US 2535844 A
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Dec. 26, 1950 J. H. EMERSON 2,535,844
ASPIRATOR FOR ADMINISTERING MEDICINE Filed Au 1, 1946 I 722162241502" T157272 HZ/mersmz z 8 6 M J Attys Patented Dec. 26, 1950 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ASPIRATOR FOR ADli/IINISTERING MEDICINE John H. Emerson, Cambridge, Mass.
Application August 1, 1946, Serial No. 687,586
(Cl. Mil-"195) 10 Claims. 1
This invention pertains to aspirators such as are employed in admin stering medical substances in spray form, for instance for inhalation by a patient, and in particular to an aspirator designed for use with medicaments which are too expensive to waste. For example penicillin has been found effective as an inha ant in the treatment of some forms of asthma, but at the present price of penicillin it is not available to many persons who would benefit from its use because of the wasteful methods of administration.
It has heretofore been proposed to employ apparatus for this purpose wherein the penicill n or other medical substance is atomized by a jet of oxygen and wherein the patient by the operation of a valve or vent limits the actual atomization to the period of inhalation so that the medicine is not wasted during exhalation. While this prior apparatus is useful, it is necessary for the patient to manipulate the control valve or vent. .This places a considerable burden upon a patient even though he may be able to do so, and many patients are wholly unable to perform this operation. 7
The object of the present invention is to provide apparatus of the type above referred to wherein a l quid medicament is atomized by a jet of compressed gas, for example oxygen, and having provision for the automatic limitation of the atomizing action to the period of inhalation, thus relieving the patient of the necessity of manipulating any control devices, and at the same time avoiding any waste of the expensive medicine. Another object of the invention is to provide simple atomizing apparatus for the intended purpose and such as may be manufactured at a reasonable cost so as to make it generally available. Other and further objects and advantages of the invention will be pointed out i in the following more detailed description and by reference to the accompanying drawings wherein Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic elevation illustrating the novel apparatus;
Fig. 2 is an edge elevation, partly broken away and to larger scale, showing details of the control mechanism with the parts in the position which they occupy during inhalation; and
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 2 but showing the position of the parts during exhalation.
Referring to the drawings, the numeral designates a casing of any suitable material, for instance a moulded plastic, glass or metal, delining a chamber 2, the lower part of which, in
the simple construction herein illustrated, constitutes a reservoir for a body 3 of the medicinal substance which is to be administered. The casing l is provided with a tubular branch 4 defining the delivery passage 5. This branch 4 may be shaped to be held in the mouth of the patient or alternatively it may be shaped tofit into one nostril or into both nostrils. The casing also has the tubular branch 6 providing the breathing port I, this port being of a size sufli'; cient to admit the passage of air in sufiicient quantity for breathing.
Within the chamber 2 there is arranged a jet nozzle 8 which is supplied with the medicinal substance from the body 3 by means of an elevat ng tube 9 supported by a rigid bracket It). The upper end of the elevating tube is so arranged, relatively to the jet nozzle 8, that the aspirating effect of gas delivered from the jet nozzle lifts the medicinal substance to the nozzle tip so that the medicinal substance is atomized by the jet of gas issuing from the nozzle. The
pressure motor l6 comprising a case I! which houses a very light and flexible diaphragm Hi. The case defines a chamber l9, at one side of the diaphragm, which communicates by means of a tube 2E3 with the chamber 2 of the casing I. Since the chamber I9 of the pressure motor communicates with the chamber 2 of the casing i the diaphragm is responsive to pressure variations in the chamber 2. The right-hand side of the diaphragm is open to atmospheric pressure at all times.
The support I5 is provided with a discharge port/2! which is controlled by a movable valve head 22. As illustrated, this valve head is carried by a lever 23 having an arm 23 which engages the central part of the diaphragm It; so that motion of the diaphragm causes the valve 22 to be seated or unseated.
Assuming that gas under pressure is being supplied through the tube I4 to the tubular support l5 and is thus available for delivery to the jet nozzle 8, if the patient places the part 4 in his mouth and inhales, the pressure in chamber 2 is slightly reduced, and this reduction in pressure is communicated to the chamber I9, thus the liquid to the nozzle tip in response to the aspirating action of the issuing gas jet, valve means including a movable valve head operative alternatively to deliver gas to the nozzle or to vent the gas to the atmosphere and a pressure motor including a movable diaphragm which moves in one direction in response to exhalation pressure and in the other direction in response to inhalation pressure, and means so connecting the diaphragm and valve head that the valve head is actuated to vent the gas to the atmosphere, thereby to cease vaporization during periods of exhalation.
9. Apparatus for use in administering a medicinal substance in atomized form for inhalation by a patient, said apparatus comprising a vaporizing nozzle, and having provision, includ ing a constantly open, unobstructed conduit for supplying gas under pressure to said nozzle, said conduit having a vent port intermediate its ends, and a movable valve head operative at times to close said port, and automatic means responsive to exhalation pressure to open said valve thereby to vent the gas to the atmosphere at a point intermediate the ends of the conduit.
10. Apparatus for use in administering a medicinal substance in atomized form, comprising means defining a chamber through which the patient inhales and exhales, the chamber having a constantly open aperture in its Wall of a size sufficient to pass air in the amount requisite for breathing, but such that the pressure in the chamber decreases and increases slightly in response to inhalation and exhalation respectively, a nozzle arranged to discharge the atomized medicinal substance into the chamber, a constantly open unobstructed conduit for leading gas under pressure from the source of supply to the nozzle, and means responsive to exhalation pressure Within the chamber to vent the gas on its way from the supply to the nozzle to the outer atmosphere.
JOHN H. EMERSON.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,181,421 Fahr et a1. Nov. 28%, 1939 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 500,789 Great Britain Feb. 15 1939