US 2534636 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dex; 19, 15 F. E. STIRN 2,534,636
POWDER DISPENSER Filed Feb. 12, 1949 INVENTOR FPfl/V/f E. JT/fP/V,
ATTORNEY Patented Dec. 19, 1950 PUWDER DISPENSER Frank E. Stirn, Pearl River, N. Y, assignor to American Cyanamid Company, New York, N. Y.,
a corporation of Maine Application February 12, 1949, Serial No. 76,078
3 Claims. 1
This invention relates to powder applicators and more particularly to devices for applying a finely divided powder to the nasal and oral passages, and deeper in the respiratory tract as well as to external surfaces of the body. It is of particular value in dusting a fine material such as a powdered antibiotic upon a surface of the body or'more particularly and specifically, the air sages of the respiratory tract for local application; and because the respiratory tract will absorb, such antibiotics, into the blood stream; thereby gaining both a local and general therapeutic effect.
Heretofore there have been large numbers of devices worked out for the application of powder, some of them being called powder insulilators, but these have been generally unsatisfactory because of clogging of the powder and complications in the dispersion of the powder. By
this my invention, I have found it possible to provide a simple and convenient device which will disperse the powder in such fashion as to minimize clumping or aggregating of the particles. Even in powders which because of dielectric effects have particles which stick to each other, my particular device gives a satisfactory fine dispersion almost in the nature of a smoke, or true aerosol. It is an object of this invention to provide a device whereby powders such as penicillin or other antibiotics in pulverized state may be dispersed. The device is particularly useful with powders that range down towards the micron sizes and which are moisture sensitive. It is an object of this invention to provide a device whereby the powder may either be inhaled by the lung suction or mouth suction of the user or whereby the powder may be dispersed by an external gas pressure source, including such devices as rubber hand bulbs, such as are normally used. with atomizers as well as compressed gas containers. The gas may either be air or other inert gas such as is regularly provided in a doctors or dentists afiice for the operation or" atomizers and similar devices. The advantages and simplicity of the invention will be apparent hereinafter from this specification and drawings.
In the drawings:
Figure l is a pictorial View of a modification of a complete inhalator showing a protective cap.
Figure 2 is a sectional View of the details of construction of my device.
Figure 3 is a partial sectional view showing certain modifications, particularly inlet at the bottom whereby a source of air pressure may be attached to the powder applicator.
device of my invention may be constructed of glass, metal or of plastic. The use of plastic is particularly desirable because it is comparatively light, cheap and sturdy. Glass is apt to break, and metals are not transparent. A transparent plastic has particular advantages in that the operation of the device may be observed, and accordingly the degree of dispersion of the powder determined. Further, the desiccant may have applied to it an indicator whereby a color change gives visual indication of its exhaustion and need for regeneration. The exterior of the device consists of a container H, a container cap 82, and an orifice cover it. t one end of the container there may be provided air inlets such as are shown in Figure 2, of such size that the contained materials may not escape. An alternative construction, as shown in Figure 3, has at that end a gas pressure connection l5, adapted to be connected to a source of gas pressure such as a rubber hand aspirator bulb or any other source of gas pressure such as may exist in doctors oflice. Adjacent to this gas pressure connection may be placed a layer of packing it, such as absorbent cotton. This cotton tends to act as an air filter and as an air dispersing means whereby an even flow of air is insured. The layer of cotton may be used with the air inlets such as shown in Figure 2 but is normally unnecessary if small enough orifices are used.
Adjacent to the gas supply is placed a layer of desiccant ll. This desiccant may consist of porous silica gel beads. granular aluminum oxide or other granular solid desiccant of a non-toxic nature, the particles of which have sufficient rigidity to insure against undue breakage in use. Closing off the desiccant is a diffusion barrier l8. This barrier may consist of sintered metal or sintered glass. A sintered metal such as sintered bronze is particularly convenient because it is non-corrosive and is mechanically sturdy and not susceptible to breakage. This diffusion barrier is placed in the container in such fashion as to retain the desiccant in position. If the container is made of a plastic such as Celluloid, the sides of the container will have sufficient flexibility to permit the insertion of the barrier and its retention by the elastic nature of the container.
Adjacent to this solid barrier is placed a flexible screen is. As a screen is preferred a material such as a nylon screen. Other fabrics such as a starched cloth or organdy may be used. Above this screen is placed an agitator 28, which may be a glass bead, plastic bead, non-corrosive metal bead, etc. In the top of the container is a space for the powder charge 2i. The container cap l2 can conveniently be a slip fit on the container, serving as the cover. A screw thread may be used but modern plastics are sufliciently adaptable and dimensionally stable that a slip fit is normally more convenient and practical. The container cap has integral therewith a nostril or mouth nozzle 22, adapted to be placed 111 the mouth or nostril of the user. Adjacent this nozzle is an orifice cover [3 which may be either a screw or friction fit and which is' held against the nozzle to prevent the escape of powder prematurely. The orifice may have therein a gasket 23.
In operation the powder charge may be inserted into the end of the container by the manufacturer at the time of construction, or may be loaded or reloaded by the patientat the time of use. For materials such as penicillin which are damaged easily by moisture, it is advantageous that a high quality desiccant be used in the lower portion of the container as a moisture protecting material. The removal of moisture by the desiccant not only prevents decomposition or harmful change in the powder but additionally prevents the formation of clumps or pellets such as is frequently the case when moisture is allowed to come in contact with powders ofthis general type. In operation, after the charge is. introduced, the agitator 23, which'may be a glass bead, keeps the. powder from clumping and insures the breaking up of any lumps which may be formed. The flexible screen prevents the direct contact of the agitator with the diffusion barrier which, being of a sintered material, is solid, and which, if allowed to contact the solid. agitator might cause a packing or loading of the surface pores of the barrier. Furthermore'the flexible screen is caused to have such motion by the agitator that it serves as an additional means of breaking up and finely distributing the powder. In operation, the nozzle may be inserted in the nostril or mouth and on inhalation by the atient the stream of air is caused to flow through the desiccant, through the barrier, through the screen, through the powder and through. the nozzle with its associated orifice into either the nose or. the mouth of the patient. The diffusion barrier causes such a reduction in air velocity at all points that even the finest powders are smoothly and uniformly fed into the air passages of the user so that choking and coughing is prevented. The use of the difiusion barrier together with the flexible screen and agitator providesan extremely simple yet extremely effective method of dispersing the powder uniformly because the air flow through the diffusion barrier is substantially uniform over its entire area. Accordingly as the powder is kept agitated and stirred by the flexible screen and agitator, the uniform air currents pick up a uniform amount of the powder, thus administering to the patient a therapeutic dose in accordance with the physicians recommendations.
For patients who are so low as to have impaired suction or for the dispensing of the powder on the surfaces of the body, as may be desired in the case of burns, etc., an external source of gas pressure may be used through a suitable connection as shown at I5. In this manner the doctor in his ofiice or the patient in his home is able to control the gas flow by manipulation of the gas source so that the powder is disseminated in accordance with. the users desires.
In the embodiment shown, the portion of the container designed to contain the powder charge may'be easilyreloaded. Thesorifice cap protects the device during storage and permits the device ready for use, complete, including the powder charge, to be kept in a dispensary until such time as its use is indicated.
For casual or occasional use the device may be discarded after the desiccant is exhausted. For repeated use over prolonged periods, the desiccant may be regenerated. By removing the container cap, agitator and screen, shaking out any dust remaining therein, the container, including the desiccant, is in such shape that it will not be damaged by heat and the device may be placed in a drying chamber underisuch conditions that the desiccant is regenerated.
Having set forth a description and advantages thereof, as my invention I claim:
1. A powder applicator comprising a chamber, at least one gas admission port adjacent to: one end of said chamber, dehydrating material partially filling said chamber, a solid sintered barrier in said chamber, a fabric screenadjacent said barrier, a portion of the chamber'adapted to contain the powdered material, a loose agitator means, and a closure for said chamber including a discharge orifice.
2. A powder applicator for the administration of a therapeutic agent comprising a chamber, gas inlet means adjacent one end of the chamber, a dehydrating agent partially filling the adjacent portion of the chamber, a sintered metal barrier sub-dividing said chamber and separating the dehydrating agent from the remainder of; the chamber, a cloth screen, a bead serving as an agitator in the residual portion of the chamber, saidv residual portion being adapted. to receive a therapeutic agent in finely divided form and a closure means for said chamber including a discharge orifice, and. a cap for said discharge orifice.
3. A powder applicator for-the administration of a therapeutic agent comprising a chamber, gas inlet means adjacent one end of the chamber, a dehydrating agent partially filling the adjacent portion of the chamber, a sintered glass barrier sub-dividing said chamber and separating the dehydrating agent from' the remainder of the chamber, a cloth screen, a glassbead serving as an agitator in the residual DOItlOIlIOf thechainber, said residual portion being adapted to receive a therapeutic agent in finely divided form and a closure means for said chamber including a discharge orifice, and a cap for said discharge orifice.
FRANK E. STIRN.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Schmitt Aug. 9, 1949