A panel-supporting member defining a U- shaped channel and comprising a web; an out wardly extending flange along each side edge of said web; a notch in each flange for each supported panel; a horizontal, inwardly bent tab at the bottom of each notch; an inwardly bent, vertical flange portion at the back of each notch; and a second inwardly bent upper tab, both of said tabs and said flange portions being inwardly bent segments of the corresponding flange extending along said web.
8. A wall comprising a plurality of rectangular panels each having a front face wall with an inwardly bent edge flange portion. extending along each vertical edge, an inwardly bent shoulder portion extending along the upper horizontal edge of the face wall, and an inwardly bent edge portion extending along the lower horizontal edge of the face wall, said panels being assembled with their adjacent horizontal and Vertical portions forming horizontal .and cvertical, ;open
'8 seams therebetweensea *xertical drain ch nnel in back =or-zeachvertical seamand the corresponding-panel :flange .V-portions, each vertical channel includinga web spaced from the inner edges oi the, fiangesportions and outwardly bent flan e spaced from.,thezpanel,flange portions; andan upwardly bent web portion extending alon the inner. edge ofceach inwardly bent panel shoulder ,portionland extending in back of the inwardly bent lower edge portion of the adjacent ,upper panel and defining a velocity reducing drain channel communicating with the corresponding horizontal seam and communicating withrthe vertical drain channel.
9. A panelesupporting member defining a .U- shaped channel'and comprising a web; outwardly extending flanges extending .along opposite side edges .ofsaid web; a notch with an open front side in each flange .for receiving aportion of each supported panel; and a verticalflange portion bent inwardly toward the opposite flange at the back of each notch, said flange portions being in.- wardlybent segments of the corresponding flange extending along said web and each of said flange portions being bent slightly outwardly away from the web so that the inner free edge of each in,- wardly bent flange portion iSin front of theback of the corresponding notch.
10. A wall comprising a plurality of panels .asseinbled with adjacent horizontal and vertical edges of their walls forming horizontally and vertically aligned non-watertight seams; .a plurality of horizontally spaced vertical members supporting said panels, each member deflninga vertical drain channel in back of the corresponding verticallyaligned seam and each member including a web, an outwardly extending flange along each edge of said web, a notch in each flange for each supported panel, a horizontally inwardly bent tab at the bottom or each notch, an inwardly bent vertical flange portion at the back of .each notch and a second inwardly .bent upper tab; an inwardly bent flange extending along each of the two opposite endedges of each panel iacewall and extending into the channel defined by the corresponding vertical member; a depressed channel shaped portion extending along the upper edge of eachof said panel walls and fitting into the corresponding two notches in the flanges, eachchannel shaped portion including an inwardly bent bottom shoulder en.- gaging two of the corresponding, inwardly bent tabs at the bottom of the notches, a web parallel to the front wall and contacting two, corresponding, inwardly bent flange portions, and anupper flange extending along the upper edge of said last mentionedweb; and means extending along said channel shaped portion secured therein the lower edge of an adjacent upper panel; and resilient clips for fastening the channel shaped portion in the corresponding pair of notches, each of said clips comprising a portionextending across the'top of the flange at the upper edge of said last-mentioned web and across the top -of the inwardly bent flange portion at the back of the notch, and two compressed spring leg portions extending from said straight portion-and engaging the'panel :at their outer ends so as to urge the latter toward the central plane of the corresponding vertical drain channel, said spring clip permitting limited floating movement of the panel wall relative to thesupporting member and being held in place by the second inwardly bent upper tab adjacent to each notch.
:11. ,A wall comprising a plurality. of panels ,as-
sembled with their adjacent edges forming horizontally and vertically aligned non-watertight seams therebetween; a plurality of vertical members supporting said panels and each member defining a vertical drain channel in back of the corresponding vertically aligned seams; a channel-shaped element carried by and extending along the upper edge of each panel and defining a horizontal channel in back of and above the corresponding horizontal seams; means attaching said panels together; and means fastening the panels to the corresponding vertical members.
12. A wall comprising a plurality of vertical supporting members, each supporting member having a web and side flanges, a plurality of panels carried by said supporting members, neighboring edge portions ofsaid panels being in close juxtaposition to provide non-watertight vertical seams, and non-watertight seams angled with respect to the vertical, said seams being free of caulking material, a channel-shaped member. in back of each of said angled seams, said channel-shaped and said supporting members extending toward and terminating in proximity to the inner surface of the panels for forming therewith channels behind said seams, the side flanges of each vertical supporting memberbeing spaced from its associated seam, the open area of said channels being large as compared with that of said seams, whereby water driven into said channels through said seams has its velocity material- 1y reduced upon entering the channels and is then drained away.
13. A wall comprising a plurality of panels assembled with their adjacent vertical edges forming non-watertight, vertical seams therebetween and with their adjacent horizontal edges forming non-watertight horizontal seams therebetween, a plurality of vertical supporting members supporting the panels, each member defining a vertical drain channel in back of respective vertical seams, there being a vertical drain channel in back of each vertical seam, means fastening the panel to the vertical supporting members, and a rearwardly depressed channel-shaped element integrally joined to and extending along the upper edge of each panel, each channel-shaped element defining a horizontal drain channel in back of the horizontal seam at the upper edge of the respective panel, the horizontal drain channel extending upwardly above the corresponding horizontal seam and each horizontal channel communicating with a vertical drain channel.
CYRIL R. B. HARDING.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,594,614 Haines Aug. 3, 1926 1,874,790 Mortenson Aug. 30, 1932 2,128,976 Voegeli Sept. 6, 1938 2,190,818 Wysong Feb. 20, 1940 Certificate of Correction Patent No. 2,530,465 November 21, 1950 CYRIL R. B. HARDING It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows:
Column 7, line 46, for upwardly read inwardly; line 75, before the Word portions insert edge;
and that the said Letters Patent should be read as corrected above, so that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Ofiice.
Signed and sealed this 15th day of May, A. D. 1951.
THOMAS F. MURPHY,
Assistant Commissioner of Patents.