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Publication numberUS2531388 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 28, 1950
Filing dateApr 29, 1947
Priority dateApr 29, 1947
Publication numberUS 2531388 A, US 2531388A, US-A-2531388, US2531388 A, US2531388A
InventorsBlack John W
Original AssigneeBlack John W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Soil testing apparatus
US 2531388 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

K C A L B w [w SOIL TESTING APPARATUS Filed April 29, 1947 2 Sheets-Sheet l Nov. 28,1950 .1. W. BLACK SOIL TESTING APPARATUS Filed April 29, 1947 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ziglfl I18 136 72 100 141 W 134 Will Jbhn w. Black Patented Nov. 28, 1950 UNITED STATES QFFICE I SOIL TESTING AFPARATUS John W. Black, Crittenden County, Ark.

Application April 29, 1947, Serial No. 744,613

(Granted under the act of March 3, 1883, as amended April 36, 1928; 370 0. G. 75"!) 8 Claims.

The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without payment to me of any royalty thereon.

The present invention relates to a testing apparatus designed especially for the testing of compaction of soils, wherein a gravity-actuated tamping member acts on a given sample of soil to compact the same.

The apparatus of the present invention is characterized by simplicity of construction and operation and it has for one of its objects the provision of means whereby a controlled but constant tamping force is imparted to the specimen being tested.

A further object of the invention is the provision of an improved tamping device wherein the device is constantly guided in its movements so that it will impact upon the sample at right angles thereto without any preliminary adjustment or manipulation of the tamping member being required.

A still further object of the present invention is the provision of improved mechanism for predeterminately releasing the tamping memher.

A still further object of the invention is to provide a means for predeterminately controlling the impact force of the tamping means.

A still further object of the invention is the provision of an improved construction for rotating the sample being tested to assure uniform application of compacting force thereon.

Further objects and advantages of the present construction will become apparent as the description proceeds, and the features of novelty will be pointed out in particularity in the appended claims. 7

The present invention will be understood more readily from a consideration of the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the improved apparatus;

Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional elevation of the apparatus;

Fig. 3 is an enlarged view of the upper portion of the apparatus shown in Fig. 2, the view showing in greater detail the construction and operation of the improved clutch mechanism forming a part of the present invention;

Fig. 4 is a sectional plan view taken on the line IV--IV of Fig. 2 showing further details of the clutch m hanism i cluded. in th present in ntion;

Fig. 5 is a View similar to Fig. 4, but with parts omitted;

Fig. 6 is a side elevation of the clutch element shown in Fig. 5;

Fig. 7 is a plan view of friction clutch elements included in the clutch member of Figs. 4 and 5;

Fig. 8 is a side elevation of the clutch elements of Fig. '7;

Fig. 9 is a plan view of the base element of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. 10 is a sectional elevation taken on the line XX of Fig. 2;

Fig. 11 is a plan view of the turntable for receiving the specimen-holder shown in Figs. 1 and 2;

Fig. 12 is a plane view of the turntable support shown in Figs. 1 and 2.

Referring more particularly to the drawings, the improved apparatus of the present invention comprises a frame A which comprises a base [4 to which is mounted a rear channel member 5, this channel member being mounted vertically to the base [4 and rigidly supported by angle bracket E8. The base 94 is an inverted channel member, resting on flanges 20, the bracket l8 being secured to the base [4 and to the vertical channel member by bolts, or the like, 22.

The frame A also includes a cylindrical bar 24, which is threaded into the base [4 and held by cooperating nuts 26, 26a. This bar 24 receives an adjustable stop 28 and an actuating handle 29 for the tamping mechanism, all of which will be described hereinafter. The channel member 16 and the bar 24 are maintained in vertical spaced relation by a top plate 30, which is provided with suitable holes therethrough, which will be referred to hereinafter, for the passage of certain actuating instrumentalities which also will be described hereinafter. Certain of these holes in the top plate 30 are adapted to receive bolts or equivalent fastening means 32 that secure the top plate 30 to one arm of an angle bracket 34, the other arm of which is secured by belts or other securing instrumentalities 36 to the channel it, the plate 39 being supported by this angle bracket and also by a nut 38 threadedly mounted on the cylindrical bar 24, the end of which extends through the top plate 30 in a suitable hole 4% provided therefor in the top plate 30, and secured by a top nut 38a.

Also secured to the rear frame channel It is an angle bracket 32, the arm i of which supports a plate it that is secured to the bracket .arm 44 by bolts 48. The bracket %2 is secured to the channel l 6 by bolts or equivalent fastening means The plate 46 extends horizontally from the vertical channel It and is provided with a hole 52 for reception of a cylindrical rod 54 that is held vertically in the plate 46 by a nut 58 threadedly secured to the rod 54 on the underside of plate 46 for locking the rod 54 in position. The rod 54 extends through a hole 58 provided therefor in top plate 39 and is secured in place by a nut 68 threaded on the upper end of the rod 54. The plate 46 is provided with a relatively large opening 62 through which passes an actuatin bar 64 of the tamping mechanism, which bar also passes through a hole 86 in the top plate 30 provided therefor, the bar 64 extending through this hole for a suitable distance so that it will still project therethrough when the tamping head 68 on the lower end of the bar 64 is in lowermost position. The plate 48 and top plate 30 therefor act as guides for the tamping bar 54 during operation of the bar and maintain the bar 64 continuously in vertical position.

The tamping bar Gil and the tamping head 68 on the lower end thereof are adapted to be raised a predetermined adjustable distance, and released for dropping, by gravity, on a sample of soil which is being tested contained in a suitable container mounted on a turntable 12 held on a turntable support 14 that is mounted on the base It of the mechanism.

The lifting mechanism for the tamping bar 86 now may be described.

This lifting mechanism includes a clutch member 16, which has a generally rectangular body 78 that tapers uniformly, as indicated at 88, into an arm portion 82, a stop or abutment member 82a being aflixed suitably to this arm 82 adjacent to its outer extremity. The end of the clutch body 18 opposite to the arm portion 82 is slotted, as indicated at 84, this slot fitting over the rod 54 for guiding the clutch member in vertical movement thereof while preventing horizontal turning movement of the clutch member. The clutch member '16 is a plate-like member, and the body portion 18 has a rectangular cut-out portion 86, the ends of which are provided with projecting retaining cams 88 which pivotally receive clamping jaws 82 by means of slot 90 in said jaws 92. These jaws 92 are recessed complementarily as is indicated at 93 for receiving the tamping bar (i l.

The arm portion 82 and the rectangular body portion 18 with its cut-out portion 85 are proportioned so that the center of gravity of the entire clutch plate 76 passes through the plane of the intersection of the body portion 18 and the tapering portion 80, the clutch plate balancing along the line of this intersection.

The mid-portion of the tapering portion 88 is provided with a hole 95, in which is secured an operating cable 95. This cable passes through a hole 98 in the top plate 38 of the machine, the cable passing over a pulley sheave I80 that is mounted in a bracket I02 on shaft I04 rotating in bearings I06 in the bracket. The bracket I02 has both arms secured to opposite sides of a plate I08 held by screws I It! on the top plate 30. After passing over the sheave I 08, the cable 95 passes through a hole H2 in top plate 30 that corresponds to hole 98, and is secured to a projecting lug lid of the handle member 29 that is slidably mounted on the cylindrical frame bar 24, the cable 96 clearing the end of the arm portion 82 of the clutch plate. The position of the handle member 29 is determined by the position of the adjustable stop 28.

The complemental clamping jaws 92 have a slight opposite cam movement on the retaining earns 88 when the tamping bar E lis received in the recesses 93, one of the clamping jaws 92 moving downwardly against the tamping bar 6 3 and the other of the clamping jaws 92 moving upwardly against the bar 64. This clamping action, acting responsively to the weight of the tamping bar tilting the clutch plate 16 as indicated in Fig. 2, and clamping the tamping bar firmly between the clamping jaws 92. The tamping bar 6 2 together with its tamping head 68, is raised by moving the handle 29 downwardly along the vertical cylindrical frame bar 24, the lifting movement being effected through cable 95. The clamping jaws 82 automatically shift into clamping position on the tamping bar 6%, coincidently with the start of the lifting movement, and remain in clamping position on the clamping bar until released at the end of the lifting stroke.

During this lifting stroke or movement, the clutch plate 16 is tilted approximately as indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 3, the clamping jaws 92 assuming their dotted line position indicated in this View immediately following the start of the lifting stroke. At the end .of the lifting stroke, stop or abutment member 82a first engages the underside of the top frame plate 30, this tending to level the clutch plate to the approximate full line position of Fig. 3, while, subsequently to such engagement but almost coincidently therewith, the slotted end of the clutch plate engages abutment I [6, this being a resilient abutment or stop member that is mounted suitably on the underside of the frame plate 30 and encircles the rod 54. This rod 54 guides the vertical movement of the clutch plate and pre vents any rotary movement of the clutch plate and the tamping bar 64. The engagement of the abutment member 82a with the top plate 39 and the engagement of the slotted end of the clutch plate with resilient abutment H6 tend to level the clutch plate into the full line position indicated in Fig. 3. This leveling of the clutch plate automatically releases the clamping jaws and causes the tamping bar and head to drop an impact upon a sample of soil in container 10. the amount of compaction effected being determined by the length of the downward stroke of the tamping device. The extent of this downward stroke is determined by the position of the stop 28 on the frame bar 24, since the handle 29 is pulled downwardly to raise the clutch plate 16 and the tamping bar 64, the position of the stop 28 measuring the distance of the drop of the clutch plate for its following grip on the tamping bar 64 for the next lifting of the tamping bar and tamping head. It is apparent that the balance of the clutch plate 16 is such that it will drop freely along the tamping rod until the resulting upward movement of handle 29 brings the handle into engagement with the stop and the weight of the clutch member transmitted through the cable 96 to stopped handle 29 puts the cable under tension. This tension will tilt the clutch member into clamping position on the bar 64 automatically responsively to the handle 29 reaching the stop 28. The adjustment of the stop 28 is effected by releasing a clamping pin H1 and then moving the stop 28 along the bar 24 to desired position.

As will be apparent, there will be adequate play between the rod 54 and the sides of the groove 84 in the clutch plate 16 to allow the requisite amount of tilting and leveling of the clutch plate to effect the clamping and release of the tamping bar 64. Also, it will be observed from Fig. that the clamping jaws 92 are removable for interchange with other similar jaws on the retaining cams 88 when replacement is desired.

In order to assure uniform compaction of a specimen of soil throughout its extent, the container 10, which receives the specimen, is adapted to be mounted on a turntable I2 rotation of which bringssuccessive portions of the soil specimen under the tamping head 68.

The turntable I2 is provided with an upstanding central pin H8 which enters a corresponding recess I in the bottom I22 of the specimen container 10, a further pin I24 fitting into a complemental recess I26 in the bottom of the specimen container serving to key the container 10 to the turnable I2.

Turntable I2 is mounted on a turntable support 14 that is mounted on the base I4 of the instrument by screws I28, these screws passing through slots I30 in the base I 4, and entering a retaining bar I32 beneath the base I4. The turntable support 14 has a central hole I34 therethrough, which is adapted to receive a cylindrical boss I36 extending from the lower surface of the turntable. The base I4 also has a similar hole I38 for the reception of this boss.

The slots I 3!] permit lateral adjustment of the turntable assembly and specimen container rela tive to the tamping head 68. The base I4 is provided with a reinforcement I40 beneath the turntable assembly, as shown, and anchoring screw I42 anchor the testing mechanism to a foundation I44.

In Fig. 9, reference numeral I45 indicates the hole in the base I4 in which the vertical bar 24 of the frame is received, and reference numeral I48 represents the holes provided in the base I4 for reception of the locking screws I42.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and wish to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. Testing apparatus comprising, in combination, a base, spaced frame members vertically mounted on the base, one of the frame members being a rear frame member and another of the frame members being a forward frame member, a top connecting plate rigidly interconnecting the frame members, a bracket horizontally extending from the rear frame member and rigidly mounted thereon, a tamping bar extending through the bracket and top plate and guided thereby during vertical movement of the tamping bar, a tamping head on the bar, manually actuated operating means for the tamping bar slidably mounted on the forward frame member, clutch mechanism connected with the operating means comprising a clutch plate including cam-acting clamping jaws for raising the tamping bar responsive to manual downward movement of the operative means along the forward frame member, an abutment means engageable by the clutch mechanism at the end of the upward travel thereof for automatically releasing the clamping means of the clutch mechanism from clutching engagement with the bar responsively to a predetermined vertical lifting movement of the tamping bar for allowing the said tamping bar to drop on a sample to be tested.

'2. Testing apparatus comprising, in combination, a frame including a base, a pair of oppositely spaced frame members vertically mounted on the base and rigidly secured to the base, one I of the said frame members presenting a vertical plate-like surface towards the oppositely-spaced frame member, the said oppositely-spaced frame member being a bar, a top connecting plate for the frame members rigidly vertically interconnecting the frame members at the tops thereof and maintaining the frame members rigidly and uniformly spaced throughout their length, a bracket rigidly secured to the vertical plate-like frame surface, the bracket including a horizontally disposed plate, a tamping bar extendin through the horizontally disposed plate and through the top connecting plate, a clutch including a tiltable clutch plate includin gripping means for holding the tamping bar for lifting the said bar from a low to a high position, actuating means for the clutch slidably mountedon the bar of the frame, means connecting the clutch with the actuating means, whereby downward movement of the actuating means engages the clutch with the tamping bar, and abutment means on the top plate for moving the clutch plate from tilting gripping position for the bar to an approximately level bar-releasing position for releasably actuating the clutch responsively to engagement of the clutch with the abutment means, thereby automatically releasing the clutch from the tamping bar and causing the tamping bar to drop on a specimen to be tamped.

3. Testing apparatus comprising, in combination, a frame including a base, a pair of oppositely-spaced frame members vertically mounted on the base and rigidly secured to the base, one of the said members presenting a vertical, flat surface towards the oppositely spaced frame member, the said oppositely-spaced frame member being a bar, a top connecting plate for the frame members rigidly interconnecting the frame members at the tops thereof and maintaining the frame members rigidly and uniformly spaced throughout their length, a bracket rigidly secured to the vertical fiat frame surface, the said bracket including a horizontally disposed plate, tamping means including a tamping bar extending through the horizontally disposed plate and the top plate, and a tamping head on the tamping bar, clutch means including a clutch plate and frictionally operable clutch jags mounted in the plate, an operating handle slidably mounted on the frame bar, an operating cable attached to one end of the clutch plate and to the operating handle, a pulley sheave for the cable mounted on the top plate, the said clutch jaws continuously embracing the tamping bar, said operating handle being movable downwardly thereby lifting the clutch plate for tilting plate until the clutch jaws come into operative engagement with the tamping bar for lifting the tamping bar,

and abutment means on the top plate of the frame adapted to be engaged by the clutch plate for shifting the clutch plate and jaws from tilted position to a substantially level position for automatically releasing the clutch jaws from operative engagement with the tamping bar responsively to the end of the lifting movement of the clutch plate and tamping bar, thereby causing the tamping means to drop upon a specimen being tested.

4. Testing apparatus comprising, in combination, a frame including a base, a pair of oppositely spaced frame members vertically mounted on the base and rigidly secured to the base, one of the said members presenting a vertical fiat surface towards the oppositely spaced frame memher, the said oppositely spaced frame member being a bar, a top connecting plate for the frame members rigidly interconnecting the frame members at the tops thereof and maintaining the frame members rigidly and uniformly spaced throughout their length, an angle bracket rigidly secured to the vertical flat frame, the said bracket including a horizontally disposed plate, tamping means including a tamping bar extending through the horizontally dispose l plate and the top :plate of the frame together with a tamping head on the tamping bar, clutch means including a clutch holder and frictionally operable clutch members in the holder, an operating handle slidably mounted on the frame bar, an operating cable attached to the clutch means and to the operating handle, a guide sheave for the cable mounted on the top plate, the said clutch members continuously embracing the tamping bar, said operating handle being movable downwardly into operative engagement with the clutch members and tamping bar for lifting the tamp ing bar, means on the top plate of the frame for automatically releasing the clutch members from operative engagement with the tamping bar responsively to lifting movement of the clutch means and tamping bar until the clutch means engage the clutch releasing means, thereby causing the tamping means to drop upon a specimen being tested, and adjustable stop means on the frame bar for limiting upward movement of the handle responsively to release of a downwardlyacting force on the handle thereby predeterminately adjusting the length of lift of the tamping means for predeterminately varying the amount of tamping force imparted to a specimen by drop of the tamping means.

5. Testing apparatus comprising, in combination, a frame including a base, a pair of oppositely spaced frame members vertically mounted on the base and rigidly secured to the base, one of the said members presenting a vertical flat surface towards the oppositely spaced frame member, the said oppositely spaced frame memher being a bar, a top connecting plate for the frame members rigidly interconnecting the frame members at the tops thereof and maintaining the frame members rigidly and uniformly spaced throughout their lengths, an angle bracket rigidly secured to the vertical fiat frame member, the

said bracket including a horizontally disposed plate and the top plam together with a tamping head on the tamping bar, clutch means for actuating the tamping means, the clutch means including a substantially rectangular body portion, clutch jaws carried in the body portion, a relatively narrow projecting arm portion extending from the body portion, a tapering portion connecting the rectangular body portion and the projecting arm portion, the rectangular body portion, the tapering portion and the projecting arm portion being proportioned so that the clutch means will balance substantially along the line of intersection of the tapering portion and the rectangular body portion, the clutch jaws in the body portion embracing the tamping bar, actuating means for the clutch means slidably mounted on the bar of the frame, an operating cable connected to the clutch means at substantially the mid-point of the tapering portion, the said cable being also connected to the clutch actuating means, whereby tension on the operating cable causes the clutch means to tilt for operatively engaging the clutch jaws with the tamping bar for raising the tamping bar responsively to downward movement of the actuating means, and a Cir trip means adapted to be engaged by the clutch instrumentaiities for leveling the clutch instrumentalities, thereby releasing the clutch means from operative engagement with the tamping bar.

6. Testing apparatus comprising, in combination, a substantially vertical frame comprising spaced upright members and a spacer frame member connecting the upright members and maintaining the said upright members in parallel spaced relation, testing means including a tamping bar and a tamping head on the bar mounted in the frame and retained and guided thereby, the said testing means being reciprocable through a predetermined cycle, a clutch plate, complemental cam-acting clamping jaws mounted in the clutch plate and adapted to grip the tamping bar responsively to a tilt of the clutch plate for effecting a stroke of movement of the tamping bar, and an abutment member on the clutch plate adapted to engage the said frame spacer member upon completion of the said stroke for leveling the clutch plate and jaws for causing the clamping jaws to release the said testing means.

7. Testing apparatus comprising, in combination, a substantially vertical frame comprising spaced upright members and a spacer frame member connecting the upright members and maintaining the said upright members in parallel spaced relation, testing means mounted in the frame and retained and guided thereby, the said testing means being reciprocable through a predetermined cycle, and including a vertically extending impact bar and a tamping head on the bar, a clutch plate including complemental cam-acting clamping jaws adapted to grip the said bar responsively to a predetermined angular tilt imparted to the clutch plate relative to the said bar, means for vertically lifting the said bar while gripped by the clamping jaws through a predetermined stroke of movement of the said bar, an abutment member on the clutch plate adapted to engage the frame spacer member upon completion of the stroke for imparting a leveling movement to the clutch plate thereby releasing the clamping jaws from the said bar for causing the bar to drop and to impact against a specimen being tested, and means for rotating the specimen for obtaining a uniform impaction thereof throughout its extent.

8. Testing apparatus comprising, in combination, a substantially vertical frame comprising spaced upright members and a spacer frame member connecting the upright members and maintaining the said upright members in parallel spaced relation, testing means mounted in the frame and retained and guided thereby, the said testing means being reciprocable through a predetermined cycle, and including a bar and a tamping head on the bar, a clutch plate including complemental cam-acting clamping jaws adapted to grip the said bar responsively to a predetermined angular tilt imparted to the clutch plate relative to the said bar, means for lifting the said bar while gripped by the clamping jaws through a predetermined stroke of movement of the said bar, an abutment member on the clutch plate adapted to engage the frame spacer member upon completion of the stroke for imparting a leveling movement to the clutch plate thereby releasing the clamping jaws from the said bar, resilient buffer means mounted on the frame spacer member adapted to be engaged by the clutch plate subsequently to engagement of the abutment member on the clutch plate and the 9 frame spacer member, and means for guiding the clutch plate during movement thereof While UNITED STATES PATENTS c Number Name Date preventmg lateral rotary movement thBIGOL. 337,484 Davis Man 9, 1886 JOHN W. BLACK. 1,491,990 Kindervater Apr. 29, 1924 5 1,604,089 Topfi Oct. 19, 1926 REFERENCES CITED 1,709,638 Thwing Apr 16, 1929 The following references are of record in the FOREIGN PATENTS file of this patent: Number Country Date 10 17,245 Great Britain May 20, 1909 Germany Oct. 9, 1936

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US337484 *Mar 9, 1886 Solomon paul davis
US1491990 *Jun 14, 1923Apr 29, 1924Kindervater JuliusDrop-testing machine
US1604089 *Nov 4, 1925Oct 19, 1926Topfl FranzMachine for testing springs
US1709638 *Dec 15, 1924Apr 16, 1929Thwing Instr CompanyTesting machine
DE636481C *Oct 20, 1934Oct 9, 1936Karl Keil Dr IngVerfahren zum Bestimmen des Verformungswiderstandes von gewachsenen Boeden oder verdichteten Schuettungen
GB190917245A * Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2755658 *Jul 9, 1954Jul 24, 1956Richardson CoImpact testing machine
US3103116 *Oct 3, 1960Sep 10, 1963Avco CorpBrake mechanism for a shock testing machine
US3461717 *Mar 29, 1968Aug 19, 1969Wayne A DunlapGyratory compactor
US3998090 *Nov 7, 1975Dec 21, 1976The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmySoil compactor
US4699011 *Jul 14, 1986Oct 13, 1987Hartley Controls CorporationAutomatic compactability tester
US5323655 *Apr 23, 1993Jun 28, 1994Troxler Electronic Laboratories, Inc.Method and apparatus for compacting material samples
US6082173 *Sep 15, 1998Jul 4, 2000Wai; Yee KongMethod and apparatus for pile driving
US6349590May 26, 2000Feb 26, 2002Yee Kong WaiMethod and apparatus for estimating load bearing capacity of piles
Classifications
U.S. Classification73/12.13, 73/823, 73/84
International ClassificationG01N3/40
Cooperative ClassificationG01N3/40
European ClassificationG01N3/40