US 2532228 A
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NMR 23s 95@ F. H. MESH 29532122@ ELECTRICALLY lOPEIRATED TYPEWRTER Y Filed July 26, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet Patented Nov. 28, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT orFlcE ELECTRICALLY OPERATED TYPEWRITER Frank H. Hesh, Chicago, Ill.
Application .uly 26, 1946, Serial No. 686,420
(Cl. IS7- 13) 7 Claims.
The present invention relates to electrically operated business machines such as typewriters, adding machines, and the like, and more particularly to a simplied operating key which may be operated to close a plurality of circuits through each of which a different type bar or the like operating mechanism is energized, so that the total number of keys required is greatly reduced.
Many of the business machines now in use require an excessive number of separate keys to perform the operations for which they are designed. One example of this is found in typewriters oi both the mechanical and electrical types. A separate key is required for each letter and number and additional keys for making punctuation marks and symbols and for other purposes so that a total of approximately nity keys is required to successfully operate these machines. These keys are located in spaced rows, necessitating considerable shifting of the hands and movement of the ngers of an operator to strike all of the keys. As a result, such machines are fatiguing to the operators, the liability of striking the wrong key is increased, and long practice is required to become a skilled operator.
Not much could be done to reduce the number of keys on a mechanically operated typewriter without unduly complicating the operating mechanism, but with the advent of electrically operated typewriters and other business machines, the possibility of overcoming this difficulty was realized. By using the keys of the present invention and rearranging the energizing circuits for the type bar and other operating mechanisms, as suggested herein, it is possible to perform ve or more operations with one key on a typewriter having type bars and type bar operating mechanism similar to those in a conventional electric typewriter, thus greatly reducing the number of keys required to operate the machine.
Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide a new and improved typewriter or other business machine which has a simplied keyboard.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved electrically operated typewriter or the like having operating keys movable laterally in a plurality of directions and vertically and adapted to close the circuit to a diierent type bar operating mechanism upon each movement, so that the total number of keys required to perform all the operations of a typewriter or the like is greatly reduced.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved electrically operated typewriter or the like having a keyboard provided with ten keys movable laterally in four different directions and vertically and adapted to close the circuit to a dierent type bar operating mechanism upon each movement, so that each key will type iive different letters or perform ve difierent operations.
A still further object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved electrically operated typewriter or the like having an improved arrangement of circuits for energizing the operating mechanism and switches or contacts for closing these circuits so arranged that a plurality of switches or contacts may be separately closed by a single key and thus greatly reducing the total number of keys required to perform all of the operations of the machine.
Yet another object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved electrically operated typewriter or the like having a keyboard with a reduced number of keys so that the typewriter may be operated without necessitating shifting of the hands between diierent rows of keys, thus reducing the liability oi errors being made and of the operator becoming fatigued.
A further object of the invention is the provision of a new and improved electrically operated typewriter having a keyboard with a reduced number of keys which may be readily incorporated into an electric typewriter of conventional construction without greatly increasing the cost thereof.
These and other objects oi the invention will become apparent from the following description and accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view of an electric typewriter incorporating an improved keyboard;
Fig. 2 is a side elevational view, partly in section, of an electric typewriter showing the mechanism for actuating the type bars and the key operated switch for controlling actuation of the same;
lever 3d to pivot downwardly.
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view on an enlarged scale and partly in section, showing the type bar operating mechanism of an electric typewriter, the control circuit for the same, and the improved key actuated multi-pole switch which controls energization of the circuit;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary top plan view of a means for guiding lateral movement of a typewriter key; and
Fig. 5 is a top plan view of one of the multipole switches.
For the purpose of disclosing the invention, I have shown the same and will describe its application `to an electrically operated typewriter which, as seen in Figs. l and 2, has a casing l0 for enclosing the operating mechanism, a carriage I2 and a platen I4 mounted on the carriage, all of generally conventional construction along with a new and improved keyboard la.
The type bars and other operated mechanisms by means of which the operations of this machine are performed are generally similar in construction and arrangement to the corresponding parts of a conventional electric typewriter. In Figs.. 2 and 3, a single type bar iii, and type bar actuating mechanism 2c, is shown diagrammatieally for a better understanding of the invention, it being understood, of course, that in a standard typewriter there is a type bar for each letter of the alphabet, for nine figures and for certain symbols and that an operatingl mechanism is provided for each of these bars. The type bar i8 has a head 22 on one end upon which two chai'- a'oters` 2d and 2tV are secured, and it is pivoted adjacent its opposite end for movement upon a fixed axis extending transversely of the casing. This pivoted. end of the type bar is provided with a bellV cran-k arm 28 for communicating the driving force of. the actuating mechanism 2G to the type bar i8.
The' actuating mechanism 2@ comprises a solenoid 30' secured adjacent the bottom of the casing H3 for actuating a system of levers connected to the bell crank' arm 28. This solenoid has a vertically reciprocable plunger 32, normally urged upwardly, as indicated in Fig. 3, and connected at its upper end to one end of a horizontally eX- tending lever 34 which is pivoted adjacent its opposite end for oscillation upon a fixed transverse axis. A link Sii for connecting the lever and type bar i8 has one of its ends pivotally secured to the lever at a point intermediate the ends thereof and its other end is pivotally secured to the outer end of the bell crank arm 2S on the type bar. When the soienoid is energized, the plunger 32 is drawn downwardly causing the movement of the lever 34 is transmitted to the type bar iii by the link 35i and causes the type bar to swing upwardly upon its xed axis until one of the characters 24 or 26 strikes the platen i4, as indicated in phantom in Fig. 2.
The character which will strike the platen I4 is determined yby the position of the shift keys With which standard electric typewriters are provided, there being two of these keys in the conventional machine. One key elevates and locks the carriage in elevated position so that the character 24 on the head 22 will strike the platen i4 when the type bar is actuated, while the other releases the locked shift key so that the carriage l2 is returned to its normal position. It will then be struck by character 2c when the type bar is actuated. This second key may also be used to hold the carriage in elevated position without locking it for as ic-ng as the key is held in a depressed position. Since these shift keys and the operating mechanism therefor are of standard construction, a detailed explanation thereof is not required. They may be operated in a conventional manner by one ci the keys on the keyboard of my improved typewriter.
Each of the solenoids 3S is energized through a circuit shown diagrammatically in Fig. 3, this circuit being oonnected through a transformer is to a line 40 for supplyingy electrical energy from any of the usual sources, such as a wall outlet. One terminal of the solenoid 3@ is connected to one side of the transformer 3% by a lead 42 while the other terminal of the solenoid is connected to one of the poles on a five-pole switch 12.4 by a lead 46.
Referring to Figs. 3 and 5, it will be seen that Y this switch 44 has a generally cylindrical insulating body member 48 having lateral walls 5B and a bottom 52. A plurality of poles 5d are secured in the lateral` walls 59, four being shown in the drawings at equally spaced intervals but a greater number can be used if desired depending on the number of solenoids; that are to be energized `from a single switch. In addition to the lateral poles, a similar pole 54 is secured in the bottom wall 52 of. the bodyV member lS.
These poles 54 havev a head E@ which projectsl into the interior of the body member 48 and a threaded stem 58 projecting through the walls of the body member. A nut iii is screwed on the stem 53, and bears against the walls of body mem,- ber 48 for rigidly securing the poles 54 in position in these walls. The leads 45 from ve solenoids are secured to the stems 58 of the ve poles in switch 44 by means of nuts 62 threaded on the stems and forcing the ends of the leads 45 into close engagement-with the nut 6d; so that a good electrical contact. is secured between these parts.
Since each of the switches shown in the drawings has ve poles and each pole is connected to a diierent solenoid, a total of five solenoids can be energized through one switch so that it will be necessary to provide only ten of these switches inthe typewriter to energize the total number of solenoids required to operate all of the type, bars and other operating mechanisms included in a standard typewriter. As indicated in Fig. 3, these switches d4 are suitably secured in the casing l below the keyboard iiiv with their axes in alignment with the axes of the keys.
Referring to Figs. 3 and 5, it will be seen that a switch block 64 having ve contacts B6 oppositely disposed with respect to the poles 54. on the body member 48 is supported in the body member 48 for movement in a plurality of directions by means to be described presently. Normally the position of the block 64 is `as shown and the contacts 65 thereon are spaced from the poles 54 on the body member.
This switch block 64, which is formed from a conducting material, is connected by a lead 63 to the second terminal of transformer 58 so that the energizing circuit for the solenoid 3B, shown in Fig. 3, can be closed by moving the switch block 66 to the right so that the contact 6E on its right side is brought into engagement with the pole 54 on the right side of the body member 48. This circuit leads from transformer 38 through lead 68 to switch block 64 throfugh contact 66 and pole 54 to lead 4B, which is connected to one terminal of the solenoid 3B. From the second terminal of the solenoid 39 the cirback to the transformer 38 through lead 42. provided for each of the solenoids in the typewriter and each of these circuits is connected to one of the switches 44 and is closed by moving this switch in the proper direction.
Each of the switch blocks 64 is sup-ported in suspended relation in the body member 48 by means oi a key shaft 1D which operatively connects each switch block 66 to one of a plurality of keys I2 on the keyboard I6. Shaft 'l0 is provided with a reduced threaded lower portion 'I4 and a shoulder 16 formed at the base of this reduced portion for a purpose to be described presently. The block 64 is secured on shaft 'I by screwing the tip of the reduced threaded portion 'I4 of the shaft into a threaded opening in an axially extending insulating hub 18 attached to the top surface of the block 64 by means of a stub screw 80 rigidly secured in the block.
At a point intermediate its ends, shaft is supported in the casing i0 by means of an annular diaphragm mounting plate 82 that is formed from resilient corrugated metal. The reduced threaded end 14 of the shaft I9 passes through a centrally located aperture in the diaphragm and a nut 86 threaded on this portion of the shaft bears against the bottom of the diaphragm and forces it into rm abutting engagement with the shoulder TVS so that the diaphragm and shaft are locked together` The outer edges of the diaphragm 82 are supported at the proper height to normally position the switch block 76 in the body member 48 as before mentioned, upon supporting frame members 88 positioned within the casing I8. Releasable means consisting of seating blocks 90 secured on frame members 88, and releasable clamp arms 92 for holding the edge o-f the diaphragm plate on the seating blocks 90, are used for securing the diaphragm in position on the frame members 83 as shown in section in Fig. 3.
A finger piece 94 is secured on the upper end of the shaft lil which projects above the casing I9 through an aperture therein. This nger piece is provided with a friction surface on its upper side so that the tips of an operators fingers will not slide thereon when it is desired to move the key to various positions. In order to guide the movements of the key 12, the top surface of the casing is provided with guide slots 96, as indicated in Fig. 4, extending laterally from the apertures through which the key shaft extends at equally spaced intervals. Adjacent their inner ends the edges of these slots 96 taper slightly so that these edges will be engaged by the sides of the key shaft 'ill when the key is moved laterally and the shaft will be guided into the proper slot for actuating the desired type bar even though it does not hit the slot squarely due to the fact that the movement imparted to the key by the operator is somewhat out of line. When the slots 96 are arranged as indicated in Fig. 4, the key 'i2 may be moved in four different directions laterally, and in addition, it may be depressed.
With the type of key mounting above described, the key 'i2 is resiliently supported and may be depressed sufficiently to bring the contact 66 on the bottom of block 64 into engagement with the pole in the bottom wall of body member 48, thereby closing the circuit to one of the solenoids 3Q in the manner preViousIy described. In additiorL to this vertical movement, the resilient construction of the diaphragm 82 permits the key 12 to be oscillated laterally in a plurality of di- A Circuit simu-ar to that just described is rections upon axes in the plane of the diaphragm 82, but in the embodiment of the invention illustrated this oscillation is limited by the slots 96 to four directions, namely forwardly and backwardly and to the right and to the left. During each lateral movement of the key, one of the contacts 66 on the sides of the switch block 64 will be brought squarely into engagement with one of the poles 54 in the lateral walls of the body member 48 for closing the circuits to the different solenoids 30 connected thereto.
Thus it will be seen that the ve different solencids may be energized by moving the key 72 in the ve directions that it is adapted to be moved in the construction shown so that each key controls the operation of five type bars I8 or other operatingr mechanisms connected to the solenoids. As a result only ten keys and switches similar to the one above described are needed to control the operation of a typewriter because these ten keys will opera-'ze 50 type bars or other operated mechanisms, and this is sufficient to provide for control of the return of the carriage to type a new line, the turning of the platen and the operation of a spacer mechanism and shift keys and such other operations as may be needed in addition to the operation of the type bars.
Since all of these operations can be controlled by ten keys, it is not necessary for the operator to shift his hands from one row of keys to another, or for the fingers to be moved between different keys as in the conventional typewriter. The keys are merely pushed forward and backward, to the left or to the right, or depressed to cause the desired letter or symbol to be printed, and the fingers remain in position on the keys at all times. Hence the chance that a wrong letter will be struck is greatly reduced and the operation of the typewriter is much less fatiguing and can be learned more quickly than is the case with a machine having a conventional keyboard.
To further increase the ease of operation, the ten keys 'l2 are arranged in two arcuate series as shown in Fig. l so that the keys will be in the same general position that the fingei` tips of an operator would assume when the hands are placed in position on the keyboard. If desired, the top of the casing il) may be provided with a legend opposite each key 'F2 to indicate the letters or symbols which are controlled by that key and by arranging these legends as indicated at 98 in Fig. 1, it is possible to indicate the direction in which a key must be moved to strike a particular letter. For example, the legend opposite key No. 2 indicates that by depressing the key the letter a will be printed, while the letter b will be printed if the key is moved forwardly, and the letter c when it is moved to the right, the letter d when it is moved backwardly, and the letter e when it is moved to the left.
While the invention has been described as applied to a typewriter, this was done for the purpose of illustration only. it is to be understood that the simplied keyboard construction can be applied to other electrically operated business machines. It is also to be understood that each key 'i2 can be made to control more than five operated mechanisms by providing the lateral walls 5U of the body member 48 of the switch with more than four poles 54 in which case the same number of contacts would have to be secured on the switch block 64. A greater number of guide slots 96 would also be required in. the top of casing IU for guiding movement of the key i2. While I have described a specific embodiment 2' of the invention in detail, it is to be understood that various modications thereof other than those suggested maybe made, hence I do not desire to have the invention limited tothese details except in so far as it may be limited by the appended claims.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is as foilows:
1; n` a multiple pole switch the combination comprising a housing, a series of iixed contacts in the walls of said housing projecting inwardly thereof, a at contactor block disposed in said housing and having a series of contacts in its periphery oppositely disposed with respect to the contacts in said housing for engagement therewith, a universal movement mounting for said block supporting the same in said housing for vertical movement and for rocking movement upon axes in the plane oi said mounting, and guide means adapted to conine movement of said block to those directions in which the oppositely disposed contacts in said housing and block are brought into engagement.
2. In a multiple pole switch the combination comprising a housing, a series of fixed contacts in the walls of said housing projecting inwardly thereof, a contacter block disposed in said housing and having a series of contacts thereon oppositely disposed with respect to the contacts in said housing for engagement therewith, an actuating stem on said block, an annularly corrugated resilient sheet metal diaphragm or snpporting said stem and block for vertical movement and for universal rocking movement upon axes in the plane of said diaphragm, and guide means adapted to conne movement of said block to those directions in which the oppositely disposed contacts in said housing and block are brought into engagement.
3. In a multiple pole switch the combination comprising a cylindrical housing, a series of contacts xed in the walls of said housing and projecting inwardly thereof, a disc-like contacter block disposed in said housing, said block having a series of contacts fixed therein in oppositely disposed relation to the contacts in said housing, an actuating stem on said block, and an annularly corrugated resilient sheet metal diaphragm for supporting said stem and block for vertical movement and for universal movement upon axes in the plane of said diaphragm, said stem having a free end disposed for depressing said stem and block or rocking the same laterally for selectively engaging oppositely disposed contacts in said block and housing.
4. An electric typewriter of the type having a plurality of solenoid operated mechanisms, a series of solenoids one for operating each of said mechanisms, an energizing circuit for each solenoid connected to a source of current, and a plurality of keys on the keyboard of said typewriter, and wherein a plurality of said solenoids are energized solely by operation of a single key, characterized by a series of multiple contact switches, each of said switches including a housing, a series of Xed contacts supported in said housing, each of said contacts being connected to a separate solenoid energizing circuit, a movable member disposed in said housing, a series of contacts carried by said movable member, an actuating stem for said movable member, a resilient diaphragm supporting said stem and said movable member for vertical movement and for movement laterally in a plurality of directions, said diaphragm being operatively connected to a single key and being adapted to be actuated solely by the actuation of said key to move said movable member in any one of the aforementioned directions selectively to engage the contacts carried by the movable member with the fixed contacts in the housing and thereby selectively to energize said solenoids and operate said mechanisms, and guide means for controlling the movement of said movable member.
5. An electric typewriter of the type having a plurality of solenoid operated mechanisms, a series of solenoids one for operating each of said mechanisms, an energizing circuit for each solenoid connected to a source of current, and a plurality of keys on the keyboard of said typewriter, and wherein a plurality of said solenoids are energized solely by operation of a single key, characterized by a series of multiple pole switches, each of said switches including a housing, a series of fixed contacts in said housing, each connected to a separate solenoid energizing circuit, a movable member disposed in said housing, a series of contacts carried by said movable member corresponding in number to the number of xed contacts in the housing, a universal movement mounting for said movable member normally supporting said member with the contacts carried thereby free of engagement with the fixed contacts in said housing, said mounting being operatively connected to a single key and adapted to be actuated solely by actuation of said key to movesaid movable member in any one of a plurality of directions selectively to engage the contacts carried by the movable member with the fixed contacts in the housing and thereby selectively to energize said solenoids and operate said solenoid operated mechanisms, and guide means for controlling the movement of said movable member.
6. An electric typewriter of the type having a plurality of solenoid operated mechanisms, a series of solenoids one for operating each of said mechanisms, an energizing circuit for each solenoid connected to a source of current, and a plurality of keys on the keyboard of said typewriter, and wherein a plurality of said solenoids are energized solely by operation or" a single key, characterized by a series oi multiple Contact switches, each of said switches having a plurality of fixed contacts connected in separate solenoid energizing circuits and a like number of movable contacts, a universally movable mounting for said movable contacts, said mounting being operatively connected to a single key and adapted to be actuated solely by actuation of said key in any one of a plurality of directions selectively to engage the movable contacts with the fixed contacts for selectively energizing said circuits and the solenoids therein and thereby operating the solenoid operated mechanisms, and guide means for controlling the movement of said universally movable mounting.
'7. An electric typewriter of the type having a plurality of solenoid operated mechanisms, a series of solenoids one for operating each of said mechanisms, an energizing circuit for each solenoid connected to a source of current, and a plurality oi keys on the keyboard of said typewriter, and wherein a plurality of said solenoids are energized solely by operation of a single key, characterized by a series of multiple contact switches, each of said switches having a plurality of fixed contacts connected in separate solenoid energizing circuits and a like number of movable contacts, a diaphragm mounting supporting said movable contacts for movement vertically and in a plurality of directions laterally, said dla.- phragm being operatively connected to a single key and actuated solely by operation of the said key selectively to engage the movable contacts with the xed contacts for selectively operating said solenoid operated mechanisms, and means for controlling movement of said movable contacts by said key.
FRANK H. HESH.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the le of this patent: