US 2535395 A
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Dec. 26, 1950 A. DINSLEY ELECTROPHORETIC APPARATUS FOR RESEARCH Filed Nov. 4, 1947 www Q K+ @wf Patented Dec. 26, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ELECTROPHORETIC APPARATUS FOR RESEARCH AlfredDnsley, La Canada, Calif.
Application November 4, 1947, Serial No. 784,065
Anumber of constituents through the action of direct electrical current applied by positive and :negative electrodes inserted therein by which re- .and completely analyze and determine the composition and characteristics of fluids.
This application is a continuation, in part, of my companion application-Serial Number 545,853, led July 20, 1944, now abandoned.
In the accompanying drawing forming part of this specification, Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic elevation of an apparatus constructed in accordance with my invention, and Fig. 2 is a section of part of the apparatus taken on the line 2 2 of Fig. l.
In the drawing, A indicates a U-tube having upwardly extending arms B and C hermetically sealed in a cooling jacket D. A drainage cock Hi is connected between the arms of said tube, and the lowervportions on either side of the median portion of the Uetube are provided with draw- 01T cocks E and F which are extended through and outwardly from the cooling jacket. The cock E is connected with the negative arm 'B of the tube and the cock F is connected with the positive arm C, In this manner the uid contents of either tube can be drawn oil and removed after the solution in the tube has been subjected to the action of a charge of direct electrical current, as hereinafter described.
Intermediately in the structure of the tube and iarm B of the kU-tube.
medicine, it is desirable to observe the electrical characteristics of iluids, solutions, and the like, .from the human body, or as solutions to be used for therapeutic purposes. These iluids or .compositions in a majority of cases arecapable of acting as electrical conductors. The method of .my invention is based on the ability of solutions to conduct electrical current and on the fact that many materials are composed of ions carrying a `characteristic electric charge, either negative nor positive. A solution will, therefore, also carry a characteristic electrical charge per unit volurne.
In order to investigate the properties of solu tions, I have provided an apparatus by `which the fluid which is placed in, and contained `in the U-tube, is fractionated, by the passage of direct current of effective lpotential through the arms of the tube by the introduction of `a bare positive electrode H in the fluid contained in the positive arm C of the U-tube, and, a barenegative electrode G in thefluid contained in the negative These electrodes are .provided with plug terminals I5 and I 6 which are removably and tightly secured in corresponding nipples `Il and I8. These nipples are extensions of the arms B and C through the wall of the cooling jacket D. Each electrode dips down deeply into the solution contained in the arms of the `vU-tube.
A positive and negative electrical current is applied to the terminals I5 and I6 and accompanying electrodes, by a suitable direct current circuit, such as 20, by which direct current of suitable voltage and -amperage and `containing milliammeter 2l and voltmeter 22, a regulating rheostat 23, and switch 24.
In carrying out the method of my invention a known quantity of solution to be tested and fractionated is introduced into the U-tube by'removing one or both of the electrodes l5 or I6 and after the electrodes are adjusted the current is turned on by the switch 24 and regulated by the rheostat 23. Positively charged ions in the solution will then be attracted to the negatively charged electrode and negatively charged ions will be attracted to the positively charged electrode, the discharge of the charges carried by the ions into the conductors setting up electric currents which are characteristic of the solution which is being treated. The i'luid or solution contained in the U-tube is thereby fractionated by the passage of current traversing between the positive and negative electrodes, one fractionated portion accumulating in the negative arm'and another type of fractionated portion accumulating in the positive arm of the U-tube. The separate fractionated portions can be respectively removed by opening the draweoi cocks E and F. These fractionations provide samples of components of the solution which can be examined, tested or treated.
During passage of electric current through the solution contained in the U-tube, the resistance of the liquid tends to generate considerable heat. The arms of the tube are, therefore, maintained at reduced temperature by the circulation of uid coolant, such as water, through the jacket. This cold water may be supplied from any suitable source (not shown) which is. adapted to be connected with the jacket D by the ingress and egress ducts 25 and 26.
Vapor and/or gas arising in the arms of the U-tube from the heated solution due to action of the electric current are conducted by the outlets I3 and lli respectively to condensers I and J, by which further fractionations of the solution which is acted upon in the U-tube are con- The condensed fractionated Following this treatment the U-tube can be drained by ,4 opening the drain cock I0, after which the drain cock is closed and the apparatus is ready to be y recharged and the entire operation repeated.
My invention as above described provides an apparatus which permits lthe user to draw-off "sharply divided and clearly separated opposing fractions which occur in the solutions which are treated in the U tube, These fractions of a iiuid may contain pathological end products, after the l act of electrophoresis which may be negatively and/or positively charged, and can, therefore, be eiectively separated to advantage for examination and testing.
l. have found that changes in the solution in f', the human body, as, for instance, in the spinaliiuicl, can be advantageously investigated by the use of my apparatus and by comparison of the readings obtained from a normal specimen in solution as compared with fluid from a pathological speoimen. By observing the variation between the pathological specimen and the normal specimen solutions, an accurate check may be Y made as to the progress of a patient, and, the treatment administered may be modified accordingly.
It is believed that, the method of my invention l and the apparatus provided for carrying it into practice will enable much valuable data to be secured in investigating the properties of pathological uids.
Modifications are contemplated in the apparatus shown and described within the spirit of the invention and within the scope of the following claim.
Apparatus for subecting pathological specimens in solution to electrophoresis, which consists of the following elements in combination: a U-tube having a pair of connected, vertically disclosed arms for holding said solution, solution inlets entering the upper portions of each of said arms, a concentric cooling jacket hermetically sealed about said U-tube, cooling uid inlet means near the bottom of said cooling jacket, cooling fluid outlet means near the top of said cooling jacket, a positive electrode exposed in the solution contained in one of said arms, a negative electrode exposed in the solution in the other of said arms, means for connecting the electrodes to a source of direct current so that the solution in said U-tube is subjected to electrophoresis and fractionation between said arms, valved outlet conduits near the lower portions of each arm and passing through said cooling jacket by means of which fractions of the solution in said arms are removed separately from the bottom of each of said arms, a common-drain, valved outlet conduit connected with the lower median line of the U-tube and passing through said cooling jacket for completely evacuating said tube, egress ducts near the upper portions of each of said arms extending from said tube outwardly through the walls of said cooling jacket for egress of gases produced during electrophoresis, and condensers connected with each of said egress ducts effective to remove from each arm and to condense and collect separately therefrom further fractions in liquid form.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date '736,868 McCarty Aug. 18, 1903 1,539,297 Calingaert May 26, 1925 1,738,801 Shemitz et al. Dec. l0, 1929 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 4,417 Great Britain of 1884