US 2535033 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 26, 1950 E. w. BERGERE BOWLING PIN HAVING PLASTIC-IMPREGNATED FA BRIC COATING Filed may 17, 1946 INVENTOR. Mz/c 14 5512 525 BY flrmeMers Patented Dec. 26, 1950 BOWLING PIN HAVING PLASTIC-IMPREG- NATED FABRIC COATING Emric W. Bergere, San Diego, Calif.
Application May 17, 1946, Serial No. 670,635
This invention relates to bowling pins and particularly to a novel surface finish for a bowling pin by which its useful life may be prolonged.
It is a well-known fact that the severe concussions which a bowling pin receives soon reduce it to a condition Where it is no longer fit for accurate play. The official rules for tournament play, however, prescribe certain dimensions in the diameters of the pins. After 80 to 100 single games, a pin which originally met these specifications will have become so badly marred and splintered, especially in the region of greatest diameter, that it no longer can be used for tournament play. In an ordinary busy bowling alley this number of games corresponds to a period of about a half a week.
The rejected pins are ordinarily reworked on a lathe to a new surface which, of course, is of smaller diameter, and are then repainted and put into open or practice play. Here, again, they become badly splintered and-while some can be reworked a further time, the percentage of discards rises rapidly.
Pins of good quality are quite expensive and, due to the high mortality thereof as just de scribed, they represent one of the major items of expense in a well-run bowling alley. Moreover, the splintered condition of the pins is hazardous for the pin boys, inasmuch as slivers of wood are cracked loose and are sent flying through the air during a game. In addition, the jagged surfaces of the pins are dangerous to handle. Furthermore, the cushioning effect due to the loosened and disintegrated surface of the pin has a deleterious effect on the liveliness and,
hence, on the normal and intended action when struck by a ball or by other pins in the play of the game.
Many attempts have been made to provide inserts of various materials in the pins, especially in the regions of greatest shock, but, to my knowledge, none of these has been completely successful nor has been accepted by the official association as allowable in bowling tournament play. In general they alter the characteristic behaviour of the standard hard maple pin, and the composite structures tend to separate under the heavy concussions to which they are subjected.
An object of the present invention is to provide a non-splintering finish for a bowling pin which will maintain the wood beneath it in an intact condition.
This object I accomplish by providing a thinwalled member of a suitable material in a highly of games.
tensioned condition circumferentially of the pin. This member is cemented or otherwise caused to adhere firmly to the pin and is given an outer coating of pleasant appearance and hard impervious surface. The resulting surface finish deforms with the wood beneath it momentarily unde impact and prevents any separation of the wood fibers.
The thin-Walled member may comprise the adjacent turns of a filament wound spirally about the pin under tension. I prefer, however, to use a sleeve of suitable material which can be drawn over the pin. Such a sleeve is under greatest tension at the region of largest diameter and it is there that the greatest degree of protection of the pin is desired.
I have found that the three desiderata, namely, a highly teniioned member, a cementing of it to the pin, and a hard, resilient surface, may be effectively and expeditiously obtained by stretching a textile fabric sleeve or stocking over the pin and impregnating it with one or more coats of a suitable material such as a nitro-cellulose lacquer. I am using the term textile fabric as meaning any flexible absorbent sheet material made from threads or yarns, whether technically by Weaving, knitting or any other means of associating such filaments. As the material dries and hardens, the fabric is shrunk sufficiently to grip the pin tightly and is cemented thereby to the pin while in a highly tensioned condition. The wood becomes bound in a resilient, impervious finish and is prevented from breaking out, while the finish itself withstands repeated blows without ill effect. It is to be noted that the fabric no longer behaves as such in cushioning the surface of the pin but, instead, becomes, in effect, an integral part of the lacquer finish. Tnus, the characteristic liveliness of the hard wood pin is unimpaired by my surface treatment.
I have found that pins treated by this method out-live ordinary untreated pins by hundreds In particular, one set of pins which was so treated was, at the end of 300 games, still in excellent condition for further play. While many dents appeared in the surfaces due to the crushing impacts to which the pins had been subjected, there were no breaks in the surfaces. This is to be compared to the to game limit previously mentioned.
Another advantage of this treatment is the preservation of the bright color and, hence, of the visibility of the pins from the bowler's position. In a splintered pin the raw wood is exposed and a dirty brown color is soon obtained which has a decidedly low degree of visibility. In the case of pins treated according to my invention, the light colored fabric never discolors and gleams brightly throughout its life.
Other objects and advantages will be made apparent by the accompanying description and claims and the appended drawings.
In the drawings, Fig. 1 is a side elevational view of a bowling pin treated according to my invention; Fig. 2 is a similar view showing a modified form of treatment; Fig. 3 is a fragmentary axial section of the pin with the fa bric covering in the process of beingsecuredjat'the base and Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig.-3 ='illustrating a modified form of base. i
In the preferred form of my inventioniil'l'ustrated in Fig. 1, I provide a fabiic'sleve lO 'of suflicient length to envelope the entire pin P. A material which I have found suitable'for this purpose is the tubularkmtted article which is use'd"as a base for plaster casts about a patients limb. This is known inthe trade as Two-Inch OrthopedicStockin'ette and is manufactured by the Adler Company, Cincinnati 14, Ohio. .Itis made of long staple cotton'yarn and, having a close knit elastic'i'ibstitch; it binds closely upon the'bo'wling pin throughout the length of the latter. I
,I prefer to twist the fabric' upon the pinuntil the ribs I I lie atan angle of approxim'ately45 with the axis. I'find that this not only causes the f abric' to stretch tighter upon the pin,'but also allows the pin to spin or skid freely upon'the aue when it'is knocked down.
It will, of course, be apparent that fabrics of other materials and of other weaves than-that above menti'oned may be employed. For ex- 'aniple,fabrics ofnylon, fortisan, cotton, woven "glass,'etc., of suitable elastic weaves can be used.
The full length form, illustrated in Fig. 1, not
onlyprevents the woodfrombreaking out in the region 'contactecl'by'the bowling ball, but also 'prevent sspli tting and chipping of the'neckportion. When only the region of major damage is jto be protected, I provide a part-length finish, as
illustrated in Fig, 2, wherein the fabric envelope 'i2 extends'over the'body portion as faras the "start ofthe neck portion.
As illustrated in Fig. '3, the fabricsleeve II that shown in Fig. 3'for the bottom. 7 When the fabric is securely in placeQIf'd ip the pin in a nitro-cellulose lacquer which has f the property of shrinking the fabric tightly upon the pin. I have found that a lacquer suitable for this purpose is that which is known in the trade as Nitrate Airplane Dope. Such' products are hsed in the aircraft industry where fabric is to be shrunk to a taut condition. Various formulae are used in which cotton linters are nitrated, to various degrees, to form a'nitrocellulose which is then incorporated with various percentages of gums, plasticizers, resins, 'pigments, solvents and diluents.
will-deform with the wood beneathit during impact.
U. S. Government Material Weight Specification Per cent 1 Gelll illge Nitrate Type 2 (1) (2) 10 AN-L-C-lfil. 3. e l '2... Nitrate Type 4 (1) (2) 5 Do.
e 3 Castor Oil (Min.) l AN-JJJ-O-3l6. 4 Dibutyl Phthalate (Min.) (2) (3). 1 AN- D3Gl. 5 .Bntylnlcohol (Normal) 7 AN-O-A-ZQI. 6 Butyl- Acetate l5 AN-O-B-84l. Ethyl Alcohol 20 AN-O-E-758. 8 -Tolucne (Max.) 33 AN- R-T-541. 9. N aptl1oPetr0leum Aliphatic. 8 AN-N-Ii.
The-solid nitrocellulose-content has been cal- -eulated-on the basis of 35% (alcohol) content. 'The'plasticizershould not contain less than 15% or more-than 17% of the non-volatile contents. :II havefouncl th'at a better product is producedsby dipping the pin for a number of thin coats rather:than for (one heavy coat. I commonly1give-pins seven. thin coats and dry each coat with infra-red lampsv before-applying the succeeding-coat. "The lacquer, represented at [5 in thesdrawings,impregnates the fabric, shrinks ;iti'to a highlytensionedpondition over the grain of thezwood, an-dforms with it an integral finish with a thickness of the 'order of .025 inch. Bowl- :ing -pi'ns have heretofore-commonly been treated with a number;of coats of some formof pin lacquer. andit will, therefore, bejnoted that the surfacefinish of my inventionintroduces no unsdesirab'le change in 'the characteristics of the p pl y- (Where wooden plugs L4 are used to hold the fabric edge, such plugs are removed when the final cqat hasbeen dried and the bowlingpin is :then ready-for use. By extending the fabric around the bottompf the pin the-corner of the p'in is prevented from chipping and rounding. amage, to,;the-cor ne r of the pin prevents it from standing. up in a'satisfactory manner as a result of ,;which the pin :must frequently be trimmed-and thereby reduced in height. Usually :trim'mi'ng .thebottomreduces the height of the :zpiniby /4jof .anhinch, butiafter 'a -pin has been trimmedand'the hardseasoned surface has been -cut,'-the fpin :does'not standup-as well-as prior ito-the-first trimming. I have found that the surface of a trimmed pin will chip badly in about t'en linesjof pla and aftenabout thirty to forty lines ofrplay it is-ihece'ssary toretrim the bottom again. Withithe-presentinvention, the'corners =stand up,'the-bo,ttoms,remain'fiat and the pins are not scarred from impact with a sharp corner.
-In1T-i-g94 is; shown an alternative treatment for :the base of the pin in 'which'a renewable member 11.6.,- in theform fof-a fiber or impregnated fabric *washe -isprovided. The-washer may be secured to the pinby means of a separable fastener comprising a tubular portion l7 and a rivet or stud l8... Thetubular'member may ice-placed in the .hcle... .l 3 of i the-:pin, and the: rivet, when driven .zthro'ug'h it, expands: it to'yforce thesharp edges l9 into the wood. A fastenernof. this type is illustrated in- Letters, Patent .No. 2,40Q,l42;issned toGeorge-'AJ'Iinnermanion May 14. 1946; but it will be understood, however, that other types of fasteners may be used. The washer I6 is rabbeted at to accommodate the lower portion of the surface finish, and is counterbored at 2| to accommodate the flange of the tubular member 57.
I have found that my surface treatment may be employed to advantage not only on new pins but also in restoring old pins to usable condition. Pins which have been in use for a substantial length of time become reduced in diameter, by the crushing blows, to such an extent that they no longer can be gripped in the pin-setting rack. This reduction in diameter commonly occurs at the zones on the pin which are contacted by the ball and which strike the floor when the pin is toppled over. These zones can be built up to specified diameter, and the original contour of the pin thus restored, by winding tightly with a strip of gauge bandage which is then impregnated with nitro-cellulose lacquer as abovedescrib;d.
1. In combination, a bowling pin, a surface finish therefor comprising an envelope of elastic rib-stitched fabric stretched tightly about the pin, the ribs of the fabric extending spirally around the pin, and one or more coats of a nitrocellulose lacquer applied to the fabric.
2. In combination, a bowling pin, a surface finish therefor comprising a sleeve of elastic fabric stretched tightly over the pin, a central hole in the base of the pin, a lower edge on said fabric stretched radially inwardly across the base of the pin and extending into the hole, and one or more coats of a nitrocellulose lacquer impregnating the fabric.
3. In combination, a bowling pin, a surface protecting finish therefor comprising a sleeve of elastic fabric stretched tightly over the pin, a central hole in the base of the pin, a lower edge on said fabric extending radially inwardly partially across the base of the pin, a base protecting member beneath the pin, an annular rabbet on said member accommodating the fabric edge, and a separable fastening means extending through said member into said hole.
EMRIC W. BERGERE.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS