US 2534272 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 19, 1950 H. w. KLEIST MULTITEMPERATURE REFRIGERATOR CAR 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Dec. 22, 1947 Jive/#02" m w. m m
H. w. KLEIST MULTI'I'EMPERATURE REFRIGERATOR cm 7 Dec. 19, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Dec 22, 1947 H. W. KLEIST IULTITEIIPERATURE REFRIGERATOR CAR Dec. 19, 1950 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Dec. 22. 1947 Dec. 19, 1950 H. w. KLElST 2,534,272
uumrrmrnm'nms REFRIGERATOR CAR Filed Dec. 22, 1947 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 .ifer' aiz W zfiezs Dec. 19, 1950 H. w. KLEIST 2,534,272
IULTITHPERATURE REFRIGERATOR CAR Filed Doc. 22, 1947 5 Shoots-Sheet 5 Patented Dec. 19, 1950 MULTITEMPERATURE REFRIGERATOR CAR Herman W. Kleist, Chicago. Ill., assignor to Dole Refrigerating Company, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois Application December 22, 1947, Serial N 0. 793,202
3 Claims. 1
My invention relates to an improvement in cooling systems and methods, and has for one purpose to provide a cooling system applicable to a transporting container, such as a truck or freight car.
Another purpose is to provide improved means for maintaining different parts of the interior of a truck or freight car, or storage space, at different temperatures.
Another purpose is to provide an improved system wherein differentially cooled spaces in a container, truck, or car, may be varied as to relative cubic content.
Other purposes will appear from time to time in the course of the specification and claims.
I illustrate my invention more or less diagrammatically in the accompanying drawings where- Figure 1 is a vertical longitudinal section illustrating my invention as applied to the interior of a freight car;
Figure 2 is a similar section, illustrating a variant form of my invention;
Figure 3 is a vertical section, on an enlarged scale, illustrating a practical refrigerating ele ment for use with my system;
Figure 4 is a partial vertical longitudinal section illustrating a variant arrangement of the plates;
Figure 5 is a view similar to Figure 4, with the air moving device omitted from the casing surrounding the plates;
Figure 6 is a diagrammatic illustration of a practical refrigerant cycling system; and
Figure 7 is a sectional view, on an enlarged scale, of a cooling unit.
Like parts are indicated by like symbols throughout the specification and drawings.
Referring to the drawings, A generally indicates track rails along which freight car wheels B may ride. C generally indicates a freight car having an insulated floor I, insulated ends 2, 3, an insulated roof I, and any suitable insulated side walls 5, shown as having a door outlet 6. I. 0 indicate housings, herein shown as exterior to the car structure, in which parts of a suitable cycling system may be positioned. 9, Ill indicate air guiding housings to which air from a lower part of the car may be delivered by generally upright ducts II. On and Illa indicate outlet openings at the inner or delivery ends of the housings O and III. A typical housing is illustrated in detail in Figure 3, and may be described as follows:
The housing I has its air outlet 9a provided with a hinged screen frame l2 carrying screen mesh i3. The frame i 2 also has members I 4 to which are secured supporting members or rods l5 which carry a motor I6 which, in turn, drives a fan I] through the motor shaft i8. The parts are so arranged as to direct air, in the direction of the arrows of Figure 3, through the screen l3 and out of the interior of the housing 9a. Thus the result of the operation of the fan is to increase the flow of air upwardly along the duct I I. Within the ho using 9 I may position any suitable heat exchange element or evaporator. I illustrate, for example, a series of cooling elements which are shown as plates 20, which may each be made up of two sheets 2i and 22 of heat conducting material, with a space between them in which the refrigerant material is located and evaporated, to cool the plates. These plates have smooth exterior surfaces. I find it advantageous to use vacuum plates, each with a pipe coiled back and forth in the space between the sheets. The sheets are connected together with a hermetically sealed section so as to be air-tight.
Each sheet 2i is provided with a bent-over edge 24 which has a sealed connection to the sheet 22, and each sheet 22 has a projecting part 25 which projects outwardly from the bent portion 24 at least at two opposite extremities. The bent-over edge 24 may be hermetically fastened to the sheet 22 in any desired manner, as by welding. Suitable means are provided for withdrawing air from the interior of the plates 20. I may, for example, employ a plug 21 which projects through an opening in the bent-over portion 24, and which is provided with an opening extending all the way through, the opening being arranged in two sections, a section 28 of comparatively small diameter, and a section 29 of large diameter.
There is a valve 30 in the section 29. Any suitable air-withdrawing device may be attached to the portion of the plug projecting from the plate, and the desired amount of air withdrawn. When the withdrawal of air ceases, the valve 30 is moved against its seat 3| by the pressure of exterior air. A closing member 32 may then be inserted and sealed, as by welding or soldering, or in any other suitable way.
The plates preferably contain a suitable eutectic, to provide a, hold-over feature. The eutectic does not completely fill the plates, as a space is left from which air is withdrawn and which permits the eutectic to expand when frozen. The plates 20 may be supported and arranged in any suitable manner. They may be arranged in a horizontal or a vertical position, or parallel to the roof of the car, or slightly inclined, as shown in Figure 3. In that figure the plates are shown with their fiat faces extending in a generally horizontal direction, the plates being inclined with their edges nearest the end of the car, lower than the edges and farthest from the end of the car. Supporting members 34 are provided with a series of notches 35 which receive the projecting edges 25 of the plates 20. Any suitable fastening devices may be employed to hold the plates in position.
It will be seen, as in Figure 3, that when the fan I1 is rotated by the motor I6, air is drawn through the interplate spaces and is discharged along the lower surface of the roof of the car. Preferably, the plates are spaced rather closely, and with uniform clearance, so that passages of substantial breadth and length, but of minimum thickness, are provided, the passages being bounded by parallel plane surfaces.
Whereas I have described vacuum plates, it will be understood that any other suitable plates may be employed, but, preferably, with plane parallel surfaces. In the particular vacuum plates herein shown, a suitable refrigerant is passed through the coils 23. As shown in the drawings, I provide one or more refrigerating apparatus on the car, each provided with a compressor 41, and with some suitable motor for operating it, such as the motor 48, which may be a Diesel engine. The compressor 41 may be connected with a condenser 49 and a receiver 50. A connection 5| extends to any suitable heat exchanger 52, connected by a pipe 53 with a strainer 54. The strainer 54 is connected by a pipe 55 with an expansion valve 56. A series of pipes 51 connect the expansion valve with the several plates 20, and with the coils in the interior of the plates. By this means, a substantially uniform temperature is maintained in all of the plates. The refrigerant passes through the coils in the plates, and passes out of the plates through suitable connections 58 to a common pipe or header 59 connected by a pipe 60 with the heat exchanger 52.
A pipe 6| leads from the heat exchanger back to the compressor. Connected with the pipe BI is a T 62, in which is positioned a bulb 63. This bulb controls, that is to say, opens and closes, the expansion valve by the usual means, which may consist of the pipe 64. when refrigerant returning from the plates 20 rises above a certain temperature, this bulb causes the expansion valve to open and admit the refrigerant in the coils of the plates 20. When the temperature of the refrigerant falls below a certain predetermined temperature, the bulb causes the expansion valve to close, and to shut off the refrigerant from the plate coils. It will thus be seen that the temperature in the car is automatically controlled. Under some circumstances, it may also be desirable to employ thermostatic means responsive to the temperature of air in the car. Thus I illustrate, in Figures 1 and 2, room thermostats, indicated at X. However, under normal circumstances, these may not be necessary.
Whereas the motors, compressors and condensers may be located at any desired point, I find it preferable to locate them in outside casings, as shown at I and 8, which may be connected to the exterior of the bottom of the car. It will be understood that I may find it desirable to employ two or more sets of plates, each operated and supplied by its own motor, compressor and condenser. However, it will be understood that it is within the field of my invention to provide a single motor compressor and condenser at sufficient capacity to control or supply more than one plate system. It will also be noted that, as in Figure 2, I illustrate the housing I0 as of larger capacity than the housing 9. Whereas the plates are not shown in detail, it will be understood that a larger plate surface area may be employed in the housing I0, whereby the cooling capacity of the evaporator plates in the housing I0 is greater than the cooling capacity of the plates in the housing 9. The contrary is the case in the structure of Figure 1, wherein the housings 9 and I0 are shown as of the same size.
One advantage of the employment of separate cooling systems at each end of the car is that I may provide one or more intermediate partitions, as shown at 15 in Figure 1, which may be employed to divide the interior of the car into spaces which may be differentially cooled. I may, for example, employ a movable plate I5, as in Figure 1, which may be fixed at a plurality of points, indicated, for example, by the various abutments I6. Any suitable securing means or latches "Il may be employed. It will be understood, also, that fixed partitions, such as are shown in dotted lines at I8 in Figure 2, may be employed, or the partitions may be entirely omitted.
Referring to Figure 4, I illustrate a variant form of the device in which aseries of plates I00 are shown in generally vertical position within a housing III! at the end of the car. "32 is an air manifold or space in communication with a duct I03, which may supply air from the bottom of the car or from the inter-floor space I04. I05 more or less diagrammatically indicates any suitable means for forcing air through a top air outlet I06, whereby air is drawn up the passage I03 and between the plates I00.
Referring to Figure 5, the structure is identical with that of Figure 4, except that the plates l00a terminate nearer the top of the car, and the blowing means I05 is omitted. It will be understood that, regardless of how the plates are arranged, whether they are horizontal or vertical, or inclined, I may employ them with or without positive blowing or air-moving means in whatever housing is used to surround the plates. It will be understood, for example, that any suitable airmoving means may be employed in the vertical passages I I or I 03, or in the inter-floor space.
It will be realized that, whereas, I have de scribed and illustrated a practical and operative device, nevertheless many changes may be made in the size, shape, number and disposition of parts without departing from the spirit of my invention. I therefore wish my description and drawings to be taken as in a broad sense illustrative or diagrammatic, rather than as limiting me to my precise showing.
The use and operation of the invention are as follows: I
When the parts are assembled and it is desired to cool the interior of the car, the motor is set in operation and the refrigerant is forced by the compressor 41 through the condenser 49, re-
ceiver 50 and through the coil 68 in the heat exchanger 52 to the strainer 54, and thence into the expansion valve 56. The refrigerant then passes through the several pipes 51 from the expansion valve to the coils in the different plates sageway I in contact with the coil therein, and thence by pipe ll back to the compressor. This causes the plates II to be cooled, and the air-moving devices or fans I I actuated by the motors It draw the air through the spaces between the plates 20. The air is cooled by the plates and the cooled air cluding a housing having air inlet and. outlet is then directed into the interior of the car. This cooled air is distributed throughout the interior of the car and absorbs heat from the material therein which is to be cooled, and then passes through the spaces 88 between the members 84 of the floor, and is drawn up through the pasby the air-moving devices and brought into contact with the plates 20 and a ain set out into the interior of the car.
I have shown one means of controlling the temperature in the car by means of the bulb 63 and the expansion valve 56. When a Diesel engine, for example, is used, the temperature may be controlled by starting and'stopping the Diesel engine automatically responsive to the temperature in the interior of the car. Any of the Diesel engine automatic control means produced by any of the Diesel engine companies may be used for this purpose. With such a controlling device the temperature controlled element is placed at a suitable position, and when the temperature in the car falls below a predetermined point the enzinc is automatically shut off, and when the temperature in the car rises above a predetermined point, the engine is automatically started. It is, of course, evident that an electric motor or any other form of motor may be used. The particular type or form of motor may be changed or altered to suit the conditions presented.
The advantages of employing a plurality of separate cooling systems at opposite ends of the car have already been. discussed. By employing multiple cooling systems, and by using eitherflxed or movable partitions, and by positioning the partitions at various distances from the ends of the car, it will be understood that not merely can the interior of the car be controllably cooled. but that diflerent portions of the interior of the car may be held at widely different temperatures.
I claim: 1. In a multl-temperature container, 0. heat apertures in communication with the storage space within the container, said housings being located at separated points, cooling members in each said housing, and means for cycling a volatile refrigerant therethrough, said cooling members being positioned for contact with air flowing through the inlets and outlets of said housings, means for moving air through said housings and across the surfaces of said cooling elements, and a partition in said container positioned to divide the container into a plurality of separate and widely unequal spaces, said units being of generally the same capacity, one of such units being in communication with each such space.
2. The structure of claim 1 characterized by and including the partition movably mounted in said container, whereby, when said partition is in different positions, the differential cooling of the spaces separated by the partition is altered. 3. The structure of claim 1 characterized by and including separate cycling units for the cooling members of each housing and individual means for controlling the flow of volatile refrigerant of each such unit.
1 HERMAN W. KIEIST.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 281,421 Wight July 1'7, 1883 2,134,107 Dempsey Oct. 25, 1938 2,314,463 Schwebs Mar. 23, 1943 2,360,029 Wieden Oct. 10, 1944 2,410,449 Kleist Nov. 5, 1946 Foreman PATENTS Number Country Date 279,754 Great Britain Nov. 3, 1927