US 2530838 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Nov. 21, 1950 wn'm, non. AND SHEET METAL DRAWING LUBRICANT or srn'rna'rrc wax, nomra, AND oaoamc BINDER Gilbert H. Orozco, Euclid, and Richard F. Roy, Cleveland, Ohio, assignors to Gilron'Producta ggmpany, Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of No Drawing. Application August 11, 1949, Serial No. 109,825
This invention relates to lubricants, and more particularly to dry lubricants for use in the drawing of metal wire and rod stock and in the deep drawing of sheet metal stock.
In accordance with the present invention, a lubricating composition is proposed of which an aqueous solution thereof is applied to the wire or metal stock prior to the forming operation and caused or permitted'to dry thereon and form on the metal stock a dry, homogeneous, adherent lubricating and protective film which, during the drawing or formation of the stock to the desired shape, supplies the necessary protection and lubrication to the stock and die surfaces. The composition of the present invention will be found to be of particular utility when forming metal stock which, due to its surface, requires a. protective barrier film.
The new and improved lubricating composi tions of the present invention, broadly stated, comprise the following ingredients combined together in cooperative relationship and in the proportions shown, the proportions being by dry weight:
Range Preferred Component A:
A synthetic wax having a melting Parts Parts point of at least about 95 C about 10-40 about 20 Component l3:
Metal borates, bcrate ores, mixtures thereof, or any of the above with colloidal clay, metal silicates, or metal carbonates about 85-35 about 70 Component An inert, water-soluble organic lubricating binder about 5-25 about A composition containing the above-stated compounds and applied to the metal stock in the above-described manner will be found to possess a remarkable cooperative effect between the individual materials which results in a far superior lubricating fiect during the metal forming operation.
Component A 19 Claims. (Cl. 252-25) desired manner. The melting point is of prime importance with respect to this material due to the fact that the lubricating composition is preferably applied in a water solution having a temperature of at least about C. and if the melting point of the wax is low, the wax would be in a fluid state and merely float on the surface thus, upon drying, being in an uncombined state'with respect to the remaining ingredients. Moreover, it has been found that the melting point is quite critical with respect to the overall lubricating characteristics of the blended composition. If
the melting point is below the stated minimum limit the wax will melt too quickly thus providing no lubricity at the higher temperatures encountered during the forming operation. In other words, the melting point of the wax must be such that it will, in combination with the other ingredients, provide some lubrication at relatively all stages of the forming operation.
There are a wide variety of high melting point synthetic waxes readily available commercially which will be found suitable for use as Component A in the composition. One such class of materials is the complex nitrogen derivatives of the higher fatty acids and more particularly amides of higher fatty acid esters such as cetyl acetamide etc. The melting point range of the amides of fatty acid esters and particularly the aliphatic esters will be from between about 95 C. up to about 140 C. Commercially available materials coming within the meaning of this particular class are marketed by Glycol Products Company of Brooklyn, N. Y., under trade-marks of Acrawax, Acrawax C, and Acrawax C. T.
An additional material that is preferred also a,
and one that is readily available is the wax manufactured by the National'Oil Products Company of Harrison, N. J under the trade-mark Napcowax.
Other and additional waxes found equally suitable for use as Component A in the composition of the present invention are the following materials, identification being had in the form of their trade names: I. G. Wax O (M. P. 101-106); I. G. Wax OP (M. P. 101-106) I. G. Wax Z (M. P. 102) glyceryl, glycol or polymerized ethylenic esters of acids derived from montan wax, i. e. Durocer (M. P. -127), Rezo Wax A (M. P. 10'7- 112), Rezo Wax B (M. P. 95-100), Stroba Wax (M. P. 98-100), Abacer (M. P. 95-97); Santowax P (M. P. 200-215); Santowax PSA (M. P. 139- Another class of materials also suitable for use as Component A are high molecular weight fatty 3 acid amides such as octanamide (M. P. 106); decanamide (M. P. 99); dodecanamide (M. P. 102); tetradecanamide (M. P. 103); hexadecanamide (M. P. 106); octadecanamide (M. P. 109); 25% hexadecanamide-75% octadecanamide (M. P. 100); etc.
While in the foregoing discussion of the illustrative materials suitable for use as Component A, reference has been had to the individual compounds. However, it will be found that a mixture of one or more waxes may be employed with satisfactory results. For example, Acrawax CT may be admixed with Napcowax and then blended into the completed composition to function as Component A. In the production of such mixtures extreme caution should be had to insure the melting point of the mixture being within the hereinbefore given range. Therefore, in the discussion hereinafter given, where reference is had to Component A or synthetic wax, such reference is to include both single materials as well as mixtures thereof.
Component B The compounds suitable for use as Component B in the composition of the present invention may be generically identified as inorganic boroncontaining compounds. Such materials have been specifically identified as metal borates, borate ores, mixtures thereof, or any of the foregoing admixed with colloidal clay, metal silicates or metal carbonates. These materials have been found to cooperatively function with the other ingredients of the composition to provide the necessary lubrication. These materials when present within the stated range are of particular value at the extremely high frictional heats encountered during the latter stages of the metal forming or drawing operation.
The metal borates may be any water-soluble or water-insoluble borate and may be used singularly or in an admixture as above indicated. The borate when used alone will be present in the composition in an amount ranging from between about 35-85 parts by weight, dry. Illustrative and non-limiting examples of suitable borates for use as Component B are borax, potassium borate, lithium borate, barium borate, magnesium borate, manganese borate, iron borate, copper borate, zinc borate, lead borate, aluminum borate, etc.
The borate ores are ordinarily water-insoluble, naturally occurring, complex metal borate mixtures, such mixtures being of sodium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, and the like. The mixtures also contain various other impurities in the form of various silicates, carbonates, and oxides. The borates when employed in the form of the ore is preferably admixed with the other ingredients in a powdered state.
The borate ores are normally mined in California and Nevada and usually marketed in the naturally occurring state as obtained. Illustrative examples of, commercially available ores are Colemanite (CaaBaOu 511:) Uiexite (cazBeOu-Nazmow-lfimo) Borocalcite (CaHaB40s-3H20) Boracite (Mg'zChBmOso); Iaderellite ((NH4) :(BsOa)z-5H20) Pinnoite (M83204 311:0) Ascharite (MgHBOs); Kaliborate (KMgaBnOn-BHzO); Razorite Gesterley Borate, etc.
As hereinbefore indicated, certain additional ingredients may be employed as a substitute for a portion of the borate or borate ore. For example, colloidal clay, in an amount ranging from between about a trace up to about 20 parts by dry weight, may be admixed with the borate or borate ore with a like omission of such borate or ore. Caution should be employed when using the clay since it tends to rapidly thicken the water solution in which the composition is applied to the stock and it should therefore be used sparingly.
Other ingredients that may be substituted also for a portion of the borate or the ore are watersoiuble silicates and carbonates with certain additional properties being imparted to the composition. For example. an addition of a small amount on the order of about i to 5 parts by dry weight of the silicate or carbonate render the composition eutectic. Examples of suitable silicates and carbonates are the alkali and alkaline earth metal salts thereof.
In compounding such a mixture of borate materials as above discussed, many combinations of the various materials are possible. For example, the mixture may consist of two or more metal borates; two or more borate ores; one or more metal borates with one or more borate ores; metal borate and colloidal clay; borate ore and colloidal clay; metal borate and water-soluble silicate or carbonate; a borate ore and a water-soluble silicate or carbonate; metal borate; borate ore, and colloidal clay or a water-soluble silicate or carbonate; or any additional combinations of these materials in the manner above-indicated. In the blending of these mixtures, the amount to be employed of the substitute materials has been given as from a trace up to about 20 parts for the clay and from about 1 to 5 parts for the silicate and the carbonate. The amount of these mixtures to be employed as Component B in the composition must fall within the hereinbefore stated broad range of -85 parts.
Component 0 The materials to be employed in the composition as Component C has hereinbefore been gensolution with the remaining ingredients; (2) inert with respect to other materials in the composition as well as the aqueous carrier in order that no objectionable materials will be precipitated onto the surface of the metal stock: (3) possess a melting point of at least 10' C. so that the material will be present when needed during the lubricating of the stock and die; (4) have an "initial distillation point" of at least 200 C. so that the compound will not "flash oif" durinrz the initial high frictional heat encountered in the drawing operation.
In summation, any compound possessin the above stated properties will be found suitable for use as Component C in the lubricating composition. Iliustrative examples of suitable compounds are the polyhydric alcohols and the fatty acid esters thereof which possess the aboves,sao,ess
stated properties and particularly the aliphatic polyhydric alcohols having less than four hydroxy groups and the fatty acid esters thereof; the following speclfic compounds illustrating suitable materials falling within these classes: glycerol, glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl oleate. polyethylene glycol (diand tri-), polyethylene glycol oleate, propylene glycol, polyethylene glyco stearate, propylene glycol oleate, propylene glycol stearate, diglycol stearate, etc.
Other and additional materials satisfying the requirements of Component C are readily available commercially such as aliphatic amines, i. e. phenyldiethanolamine; ketones, i. e. phenylmethylpyrazolone; etc. Under these circumstances, no useful purpose is seen in providing a long list of compounds which are well-known and which possess the properties required for Component C.
Of the compounds suitable for use as Component C, a particular and preferred class of compounds are the aliphatic polyhydric alcohols having less than four hydroxy groups and the fatty acid esters thereof and which, additionally, are relatively solid and possess a melting point of at least from between about 40 up to about 70 C. Illustrative examples of these preferred compounds are polyethylene glycol (diand tri-), polyethylene glycol oleate (diand tri-), diglycol stearate, glyceryl monostearate, propylene glycol stearate, etc.
It should be particularly noted that Component C in the lubricating composition may be in the form of a mixture of one or more of the individual compo nds, each of which would satisfy the hereinbefor stated requirements. For example, polyethylene glycol may be combined with polyethylene glycol oleate, glyceryl monostearate, glycerol, propylene glycol, propylene glycol oleate, glycerol distearate, etc. and the resulting mixture employed as Component C. Moreover, any of the foregoing may be mixed with one another in any desired ratio to produce a mixture suitable for use. When employing such a mixture, however, the total amount of the mixture must fall within the broad range hereinbefore given for Component C.
Additional component compounds Under many circumstances, additional materials will be found desirable due to the particular stock used and the state of its surface. It has been found that under many circumstances it will be advantageous to add a small amount, i. e. about to 5 parts, of a surface active agent. The surface active agent must be inert with respect to the water employed in forming a solution of the composition and must also possess the well-known properties of surface active agents. Illustrative and specific compounds which are known as surface active agents are dioctyl ester of sodium sulfosuccinic acid, sodium petroleum sulfonate, alkyl naphthalene sulfonates, dibutyl phenyl phenol sodium sulfonate, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide, sodium alkyl sulfates i. e. sodiumlauryl sulfate, sodium octyl sulfate, etc., potassium lauryl sulfate, potassium octyl sulfate, amino fatty acid esters, polyoxyalkylene di-fatty acid esters, 'alkyl aryl sulfonates i. e. Nacconol NR, etc. These specific compounds above given illustrate only a relatively few of the many compounds known as surface active agents and, in view of the wide recognition of such compounds no need to give a lengthy description of such compounds is believed necessary.
'I. G. Wax 0 getyl aeetamida Emmy I orsr. Polyethylene glycol 10 Lithium borstefi Colloidal clay (3) Glyceryl dlsfearate Co emanlte (41).") Sodium silicate (1)1 Glyceryl m a. Sodium lauryl sulfa N apcowax Em mph Zinc borate Polyethylene glycol oleate 13 cetyl Amhamldn Rump: 6 19 Capper bomte (66) S ium carbonate (4) Phenylmethylpymmlnm 8 oprylnaphthalene sulionate 3 Exam 7 Napcowax (10) "1 pl Cetyl acetamide (25); UlPriiA Glycero Sodium petroleum sulionste Example 8 'letradecanamlde Borocalcite. Polyethylene glycol oleate Eunlple 0 Propylene glycol n Dibutylphenylphenol sodium disulfonate Example 10 a a s sssa Ezomple I1 Durocer Kai i hm-afn Pheuylmethylpyrazolnns Potassium octyl suliate Ulexite Polyethylene glycol Li a a: e ages Emmple I4 sees.
Coal aoetami As arite 43). Colloidal ay 15) Polyethylene g ycol oleate Ezample 16 Dodeeanamlde- Borax Kaliboraie (40) Kalrborate (3) Propylene glycol steamm Etcmple I6 Rezo W ax R Potassium borate (27)} Borax Phenyldiethanolamine N N Exam I7 Bantowax P. Pk
Ascherite (2o) Lithium borate (20) Polyethylene glycol Emnlple 18 For applying the new and improved compositions of the present invention to the wire or metal stock prior to its formation thereof, an aqueous solution of the composition is made using a concentration of from about eight ounces per gallon of water to saturation, depending on the roughness of the surface of the stock and the severity of the draw. As the roughness and porosity of the stock increases, the concentration of the composition will likewise increase. For extremely rough and highly porous stock such as vitreous enamel stock, a saturated solution is deemed best. For extremely light draws, the concentration may be about eight ounces per gallon of water.
The aqueous solution as above prepared is ordinarily applied to the wire or metal stock by a simple, dipping operation with the temperature of the bath being at least about 90 C. and then permitted to dry thereon whereby there is formed on the surface of the stock a dry, homogeneous, self-adherent lubricating and protecting barrier film. The stock containing the film is then pressure shaped or drawn into the desired shape without any harmful effects to the dies or the surface of the metal stock. After the shaping operation, the formed article is then washed with hot water which completely removes any trace of the lubricants from the surface of the formed article. In other words, the formed article is ready to receive any subsequent operation, 1. e. vitreous enameling, painting, electro-platmg, etc. without any additional cleaning, washing, or pickling treatment.
It should be particularly noted that after the dry homogeneous film has been placed upon the stock in the above manner the forming operation does not have to be immediately started. In other words, the dry homogeneous film is imparted to the stock and the stock in this condition may then be stored for any period of time that is desired. This characteristic of the composition in maintaining its full degree of lubricity over an extended period of time is extremely advantageous since it permits the mill manufacturer to provide small metal fabricators with the desired metal stock already containing a lubricating film as well as a protective film. In this manner, the mill can finish the stock as it comes from the mill to impart the desired degree of surface finish and then coat the finished stock immediately in the manner above described and sell the stock in this condition. The fabricator then forms the stock to the desired shape and washes the film off leaving a shaped metal article requiring no additional surface finishing or cleaning. This permits the fabricator to dispense with the costly equipment heretofore required to finish the surface of the shaped metal article.
Having thus described our invention, we claim:
1. A coating material for admixture with water for coating a piece of unformed metal stock and the like and forming thereon a self-adherent, homogeneous, lubricating and protecting film comprising the following ingredients by weight, dry: Component A:
A synthetic wax having a melting point of at least about 95 C 10-40 Component 3 A boron containing material selected from the class consisting of metal borates, borate ores, mixtures of the foregoing, and any of the foregoing admixed with a minor amount of a material selected from the group consisting of colloidal clay, watersoluble silicates, and water-soluble carbonates -35 Component C:
A water-soluble organic lubricating binder which is inert with respect to other material in the composition and has a melting point of at least about 10 C. and an initial distillation point of at least about 200 C 5-25 2. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component A is a nitrogeneous derivative of a higher fatty acid.
3. A coating material inaccordance with claim 1 wherein Component A is an amide of an aliphatic ester of a higher fatty acid.
4. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component A is cetyl acetamide.
5. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component A is an aliphatic amide.
6. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component A is an ester of a derivative of montan wax.
7. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component B is a metal borate.
8. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component B is an alkali metal borate.
9 A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component B is a water-insoluble metal borate.
10. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component B is a water-soluble metal borate.
11. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component C is an aliphatic polyhydric alcohol.
12. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component 0 is an aliphatic polyhydric alcohol having less than four hydroxy groups.
13. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component 0 is a fatty acid ester of an aliphatic polyhydric alcohol.
14. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component C is a fatty acid ester of an aliphatic polyhydric alcohol having less than four hydroxy groups.
15. A liquid composition comprising a major amount of water and a minor amount of the composition set forth in claim 1;
16. A coating composition in accordance with claim 1 wherein Component A is a nitrogeneous derivative of a higher fatty acid; Component 8 is metal borates; and Component 0 is an allphatic polyhydric alcohol selected from the group consisting of aliphatic polyhydric alcohols hav- REFERENCES CITED mg less than hydroxy groups and the fatty The following references are of record in the acid esters thereof. me of this patent:
1'7. A coating material in accordance with claim 1 wherein the proportions of the component UNITED STATES PATENTS compounds are as follows: 6 Number Name Date Pam 22,18: :Zhilgeck DAec. 2(9), 1349 ,12 2 on omery ug. 38 323332222 2 22332 33 2,3193% Epstein May 18-1943 Component C about 18. A coating material in accordance with OTHER megs claim 1 which has included therein about /2 to "Synthetic Organic Chemicals," Carbide and 5 parts of an inert surface active agent. Carbon Chemicals Corporation, 12th ed., pub.
19. A coating material in accordance with 15 July 1, 1945,11. 23, lines 16-22. claim 1 wherein Component B is a Parts Metal Borate 85-30 Water-soluble carbonate 1- 5 GILBERT n. onozco. 9 momma I'LROY.