US 2535376 A
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Dec. 26, 1950 w. L. THOMPSON, JR 2,535,376
TWISTED YARN-LIKE STRUCTURE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING IT Filed Nov. 30, 1948 INVENTOR. W/RT L. THOMPSON JR.
A T TGRNEY Patented Dec. 26, 1950 TWISTED YARN-LIKE STRUCTURE AND METHOD FOR PRODUCING IT Wirt L. Thompson, Jr., Fairfield, Conrn, assignor to American Viscose Corporation, Wilmington, DeL, a corporation of Delaware Application November so, 1948, Serial No. 62,605
2 2 Claims. 1
This invention relates to novel and improved yarn-like structures and to methods of producing them.
In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that special splittable and novelty yarns can be obtained by twisting narrow-width'warp knit fabric, such as those obtained in accordance with Johnson Patent 2,433,279.
In the drawing, which is illustrative of the invention,
Figure 1 is a conventional diagram of one embodiment of a splittable fabric, from the individual units of which the novelty yarn of the invention can be made,
Figure 1a is a much enlarged face view of the splittable fabric of Figure 1,
Figure 2 is a conventional diagrammatic view of a modified splittable fabric from the units of which, the yarn-like structures of the invention may be produced,
.Figure 3 is a diagrammatic representation of another splittable fabric,
Figure 3a is a much enlarged face view of the fabric of Figure 3,
Figures 4 to 9 are similar diagrammatic representations of other splittable fabrics from the units of which the yarn-like structures of the invention may be made, and
Figure 10 is a view of a twisted yarn obtainable from the units of the fabrics shown in Figures 1 and 1a.
In general, the yarn-like structures of the present invention are produced from narrow width warp knit fabrics such as may be produced on a tricot machine. The fabrics have one, two or more central wales extending longitudinally thereof and the edge sections along the central portion each comprise a fringe comprising laterally extending yarn loops. These loops on the opposite edges of the fabric may be directly opposite each other or they may be staggered alternately, depending upon the specific structure of the fabric yarn and the number of central wales thereof.
Figures 1 to 9 of the drawing show splittable edge of the fabric.
warp-knit fabrics from which individual units can be split out for twisting.
Figures 1 and 1a show a back warp having a stitch pattern of 1-0, 2-3 (under 2 over 1) using a thread on every other guide and a front warp in the form of a chain stitch using a thread in every intervening guide of the other guide bar. This fabric can be made the full width of a standard warp knitting machine, such as a tricot 2 machine, and is splittable at every other wale, the splittable wales being indicated by the letter s. Each stitch in the separable or splittable wale s consists of a loop extending from the preceding course and a loop extending therethrough from the strip of the fabric on the side opposite that of the first loops. It will be seen that the splittable wale consists of a series of loops alternate ones of which extend from the strips of fabric on the opposite sides of the splittable wale and each loop extends through the eye of each preceding loop in the wale. By applying tension across the splittable wale at the end of the fabric shown at the top of the figures in the drawing, each loop of the splittable wale s pulls through the eye of each preceding loop in succession, and the fabric is split into strips whose adjacent edges are composed of the free loops which are non'raveling. If desired, the last course of the fabric from which splitting must be started may be provided with a transverse thread passed through the last loop in each wale. This prevents splitting of the fabric even where the structure is open and loose. In order to split the fabric so constructed at any particular wale, it is only necessary to break this thread at the In any event, splitting is easily performed, and it is unnecessary to pull a complete thread through the whole length of a wale in order to divide the fabric. The chain stitch prevents any running or traveling of the fabric beyond the splittable wale. While this embodiment illustrate a single chain wale between ad acent splittable wales. and splitting at every other wale produces a fabric strip composed of a single wale, variations in the number of central wales (from one to four) between adjacent splittable wales can be made. For example, in Figure 2 the splittable wales are sep arated by three wales comprising the interlocked front and back warps.
Figure 3 shows a splittable fabric made with one warp. The single guide bar is threaded, one in, one out. The pattern-wheel set up would be written 0-2, 3-1. The splittable wales are indicated by the letter 3 and the units into which the fabric is split have a single central wale.
In Figure 4, the back guide bar is threaded, one in, two out, and the pattern-wheel set up is 1-0, 3-4. The front guide bar is also threaded one in, two out, and the pattern-wheel set up is 0- 2-0. The individual units split from this fabric comprise two central wales.
Figure 5 shows a splittable fabric in which the back warp has a stitch pattern of 1-0, 1-2, some- 3 times referred to as "under one, over one," and in which a threadis provided for every needle. The front warp is a chain stitch made with a thread provided on every other needle. The splittable wales are indicated by s and it will be seen that the strips have a single central wale.
Figure 6 has a back warp the same as in Figure 'but in making the front warp, the guide bar is threaded one in, two out, and the patternwheel set-up is 1-2, 1-0. The splittable wales are indicated at s and it will benoted that the split units have two wales.
,of the yarn. The intervening portions may be stretched to a lesser extent or they may be left in unstretched condition.
In Figure '7 both bars are threaded one in, two
out. The back bar pattern set-up is 2-0, 2-4. The splittable wales are indicated at sand the unit fabrics have two central wales from which the fringe loops extend.
In Figure 8, the back warp is the same as the back warp in Figure 7, but the front warp corresponds to the front warp in Figure 4. The resulting fabric is splittable at the wales indicated at s and the split units have two wales.
Figure 9 shows a modification in which the back warp is made by using a bar threaded one in, three out,- and the pattern-wheel set-up is 1-0, 4-5, and the front warp corresponds to the front warp of Figures 6 and 7 threaded one in, six out. The resulting fabric is splittable at the wales indicated at s and the split units have two wales therein.
After the warp-knit units are split from the fabric, they may be twisted and for this purpose may be collected on a cap twister, ring twister, flyer twister, or within a centrifugal spinning pot. A twist of at least one turn every inch is sufficient in some cases but generally a twist of at The front bar pattern set-up is 1-2, 1-0.-
1 The yarn-like structures obtained are useful in weaving, machine and hand-knitting, braiding, crocheting, embroidering, and the like and impart to. the fabrics an extremely pleasing decorative and ornamental eiflfect.
Figure 10 shows one type of yarn-like structure made .in accordance with the invention and corresponding to the knit construction shown in least'five is preferred. Twists up to 25 or more turns per inch may be employed to obtain a yamlike structure having a rather tight or firm core. If the twisted structure contains such a large number of 'twists per inch as to be lively in character, the twist may be set by any methods available, such as being subjected in air dry condition to radio frequency current. The twist may also be set by means of steam and then dried; or by the application of a twist-setting type of size or dressing, such as any one of numerous waxy materials which are firm but flexible at ordinary room temperature. Examples of such compounds are the esters of sorbitol, sorbitan, mannitan, and the like with the higher fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, stearic acid and the like having a melting point of 30 to 70 C.
In many of the constructions including that of Figure 1, the liveliness of the twist can be reduced and sometimes eliminated by tensioning the structure longitudinally. This procedure can be made more effective by first overtwisting, then tensioning, and finally allowing the removable excess twist by relaxing. An example that is especially adaptable to this procedure is obtained witha stitch pattern of front bar: 1-0, 1-2; 1 in, 6 out, and back bar: 14), 3-4, 1 in, 3 out, 1 in, 2 out. By actually stretching the structures, such as that just cited, when made of smooth or slippery filaments, such as rayon, the lateral loops can be partially or completely pulled in toward the yarn core during which the stitch of the core itself appears to be opened up to provide modified novelty effects. When the loops of the specific example just cited are completely pulled .in, the result resembles a boucl yarn yet has a generally more open interstitial structure throughout. The structure may be stretc ed i i- Figures 1 and 1a. The central chain stitch warp of the yarn is indicated by reference character 3 and the loops extending from opposite sides thereof are indicated by reference character 4, and it will be noted that because of the twisting in the yarn, a side view gives the appearance of a sine wave when the yarn has a twist of about two or three turns per inch. I If this yarn were twisted to a greater degree such as five or more turns per inch, the sine wave effect is lost and a generally heterogeneous distribution of the loops about the central wale or yarn core is obtained. This gives the appearance of a boucl yarn but is still distinguishable therefrom.
It is to be understood that changes and variations may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
1. A yam-like structure comprising a tricot knit fabric having from one to four central wales extending longitudinally of the structure and having yarn loops extending laterally from the central portion of the fabric, said fabric unit being twisted at least one turn per inch.
2. The structure of claim 1 in which the twist is from one to 25 turns per inch.
3. The structure of claim 1 in which the twist is from one to ten turns per inch.
4. The structure of claim 1 in which the twist is from five to ten turns per inch.
5. The structure of claim 1 in which the twist is from one to five turns per inch.
6. A structure in accordance with claim 1 in which said loops have been at least partially pulled in toward the central portion of the fabric.
'7. A structure in accordance with claim 1 in which said loops have been substantially completely pulled in toward the central portion of the fabric.
8. A structure in accordance with claim '7 in which the loops have been substantially uniformly pulled in throughout the length of the structure.
9. i A method of producing a yarn-like structure comprising the steps of splitting a splittable warp knit fabric into units having one to four central wales bordered by laterally extending loops, then twisting the fabric at least one turn per inch, and stretching the structure longitudinally to pull in the laterally extending loops at least partially.
10. A method in accordance with claim 9 in which the stretching is performed continuously and substantially uniformly throughout the length of the structure.
11. A method in accordance with claim 9 in which the structure is stretched at intermittent intervals therealong.
12. A method of producing a yarn-like structure comprising the steps of splitting a splittable warp knit fabric into units having one to four central wales bordered by laterally extending loops and then twisting the fabric at least one turn per inch.
13. A method of producing a yarn-like structure comprising the steps of splitting a splittable warp knit fabric into units having one to four central wales bordered by laterally extending loops, twisting the fabric unit at least one turn per inch, and setting the twist.
14. The process of claim 13 in which the twist is set by tensioning the structure longitudinally.
15. The method of claim 13 comprising the step of fabricating the twisted structure by weaving,
knitting, braiding, crocheting, embroidering, and 1 warp knit fabric into. units having one to four central wales bordered by laterally extending loops, twisting the fabric at least one turn per inch, and converting the twisted structure into a fabric.
18. The process of claim 17 in which the conversion is performed by weaving.
19. The process of claim 17 in which the conversion is performed by knitting.
20. The method of claim 17 in which the conversion is performed by braiding.
21. The method of claim 17 in which the conversion is performed by crocheting.
22. The method of claim 17 in which the conversion is performed by embroidering.
WIR'I L. THOMPSON, JR.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 756,236 Horlacher Apr. 5, 1904 1,769,970 Silverman July 8, 1930 2,064,074 McNamee Dec. 15, 1936 2,416,758 Knowles Mar. 4, 1947 2,433,279 Johnson Dec. 23, 1947