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Publication numberUS2531222 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 21, 1950
Filing dateNov 25, 1946
Priority dateNov 25, 1946
Publication numberUS 2531222 A, US 2531222A, US-A-2531222, US2531222 A, US2531222A
InventorsKesling Harold D
Original AssigneeKesling Harold D
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tooth positioning appliance
US 2531222 A
Abstract  available in
Images(3)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 21 1950 H. D. KESLING TOOTH POSITIONING APPLIANCE Filed Nov. 25, 1946 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Nov. 21, 1950 H. D. KESLING TOOTH POSITIONING APPLIANCE 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 25, 1946 Nov. 21, 1950 H. D. KESLING 2,531,222

TOOTH POSITIONING APPLIANCE Filed Nov. 25, 1946 s Sheets-Sheet s lzvl/nlroz: Hanow 0. Kasuue,

Patented Nov. 21, 1 950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE TOOTH POSITIONING APPLIANCE Harold D. Kesling, La Porte, Ind.

Application November 25, 1946, Serial N 0. 712,212

8 Claims.

The present invention relates generally to dental devices and to means and methods of forming the same, and more particularly to a tooth positioning appliance or tooth positioner which is adapted to surround the teeth of a wearer for directing the teeth and the arch forms towards the assumption of preselected ideal positions, and to a flask device in which the tooth positioning appliance is formed and to the method of forming the tooth positioning appliance by employment of the flask device.

The present application is a continuation in part of my copending application, now abandoned, Serial No. 495,870, filed July 23, 1943, for Tooth Positioning Appliance.

The present new appliance grew out of a long felt need in dentistry for a simple tooth positioner that would influence all of the teeth to flow into their best possible position with relation to one another without any interference from bands or wires, that would be effective under functional forces, that would produce arch form in accordance with type, that would attain the desired harmony between facial features and tooth arrangement, and that would serve as a retainer to conserve all the advantages gained above.

In the last few years much has been said and written about lack of bony base, mesial drift, bimaxillary protrusion, bimaxillary bony retrusionfand so forth. All of this has been expressed because of a realization of a lack of harmony and balance between the teeth, the jaws, and the features of the face. Perhaps no two operators ,lwould agree upon a certain pattern or profile as a typically beautiful face. It is quite encouraging that those teeth that have suflicient space in the denture to assume an upright position over then bony bases produce a pleasing profile and dentures of which the teeth are stable under functional forces. Perhaps thiswill be the media by which orthodontists in general will finally agree to some extent as to what constitutes balance and harmony of the dentures and facial contour.

Except in the presence of abnormal muscular habits, teeth that are unhampered by roximal contacts or inclined plane interference tend to assume positions which are stable as, well as in balance with one another and with the immediate tissues surrounding them. Therefore, the diagnosis and plan of treatment of the average orthodontic case is greatly simplified when we accept our limitation of bone development and leave in each arch only those teeth which will have sufficient space to be positioned upright and properly rotated, with correct proximal contacting. Then, with the mechanics now at hand, the maxillary denture can be placed in its proper relation to the mandibular. With the exception of cases with exaggerated bone deformities, orthodontic cases have a very favorable prognosis when treated in this simple and realistic manner. It would be ideal to have a case treated from start to finish with an appliance that did not interfere with the proximal contacting of the teeth nor increase their mesial-distal dimensions. To date, the profession has not been favored with an appliance that would adequately control the teeth that required major movements without banding or capping these teeth.

However, the present tooth positioning appliance is an active treating appliance for th final artistic positioning of the teeth as well as an effective retaining device. The appliance allows the teeth to flow into their most ideal position without interference from bands, caps, or wires. Also, this appliance is most effective under functional forces. The proved practicability of the tooth positioning appliance is for the final artistic positioning and retention of the teeth of cases that have already had basic treatment completed with a conventional type appliance. Basic treatment need only be carried until each tooth is properly rotated and is approaching its desired position. Arch form need not be ideal, slight spaces may remain, overbites may still be exaggerated, and mesial-distal or buccal-lingual relationships of the maxillary teeth to the mandibular need not be perfect so long as the cusps are starting into their proper inclined plane relationships.

If basic treatment has been properly accomplished, each tooth will have sufiicient space in the arch. The material of the positioner allows it to stretch over the teeth, and While it is being worn its resiliency influences each tooth toward its position in the predetermined pattern, or setup. Experience has shown that in this way arch forms may be modified, slight rotations may be accomplished, and axial position influenced.

In the past, after orthodontic treatment has been completed, the average orthodontist has depended upon nature to settle the teeth into positions of balance and harmony. Examination of 3 unstable from previous manipulation and respond to the influence of the positioner very readily. Not only does the positioner maintain the advantages gained by the conventional treatment, but the teeth are actually influenced toward more harmonious and stable positions through its wearing.

Not infrequently, teeth of individuals under orthodontic treatment are tipped into abnormal axial positions. This is especially true in the molar and premolar areas where the teeth are invariably tipped buccally. With the tooth positioning appliance, this condition can be corrected in the setup, and in the mouth the :positioner will influence the teeth, not only by reducing the arch width, but also by the functional 'forces working through the occlusal surfaces of the teeth, their roots being thrown buccally and their crowns lingually. Teeth so positioned with the tooth positioning appliance will more nearly approximate "the axial positioning of the saine teeth in non'orthodonti normals.

As basic treatment is completed in severe class II, division 1; cases, the maxillary anteriors often assume 'a lingual axial inclination. This "position is "inevitable because of the distance the incisal edg'esof these *teeth must travel lingually in order to -i-eaeh class *1 relationship to those of the mandibular finciso'rs. When "using the tocthp'ositioningappliance, it is quite convenient to exaggeratethe ialoial axial inclinationof these teeth "on the setup, and through the appliance influence them into-their normalpositions. This s'ame ond-ition will "often prevail-in cases where it --is necessary to eliminate some of the-dental units inorder to completebasic treatment properly.

When 'us'ing 'the tooth positioning appliance for the final positioning *of the teeth, it is not necessary that all-of tl'ie teeth completely .i'nterlock in inclined plane relationship before basic treatment is -disc'cntinued. If the maxillary buccal teeth are approaching their normal re'lationship both buecolingua'lly and mes'iod-istally to their antagonists in the mandibular-arch, the teeth =can be forced :into the positioner, -and:it will influence fall the teeth toward their complete interdigitation. llf it :is :necessary to .shift the mandible :laterally .or imesiallyin prder to en'- gage the positioner, the proper .force .ior 'ipositioning these teeth will be brought .into .play when :the patient, after .seating his teeth into the positioner, carries .the mandible back into its normal gpOSitlOIl. lihe functional forces will add greatly to reduce this type of discrepancy, if the patient is not lazy and works against any shift of the mandible created by the positioner.

There are some types .of major tooth movements that the conventional type of appliance has .utterly tailed to produce. Deep overbites are corrected not by the depression of the anterior teethbut by the elevation of'the other teeth to theirline of occlusion. .Therasurely are cases of closed-bite 'malocclusion'fin which the most favorable treatment would 'be ithe depression of theanterior teeth rather thantheelevation of the posterior teeth. Since the pressure required 'to elevate teeth 'is lvery light compared with that necessary to depress teeth, generally speaking, all conventional typesofappliances elevate the .posterior teeth in these closed-bite cases rather than depress the anterior teeth.

When dealing with such cases, .the'intelligerit arrangement of the teeth on the I'setu'p' would'fbe an almostend-to-end rlation"of the anterior would the appliance influence the, posterior teeth to any great extent. Certainly the most active force would be toward the depression of the anterior teeth.

The positioner is an ideal retaining device, he-

cause it not only retains the arch form and tooth positioning within the arch, but also retains the correct relationship between the maxillary and mandibular arches. It will go into place and function even though there has been a slight relapse of the case. When in place it has the proper stimulus "todron out the relapse anda'gain position the teeth asthey'wei'e arranged in the predetermined pattern. As "the conventional typesof retainers "are rigid, they"do 'not allow for Slight changes which are inevitable 'i'n "512K1 3" denture. -The p'osition'er 'isfiexible and accommodatesit's'ehfto these changes 'that accompany the settling 'of'the teeth.

The tooth positioning appliance has be'enhsed, and has possibilities for "extensive use in the future, as an appliance to stabilize 't'ethofdhdividuals who 'have'ha'd orthodontic"treatment. It can be of edu'al'bene'fit ffor 'casesthat have .not had treatment but "which are rone 'to'di iftfinto traumatic malocclusion perhaps tnrough aek of function. "By using this"new'ltechniduepf'ifinal positioning 'Of th'e'te'th, it is pos's'ibleto remove the c'on'i' entional type, of device from Tour 'to six months earlier than i'sfpr'iidticaliihdfthe 1131121 form 'O f fi'ritmht. 'Be'SYdeS ie dliihg the b1)- erators chair time, thejpatient's appreciate the shortening "of treatment. 'Wh'n "the jpositioher i's'ji'iopeily Wdii'i, "eaeh 'toot'h'is b'e'i'n'g 'fb'rcedtb- Wal'idits best ossible 'positi'oh, "I'l'ot f'on'lyfin relation to the'teethpf' its own arch, but also "in relation "to the teeth or the op osite arch. Slight spaces areeloseu, "moderate irdtaltibiiS "arel ad just'e'd, fil'a'iiillalf an" mandibular? discrepancies are corrected, "and proper inter'digitatidn offth'e maxillary "and "mandibular .teeth "is .ariie'vea. Axial'po'sitiofiih'g -is changed, "not brily by the pressures exert-econ the medal, 1iii'gu'a1, and labial Is llifac'e's 16 1' the teeth, bll't also by'fth e fulictibilal "fdl'c' es "exertin'g'pres'sure "Oil the 'bclllsall sl'li fac''s of 'the teeth. This is e'speciallyitrue' 6f the pos'trioft'eeth.

The day' of -prolo'n'ge'd' wearing of 'orthodon'tic sent-es i's'past The fniajor tooth movements necessary to properly accomplish the basic treatmerit of most orthodontic; cases=can he completed in a'boutftwelve monthslif theac'tivetreatment is undrtakenat lthemost opportune time. .Many cases canmv'e theban'ds on and off in from .-six .to eight .months, providing that y the .final -.positioning is to be accomplished, not by bands :and

' wires, 'but with the present too.th,positioning aprance. I

Thetooth positioning appliance hasmany other fuses than the ffina'l positioning and retention of teeth asset .out above. For example, closed-bitecases lhave been-successfully corrected without the use of .any other device than the tooth positioning appliance. "Major tooth :movements can beaccomplish'ed bythe useoi a series o'fYtooth positioning .appliances formed to progressively change the position of the teeth and attract d the forms of the arches. Other uses will sugges themselves to those skilledin the art.

The present novel flask device and the method of employing it to make the present tooth positioning appliances. affords an efiicient and accurate apparatus and method of forming the tooth positioning appliances which is radically different from anything heretofore found in the dental art.

. Therefore, it is an object of the present invention to provide a novel tooth positioning appliance or tooth positioner which will influence all of the teeth of an individual to flow into their best possible positionwith relation to one another after basic treatment by bands or wires and the removal from the teeth of any such bands or wires.

Another object is to provide a novel tooth positioning appliance that produces arch form in accordance with type and that is effective under functional forces.

Another object is to provide a novel tooth positioning appliance that attains the desired harmony between facial features and tooth arrangement.

Another object is to provide a novel tooth positioning appliance that serves as a retainer to conserve all advantages achieved in the positioning of teeth thereby.

Another object is to provide a novel tooth positioning appliance which may be worn in the mouth with a minimum of discomfort to the user and which reduces mouth breathing when worn while sleeping.

Another object is to provide a novel tooth po- Another object is to provide a novel tooth positioning appliance which materially reduces the period of time that braces and bands are required on badly out-of-position teeth and which is adapted to complete the positioning of the teeth in a more efhcient and effective manner than can be-achieved by employing the presently used wires or bands through to the completion of the straightening eifort.

Another object is to provide a novel tooth positioning appliance of elastic deformable material which is formed to surround both upper and lower teeth of a user and which is adapted to apply a gentle pressure to out-of-line teeth until the ideal preselected position thereof is attained.

Another object is to provide a novel device for forming the present tooth positioning appliance which is efficient in operation and which provides a tooth positioning appliance of proper configuration and relationship of teeth receiving cavities.

Another object is to provide a novel flask and associated spacer element in which the present novel tooth positioning appliance is readily, accurately, and eficiently formed.

Another object is to provide a novel method of forming the present novel tooth positioning appliance which is eificientand which achieves accurate results.

Another object is to provide a novel tooth positioning appliance which may be applied and 6 removed by a user with a i'rii'nimiim of instruction so that maximum advantages obtain.

Other objects are to provide a novel flask for forming the present novel tooth positioning appliance, which is sturdy inconstruction, which may be readily employed by technicians or other instructed personnel, which is inexpensive, which is readily fabricated, and which incorporates numerous other advantages.

Still other advantages are to provide a novel method of forming the present novel tooth positioning appliance'which may be readily followed by laboratory technicians or other instructed personnel, which is productive of a maximum number of appliances with a minimum number of rejects, and which incorporates other advantages.

Other objects and advantages, in addition to the foregoing, are apparent from the following description taken with the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. l is a plan view of a plaster model of the upper teeth of an individual prior to application of the present tooth positioning appliance;

Fig. 2 is a plan view of a plaster model of the lower teeth of an individual prior to application of the present tooth positioning appliance;

Fig. 3 is a side elevational view of the plaster models shown in Figs. 1 and 2 showing the upper and lower teeth in closed or occluded relation;

Fig. 4 is a plan view of a plaster model involving the same teeth shown in Fig. 1, but showing these teeth disposed in the desired straightened relationship after dissection from an original plaster model and resetting by wax or other suitable material;

Fig. 5 is a plan view of a plaster model involving the same teeth shown in Fig. 2, but showing these teeth disposed in the desired straightened relationship after dissection from an original plaster model and resetting by wax or other suitable material;

Fig. 6 is a side elevational view showing the plaster models of Figs. land 5 with the teeth in closed or occluded position;

Fig. 7 is a central vertical cross-sectional view through the center element of the present novel flask taken on the line l''! of Fig. 8; v

Fig. 8 is a plan view of the center element of the present novel flask;

Fig. 9 is a central vertical cross-sectional view through the lower base of the present novel flask taken on the line 9-9 of Fig. 10;

Fig. 10 is a plan view of the lower base of the present novel flask;

Fig. 11 is a plan view of a spacer element employed in the instant novel method of forming the tooth positioning appliance;

- Fig. 12 is a side elevational view of the spacer element shown in Fig. 11;

Fig. 13 is a side elevational view of the upper and lower bases of the flask separated by the spacer element, the upper and lower bases having formed therein plaster models of reset upper and lower teeth from which a tooth positioning appliance is to be formed;

Fig. 14 is a side elevational view of a preshaped piece of resilient deformable material from which atooth positioning appliance is to be formed;

Fig. 15 is a plan view of the upper and lower bases of the flask as shown in Fig. 13, but with the spacer replaced by the center element;

Fig. 16 is a central vertical cross-sectional view on the line 16-46 of Fig. 15;

Fig. 17 a sideelevaticnal view of the flesh withiplaster models or reset teeth in; the upper and lower bases, as shown in Figs; 15 and 16', but separated from the central element by the presence in they central element. of an elastic moldable piece of material such as is shown in Fig. 14;

Fig. 18 is a plan view of the upper base of the flask with a plaster model of reset teeth formed therein;

Fig. 1-9. is a plan view: of a tooth positioning appliance formed in the present flask showing the configuration thereof before trimming to mouth size;

Fig. 20 is a vertical crossesectional view on line 20-..-20 of Fig. 19.;

21 is a plan view of a finished tooth posietioning appliance;

Fig. 22 is a vertical cross-sectional view on the line 22-22 of Fig. 21;

Fig. 2.3 is a vertical cross-sectional view on the line 23-23 of Fig. 21;

Fig. 24 is a vertical cross-sectional view on the line 24--24 of Fig. 21;

Fig. 25 is a side elevational view of the finish'cd tooth positioning appliance.

Referring to the drawings more particularly by reference numerals, a tooth positioning appliance 3B embodying the teachings of the present invention is shown in Figs. '21 through 25, and cornprises a body 3i of resilient deformable material, such'as soft vulcanizablerubber of suitable formula, either pure or synthetic. The body 3! is of integral construction and includes an upper ortiontz of U cross section and a lower portion 33 of inverted U cross section, the bights of the U-shaped upper and lower portions 32 and 331ccing in abutting merging relation, as is clear from Figs. 22'tl'irough 24 'The legs of each of the U- shaped portions 32 and 33 merge with each other, as is clear from Figs. 21, '22 and. 24, so that effect there exist an upper trough and a lower trough. The inside of the inner surfaces of the legs and the bight oi the upper portion 32 are formed with teeth impressions 35, which correspond to the teeth of the intended wearer disposed in predetermined ultimate positions of movement. Similarly, the inner surfaces of the legs and bight of the lower portion 33 are formed with teeth impressions 36 of the lower teeth of an intended wearer disposed in predetermined ultimate positions of movement. It is clear from Figs. '21 through 25 that'the depths of the upper portion 32 and the lower porticn' 33 are greater than the depths of the upper and lower teeth 'ofthe intended user so that portions are provided fitting over the gems f the wearer. 'The outer walls of the legs of the upper and lower portions "32 and 33 are formed ior 'coznfortable Kit in the mouth of the inten'cled wearer, which is obvious from the drawings.

Preferred embodiments of the present novel flask and the spacer used there-with are illustrated inFigs.7- 1f3=and"1 +l8, and are indicated broadly by the reference numerals (Figs. 15 and I6) and "41 *(Figs. 11 and 12').

The flask 40 includes a lower base 43, an upper base 44, and a center element 45. A preferred form of the lower base 43 is clearly shown in Figs. "9 and 10. The lower base 43 is substantially L'i-shap'ed in plan and includes a bottom 46. Extending "upwardly the bottom '46 is a continuous wall 44 having a vertical inner face deflni'n'gthe sides of :a trough 4-8-which is of U shape in plan. The wall 41 increases :in height tram the tightth the ends of the :legs thereof,

asis clear from the drawings. Hence. the upper face of the lower base 43 is an inclined plane from'bight to leg ends. preferably at an angle of between seven (7) and eight (8) degrees to. horizontal, as is shown in Fig. 9. Vertical openings49 are providedin the trough 48 through the bottom 46, and vertical openings 50 are pro-.' vided in solid enlarged portions 5| and 52 of the wall 41 for purposes described below. Aluminum, aluminum alloys, and many other metals have been found suitable materials from which to cast or otherwise form the lower base 43, both from manufacturing and cost points of view.

The upper base 44 is identical with the lower base 43 in respect to form and material, and, therefore, detailed description is unnecessary. In the drawings, the same reference numerals employed in respect to. the lower base 43 are applied to. the upper base 44.

The center element 45 is shown in Figs. '7 and 8. In plan, the center element 45 has the same outline as the lower base 43 and the upper base 44; in elevation, it presents upper'and lower faces in converging planes from bight to leg ends of selected degrees to dispose the bottoms 46 of the upper end lower bases 43 and 44 in parallel planes when the flask 40 is assembled (Fig. '16). The center element 45 includes an opening 53 which is U-shaped in plan and which is of the same plan outline as the troughs 48 of the bases 43 and 44. The opening 53 is defined by the vertical inner face of a continuous wall 54, the outer face of which is also preferably vertical. An! chored in enlarged portions 55 and 5B of the wall 54 are guide pins 5'! which are of a diameter tov snugly enter the openings 5| of the bases 43 and 44. Should it be desired to provide upper bases 44 with openings 5| out of vertical alignment with openings 5| of the lower base 43, the upper portions of the pins 5'! will, of course, be suitably ofiset in relation to the lower portions in order to enter the olfset openings 5|. Separate upper and lower pins may be employed in place of the continuous pins 51, if desired. The center element '45 is preferably formed of the same'material as the bases 43 and 44.

It is apparent from the drawings and the. description of the flask 40 that the troughs .48 of the :bases 43 and 44 are intended :to be of a form and size to accommodate plaster models of the lower and upper teeth of an individual. Hence, flasks 4b of several sizes may be made to accommodate the range of arc size and formation found in the human mouth.

The spacer 4| :shown in Figs. 11 and 12 is em-. ployed with the flask .40 in a manner pointed out below in a description of the present novel method of making the tooth positioning appliance 30. {The spacer 4! is of the configuration clearly shown in Figs.,11 and 12, and is adapted to replace the center element '45 of the flask 40 in 'one stepofthepresent novel method of forming the appliance 3D. In plan, the spacer 4| .is substantially the same .shapeas the center :eles

Y ment 45 in that portion of the latter remaining were the latter out through 011 dotted lines .58 and the thin segment of the wall 54 discarded. In'elevation, however, the angle between upper plane 59 and lower plane .60 of the spacer 4| is :smaller 'by' a predetermined degree than the angle defined by the planes of the center -ele-.- ment45. Upper-and 'lower aligningpins .63 and 84, respectively, are provided in enlarged portions and166, the latter being=offset forwardly trom the .former a predetermined amount for a purpose described below. The pins 63 and 64 are disposed forengagement in the openings 59 of the upper and lower bases 43 and as. Considering Fig. 13, it is to be observed that the spacer ll disposes the bottom 46 of the upper base '44. in converging relation with the bottom 46 of the lower base 43, from leg ends to bight, anddisposes the lower base 43 forwardly of the upper base 44.

' The present novel method of forming the tooth positioning appliance 30 with the flask 4e and the spacer 4! involves the initial step of forming plaster casts of the upperand lower teeth of an individual for whom an appliance. is to be formed. From the plaster casts, plaster models of the upper andlower teeth designated 18 and i'Lrespectively (Figs. 1 and 2), are made by any of the well-known methods and from any suitable material, such as plaster of Paris. The models ill and H include plaster upper and lower teeth Hand .13, respectively, which are the same in form and location as the corresponding teeth in the mouth of the individual to be treated. Two sets of plaster models may be made, if desired, in order to keep one set as a case record and to serve as a guide in respectto the status of the teeth of the individual'at the time the tooth positioning appliance 30 is formed.

The plasterteeth T2 and E3 of one set of models 1E! and'll are dissected from their base and reset'by the use'of suitable wax M in the desired ultimate positions of movement; that is, each tooth is placed in the position it is des red it to occupy in the mouth of the individual being treated after the tooth positioning appliance 3i has accomplished its work. At the time the plaster'teeth'TZ and F3 are reset in wax, the plaster mount is reformed by scraping or filling to bring the arches into correspondence with the teeth as Iesetfor both upper and lower teeth 12 and T3. Plaster models 'lt and T1 of the upper and lower teeth, respectively, with the teeth 12 and i3 reset and the arches modified in accordance therewith are illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5.

v In Figs. 3 and 6, respectively, the occluded relation of the teeth of an individual before treatment and as is expected to exist after treatment are shown. The teeth of the ind'vidual being treated wil assume the positions of Fig. 6 after treatment with the appliance 3i).

Plaster casts are made from the plaster models '15 and Ti. From the plaster cast formed from the plaster model 1?, a plaster model 89 is formed in the lower base 43 in the relationship clearly shown in Figs. 13, and 16-18. Plaster forced into the openings 49 assist in anchoring the model 38. The plaster material surround ng the teeth island is cut down flush with the inclined plane of the lower base 43, leaving the teeth and gum portions upstanding therefrom.

Fromthe plaster cast formed from the plaster model 76, a plaster model SI of the reset upper teeth is formed'in the upper base M. The relationship of theteeth formed. in the upper base M in respect to the teeth formed in the lower base $3 is the'occluded relationship, and is determined by the insertion between the upper and lower bases and d5 of the spacer il, as is clearly illustrated in Fig. 13. The plaster material surrounding the teeth island in the upper base 44 is also cut down flush with the inclined plane of the upper base 34, leaving the teeth and gum portions upstanding therefrom. V

After the plastenforming the model of the upper teethformed in the upper base has hardened, the spacer 4| is removed from between the lower and upper bases 63 and M. Attention is directed to the fact that the center element 45, when placed between lower and upper bases as and 44, disposes the teeth of the models 80 and 8 l, as is shown in Fig. 16, i. e., the lower teeth are spaced from and are to the rear of the upper teeth, being in the at-rest position which the teeth of an individual normally assume when at rest. The aforementioned relationship of the pins and the angles of the planes of the spacer 4i and center element 45 effect this important disposition.

Into the center element 45 is placed a piece of vulcanizable rubber preferably of the form of the opening 53 thereof. As is shown in Fig. 1'7, the

piece of rubber may extend a fraction of an inch above and below the diverging planes of the center element 35. The lower and upper bases 43 and M with the plaster models and 8| therein are disposed in relation to the center element 35, as is shown in Fig. 17. Heat to a sufiicient degree, as BOO-400 F., is applied in any suitable manner, such as by applying electric plaques to the upper and lower bases Ml and 63 (not shown). Pressure is applied to the bottoms 36 of the lower and upper bases 33 and 3 5 to press the plaster teeth carried by each into the rubber piece in the center element 6.5, any desired suitable mechanism such as a vise or compress being employed. The pressure is applied in a gradual manner so that, over a period of substantially thirty minutes, the lower andupper bases 43 and at will be moved into contiguous relation with the center element 45. This relationship ofthe bases es and 44 and the center element 45 is shown in Fig. 16, the plaster teeth being disposed in the above-mentioned at-rest position which the teeth of an individual assume when relaxed. It is manifest that temperatures and pressures will vary with material employed for the positioner. 3i], and for other reasons, control of these factors being within the skill of any technician.

It is to be observed that the pins 51 of the center element 45 are received into the vertical openings 56 in the lower and upper bases 43 and as as pressure is applied to the bases 33 and 44 during the forming of the appliance 38, as just described.

After the heated vulcanizable rubber piece dis posed in the center element 45 is permanently formed with the teeth and gum impressions of the models 89 and BI, the formed rubber piece is removed from the center element 45, the same being shown in Figs. 19 and 20 and indicated 30 for purposes of reference. The thick walls of the appliance 38' are trimmed down to a thickness and form so that the finished tooth positioning appliance 39 (Figs. 21 through 25) readily adapts itself to the mouth of the intended wearer.

It-is to be noted that the toothpositioning appl ance 38 is thus formed with upper and lower teeth impressions in positions of ultimate movement of the teeth of the intended wearer and that these positions are located for the relaxed rest position of the teeth. Thus, allowance is made for the fact that the teeth of a wearer of the appliance to shouldbe in the rest or slightly open position when surrounded by the appliance 30. This allowance eliinnates strain on the part of the wearer of the appliance 3B and permits a suitable thickness of material between the upper. and lower portions 32 and 33 of the app one 0 so t e ehhie eh bqd ie erol ded tolhelit its teeth etre shteh h hettfe' itha eeh i deer rom the .fo eed e. th e etiohs io l t tee h o leete od l .ehd 8' i h e. ehd u r ee e a d 4 wh e eted th spe d e d by the eh er eleme 9.5. e h et e s tha o th eee hded ooeitieh o he te thieh f th .e e s sht pened osition of the teeth (Figs. 13 and 16) A w n e is mad i th d fo h .V e that the lower teeth pivot downwardly and rear- ;wardly in the opening of the jaw about a pivot to th'e rear and above the line of closure of the teeth. A It is apparent that there has been provided a novel tooth positioning appliance, a novel flask for forming the same, and a novel method of forming the appliance which fulfill all of the objects and advantages sought in respect to each. It is to be understood that the foregoing description and the accompanying drawings'have been given by way of illustration and example. -Itis also to be understood that changes in form of the elements, rearrangement of parts or steps,

and substitution of equivalent elements or steps,

which will be obvious to those skilled in the art, are contemplated as within the scope of the present invention which is limited only by the claims which follow.

What is claimed is:

l. A tooth positioning appliance comprising a body of resilient and deformable material, said body being of a form to fit within the mouth of a patient and including impressions of the upper and lower teeth of a patient located in preselected positions adapted to engage the respective upper and lower teeth of the patient and to urge outof-position teeth into the preselected positions.

'2. A tooth positioning appliance comprising a body of resilient and deformable material, said body being of a form to fit within the mouth of a patient .and including impressions of the upper and lower teeth of a patient located in preselected positions adapted to engage the respective upper and lower teeth of the patient and to urge outof position teeth into the preselected positions, the relation of the upper teeth impressions to the lower teeth impressions being the natural at-rest slightly spaced relation of the teeth of the patient.

3. A tooth positioning appliance comprising a bQdy of resilient and deformable material, said body including lower and upper integral troughs curved to conform to predetermined arcs of the lower and upper teeth of a patient and adapted to fit over the lower and upper teeth .of a patient, said lower and upper troughs including, respectively, impressions of the lower and upper teeth of a patient located in the preselected position to which the teeth are to be moved.

4:. A tooth positioning appliance adapted to be carried in the mouth of a user comprising a body o resilie t an deformable materia a d :body hel-h ih on 59%. p o or? cr s sec on a d a lower portion of inverted U cross section, said portions being in bightrabutting relationQthe in; he su ace f he W ll an hi t of s id up portion being formed to the contours of the upper teeth of a user disposed in ultimate desired position o ovement the n e su iae s of th ls and hi h o e id lowe no n be h formed to the contours of the lower teeth of a user disposed in ultimate desired positions of move ent whereby, e id e nhehe is en: ied o t t eth o ,a or whom sa d well:

i termed teeth did o ultimate ositio s o m remeh a e u ged towards and ihlto u t ma e positions of movement. I A eth esit eh h e h he ompr sing a mem e o r eil httstreteheble and e ormable meter e ed o o ee ye th up e 3.2. .7 lowe t th o the patie -end to spa e the up e .tee h rom th l wer teeth a d memberhevih an upper portion and a lower portion, formed with ee itie fo th u e end h'er ee h,- l ly a d the sa d vit es be suh teh iell eoihp m h erih hene to he hs de, out: s e; at ral and .elhd ur aces o ea h the h h a eeth t e atient, pr determ ne o s d e y t es c rresp n ng o d lith l pnedete m d te th the iiositiehs oi wh h a e to be .e s b he a ian h le t ll eoniQI-m h to t e s a om ementa o the e eot ve pr e mi d eth b n oca d ndo i hted n e si on to whi h sai ed ermin d teeth e e t e m ed w ich eoxr s o d to he Pos he in -w.h .eh east oe te d o t e r pe t e te h a e be r. moilnte u n a cas att r-e of the dent re o t e at e by t e o rator where th p ia ce ime le deiorm d o 1 heme h uone lahd lo e -t eth s id per es Y i h ee o s id red on said cast patterns of the denture.

An orthodontic vdevice-for- 1se moving p p.- d t mi d t th in a mou h ir h firs P hi- ,tions to econd positions, comprising a member formed .of resilient yielding material having rgh: l e i e r e-te is ee o eihede e ma lehom a t g si on .e-h a ying inher nt tome tendi o e ore deio m d p r n t ster ihs Pos t on sa d h mbe h s ins a u per and a o e s n in th m mbe for with the W per and l we eeth o a u e th ripp s ctionhaving a plurality of sockets individually shaped accurately to the shape ,of individual upper teeth o the (d e h lower se tion ha ing a pl ral ty of e s ihd i hell sheoed to the share a ihdividhel ow r tee h o th us said thmeer eehet dedh hs i the memb r here! hher .e-hd. ou er wal or hi n o e t e n e and o e s o th up r t e h of t e us said l er e -it d h o e inne end ou er wa ls toe fitting over the nne ehd outer walls of .he lower tee h o the use a med a-. e nheotiae well b t een said :in e e oute p er end ow r the, se d i di We ohe itut h a p t t o or s- Pos ti b t een th hnpe and lower teeth, oi the us p ede rmine s e ets of sa d memes; being displaced irom the actual positions pf the or esp ndin t eth to the desi ed itions of the orr s hdihg te th '7.- Ah thodoh e devi e o use i movies a e: determined eeth e moh h fr m that nos does t se ohd o t on eomp ieih a memb orme o r sil nt e din h et rie h v g Fllh e it h eeteh ti s o heih eformab e t on sta t n p si i n appl in ih eht terse eh ihg to re de orme po tions to start n os t ohs etd the hleee he ihs a hove and e we .ee tioh in th mem r or use i h the. one P end we t t f a user. t p e e etioh a in a lura ity of s ckets indi i lly ha ed ee h el o the ha o h dha u per t eth of th the we eet oh havin a lu a ity er soe ts individu ll s pe o the ape fih dividual lower teeth of the user, said ripper s c ts d fin g in the member upper inner and outer walls for fittin over the inner and enter walls of the upper teeth of the user, said lower cavities defining lower inner and outer walls for fitting over the inner and outer walls of the lower teeth of the user, a medial connecting wall between said inner and outer upper and lower Walls, said medial wall constituting a partition for disposition between the upper and lower teeth of the user, predetermined sockets of said member being displaced from the actual positions of the corresponding teeth to the desired positions of the corresponding teeth, the relation of the teeth sockets of the upper section to the teeth sockets of the lower section being the natural at-rest slightly spaced relation of the teeth of the patient on which the member is to be used.

8. An orthodontic device for use in moving predetermined teeth in a selected mouth from first positions to predetermined second positions comprising a member formed of resilient yielding material havin rubber-like characteristics of being deformable from starting position and applying inherent force tending to restore deformed portions'to starting positions, said member including impressions of the upper and lower teeth REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:

UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 465,076 Griswold Dec. 15, 1891 1,518,075 Kesling Dec. 2, 192% 1,691,785 Remensnyder Nov. 13, 1928 2,259,160 Glaser Oct. 14, 1941 2,423,330 Levine July 1; 1947

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Classifications
U.S. Classification433/6, 128/861
International ClassificationA61C7/00, A61C7/08
Cooperative ClassificationA61C7/08
European ClassificationA61C7/08