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Publication numberUS2532876 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 5, 1950
Filing dateDec 8, 1947
Priority dateDec 19, 1946
Publication numberUS 2532876 A, US 2532876A, US-A-2532876, US2532876 A, US2532876A
InventorsAsche Robert, Hubscher Jean Jacques
Original AssigneeAsche Robert, Hubscher Jean Jacques
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electromagnetic artificial muscle
US 2532876 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Dec. 5, 1950 R. ASCHE ETAL ELECTROMAGNETIC ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE Filed Dec. 8, 1947 Cellular rubber conlalning parficles of magneflc malarial Patented Dec. 5, 1950 ELECTROMAGNETIC ARTIFICIAL MUSCLE Robert Asche and Jean Jacques Hubscher, Neuilly sur Seine, France Application December 8, 1947, Serial No. 790,326

In France December 19,

3 Claims.

This invention is concerned with a composite product made up of paramagnetic particles and rubber-like insulating substances precluding any contact between the' said particles. It will be appreciated that if the product be arranged in a magnetic field the paramagnetic metal particles will be subjected to forces that the rubber-dike substance can only resist by yielding thereto.

The product may be manufactured in very many ways depending on the result aimed at;

thus, microscopic particles of paramagnetic metal may be incorporated e. g. in the state of a powder into a mass of natural or synthetic rubber, preferably of porous character for the sake of greater elasticity and deformability; alternatively, coarser particles may be used in the form of granules, grains, balls or even small masses; paramagnetic metal sheets may also be piled together with the interposition of rubber sheets; it is also contemplated to locate the paramagnetic metal superficially or in any other manner suitable for the obtainment of the most varied deformations once the product obtained is interposed in a magnetic field.

However, if the metal particles were capable of movement with respect to the rubber surface with which they are in contact, wear would obviously be experienced in the long run; according to the invention, this inconvenience can be avoided by cementing the said particles to the rubber; eflectively, various methods are now available whereby an adhesion of rubber to metal can be obtained which is almost equal to the ultimate strength of the rubber mass; where such an adhesion is obtained no displacement of the metal particle with respect to the rubber mass is liable to occur.

The magnetic field intended to produce the desired deformations may be obtained by means of magnetic devices arranged without the composite product. Yet, according to a further feature of the invention the said magnetic devices are arranged within the product itself and embedded in the same; they may consist e. g. of one or several electric coils adapted to partake of the deformations of the product in which they are embedded; of course, it is preferable to sub- Ject them to a preparatory treatment, e. g. by brass-electroplating or otherwise, by which adhesion is secured between them and the rubber.

Such a rubber-paramagnetic metal-coil aggregate provides an artificial muscle controlled by an electric current; where magnets are used as the metal particles, polarized deformations are obtained, which means that the direction of the deformation is the polarity of the current.

An embodiment of the subject-matter of the invention is illustrated tically in the memo drawing,

reversedasaresultofachangein Embedded in the rubber netic particles parts are the and 5.

Where an alternating magnetic field set up by the induction of a current within the composite product the coils may be short-circuited and no current input or output terminal needs be accessible from the outside.

The applications of this composite product are quite numerous; by way of example there may be cited: low-frequency resonators tuned in one or several directions of deformation; sound radiators of infra-audible. audible or ultra-audible frequencies, robots consisting of rubber-paramagnetic metal-coil muscles; propelling members, de-icing devices, etc.

The paramagnetic particles may be particles of iron, nickel, cobalt and of their alloys and oxides. which are magnetically permeable.

What we claim as our invention and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. An artificial muscle composed of paramagnetic metal particles and an elastic material possessing rubber-like as well as insulating properties that separates the said particles in combination with means to create a magnetic field adapted to influence the said paramagnetic metal particles, said elastic material possessing rubber-like properties having a cellular form.

2. An artificial muscle composed of paramagnetic metal-particles and an elastic material possessing rubber-like as well as insulating properties that separates the said particles in combination with means to create a magnetic fleld adapted to influence the said paramagnetic metal mass i are paramag- 2 and a coil '3; the only emerging coil input and output terminals 4 .particles, said elastic material possessing rubberlike properties containing cells by which its deformability is increased.

3. An artificial muscle composed of paramagnetic metal particles and an elastic material possessing rubber-like as well as insulating properties that separates the said particles in combination with means to create a magnetic field adapted to influence the said paramagnetic metal particles, said elastic material possessing rubber. like properties consisting of sponge rubber.

\ ROBERT ASCHE.

JEAN JACQUES HUBSCHER.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2638567 *May 5, 1950May 12, 1953Cronin Eugene JMagnetostriction apparatus
US2660640 *Dec 6, 1949Nov 24, 1953Westinghouse Electric CorpCircuit interrupter
US2746027 *Nov 16, 1951May 15, 1956James J MurrayFlux-gap variation transducer for hydrophones, microphones, and accelerometers
US2764733 *May 3, 1952Sep 25, 1956Magnaflux CorpMethod and means for detecting flaws
US2792536 *Oct 30, 1953May 14, 1957Westinghouse Electric CorpElectro-magnetic solenoids and actuators
US2802463 *Jun 22, 1953Aug 13, 1957Reflectone CorpMagnetic brace
US2903109 *Dec 27, 1954Sep 8, 1959Gen ElectricMagnetic material force transmitting device
US2921479 *Mar 16, 1951Jan 19, 1960Thomas Albert GPower transmission device
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US3033944 *Dec 31, 1957May 8, 1962Automatic Elect LabMagnetostrictive transducer
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US4176411 *Nov 28, 1977Dec 4, 1979Runge Thomas MCardiac assist device employing electrically stimulated artificial muscle
US4399967 *Dec 9, 1980Aug 23, 1983Lockheed CorporationStaggered coil and nose-torquer electromagnetic pulse deicing systems
US4458865 *Nov 15, 1982Jul 10, 1984Lockheed CorporationNose-torquer electro-impulse deicing systems
US4501398 *Dec 10, 1982Feb 26, 1985Lockheed CorporationBeam balancer electro-impulse deicing systems
US4516102 *Nov 2, 1983May 7, 1985Rask Mark CElectrically-powered expansion/contraction apparatus
US4683669 *Jun 8, 1984Aug 4, 1987Greer Jr Thomas JMotor element for facially animated mannequin
US5973440 *Jul 7, 1997Oct 26, 1999Nitzsche; FredStructural component having means for actively varying its stiffness to control vibrations
US8338993 *Dec 8, 2008Dec 25, 2012Kyushu Institute Of TechnologyActuator using magnetic force, and drive device and sensor using the same
US8395466 *Dec 7, 2010Mar 12, 2013Dezheng ZhaoBionic telescopic matrix unit
US20100277011 *Dec 8, 2008Nov 4, 2010Kyushu Institute Of TechnologyActuator using magnetic force, and drive device and sensor using the same
US20120229237 *Dec 7, 2010Sep 13, 2012Dezheng ZhaoBionic telescopic matrix unit
EP2239837A1 *Dec 8, 2008Oct 13, 2010Kyushu Institute of TechnologyActuator using magnetic force, and drive device and sensor using the same
Classifications
U.S. Classification335/230, 623/66.1, 244/134.00R, 252/62.53, 336/233, 521/92, 206/818, 335/303, 310/26, 264/DIG.580, 623/3.12, 310/25, 192/21.5
International ClassificationC08J9/00
Cooperative ClassificationB29K2995/0003, C08J9/0066, B29K2021/00, B29K2105/16, A61F2002/0894, Y10S264/58, Y10S206/818
European ClassificationC08J9/00M