US 2536597 A
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R. H. GODDARD 2,536,597
RECOIL-OPERATED FEEDING APPARATUS FOR A COMBUSTION CHAMBER, USED IN AERIAL PROPULSION Filed Sept. 5, 1946 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Jan. 2, 1951 Jan. 2, 1951 c R. H. GODDARD 2,536,597 RECOIL-OPERATED FEEDING APPARATUS FOR A comsus'rzou CHAMBER USED IN AERIAL PROPULSION Filed Sept. 5, 194a 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 0, Goddmd, away.
Petented Jan. 2, 1951 RECOIL-OPERATED FEEDING APPARATUS FOR A COMBUSTION CHAMBER USED IN AERIAL PROPULSION Robert H. Goddard, deceased, late of Annapolis, Md., by Esther C. Goddard, executrix, Paxton, Mass., assignor of one-half to The Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Foundation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application September 5, 1946, Serial No. 694,922
This invention relates to combustion chambers of the type having open discharge nozzles and adapted for use in rockets and rocket craft. The invention relates more specifically to the provision of improved feeding apparatus for such combustion chambers, which feeding apparatus is operated by the recoil of the chamber as successive charges of the combustion mixture are ignited therein. Improved automatic valves are also provided, together with means for cooling the valves and the combustion chamber walls.
The invention further relates to arrangements and combinations of parts which will be hereinafter described and more particularly pointed out in the appended claim.
Preferred formsof the invention are shown in the drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a general plan view showing a combustion chamber associated with a preferred form of the invention, and with certain details omitted for clearness;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged plan view of the improved feeding apparatus, partly in section, and showing certain additional details omitted in the general view of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a further enlarged sectional plan view of one of the automatic valves;
Fig. 4 is a sectional plan view of a modified valve construction;
Fig. 5 is an end view of certain parts, looking in the direction of the arrow 5 in Fig, 4; and
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of a liquid-cooled valve.
Referring ot Figs. 1 and 2, a combustion chamber C and discharge nozzle N are shown mounted to slide in a fixed supporting frame I0. Pumps I 2, l4 and I 6 are provided to deliver liquids to the combustion chamber C, the .pump I2 delivering liquid oxygen through a feed pipe (Fig. 2) to a jacket space 2| associated with the combustion chamber head 22.
The pump l4 delivers liquid fuel, as gasoline, through a feed pipe 24 to an annular jacket space 25 in the combustion chamber head 22. These liquids are sprayed from the jacket spaces 2| and 25 through spray openings 21 and 28, and the sprays of the two liquids intersect and are intermingled as indicated by the arrows in Fig, 2.
The pump I6 is connected by a feed pipe to an annular passage or volute 3|, and is provided to supply water or an inert liquid which enters the combustion chamber C tangentially through feed openings 32 and which cools the thin wall of the combustion chamber. Additional annular passages or volutes 34 and 35 may 40 mounted on a cross arm 4|, which in turn" is supported on the fixed frame '10 (Fig. 2). Liquid oxygen is fed to the cylinder 40 through a supply pipe 42.
A piston 45 is slidable in the cylinder 40, and leakage between these parts is prevented by a bellows packin 45. The piston 45 is mounted on a cross brace 50 carried by a movable frame 5| (Fig. 2) which is mounted on and slidable with the combustion chamber C at each recoil of the chamber.
The longitudinal position of the chamber C and frame 5| is controlled by springs 55 and 56 (Fig. 2) which yieldingly resist displacement of the chamber and frame in either direction from normal mid-position. Threaded studs 59 and 58 may be used to increase or decrease the pressure of either spring.
Each pump is provided with a check valve V (Fig. 3) between the supply pipe, as 42, and the cylinder 40 and with a second check valve V between the cylinder 40 and the feed pipe, as 20, which connects the pump to the associated jacket space or volute.
Each check valve comprises a streamlined member 60 or 60a slidable in a perforated guide ring 54 and engaging a narrow seating surface 65. A spring 66 normally seats the valve member .50, and a spring 61 seats the valve 60a. The spring 66 is relatively light, and the spring'fil is just strong enough to resist the tank or supply pressure, say thirty pounds, and to thus prevent flow from the cylinder 40 to the feed pipe, as 20, when no recoil is taking place.
With this construction. at each movement of the piston 45 to the right or in the direction of the arrow a in Fig. 3, the check valve V will open and the cylinder 40 will be filled with liquid. On return from the recoil. the piston 45 will be forced into the fixed cylinder 40. The check valve V will immediately close, preventing return of the liquid to the supply pipe 42, and the check valve V will open to deliver the liquid in the cylinder 40 to the feed pipe 20.
Consequently, a measured quantity of liquid will be deliveredto the combustion chamber after each explosion therein, and the amount delivered will naturally be proportionate to the cylinder capacity of each pump. By correctly proportioning the pum s, the fuel. oxidizing liquid and cooling liquid will be fed in the desired proportions to the chamber C.
Ignition in the chamber C may be under the control of a spark-plug 10 (Fig. 2) wired to a source of current, as a battery B, and in luding normally spaced contact members H and 12, mounted on the fixed frame 10. The spark-plug l and the contact '12 are grounded and the contact H is insulated. A screw 13 ad ustably mounted on the sliding frame closes the circuit by engaging and moving the contact 1|. Ignition takes place as the cylinder reaches for ward position after each recoil movement.
The bellows packing 46 substantially prevents leakage between the cylinder 40 and piston 45 during the recoil movements. Any slight leakage which may occur is returned to the supply pipe 42 through an expansible drain connection 15.
If it is desired to increase the area of the check valve openings to permit more rapid fiow, the valve construction shown in Figs. 4 and 5 may be utilized. In this case, the fixed cylinder 80 is provided with a disc 81 having a pluralit of port openings 82, and the movable valve member comprises a movable spider 83 having port-covering portions 84. 4 The spider 83 is mounted on a nonrotatable guide-rod 85 and is seated by a light spring 86. The piston 90 has a similar perforated end disc 9| and a spider 92 with port-closing portions 93 which are seated by a light spring The operation is the same as previously described but, at each recoil movement, a plurality of port openings are uncovered, instead of the single opening found in the construction shown in Fig. 3.
For starting purposes, a hand lever I00 may be connected to the frame 5| b a link It". This lever may be moved in the direction of the arrow b to charge the pump cylinders. Release of the handle allows the frame to return to normal position and with the usual pumping action.
Flow to the pump cylinders is preferably controlled by valves H0, Ill and H2 (Fig. 2) which may be connected to a single operating rod I I4, by the use of which simultaneous suppl of all three liquids to the pumps may be effected.
Where one of the pumps, as the pump I (Fig. 6), is used to pump a very cold liquid, such as liquid oxygen, it may be desirable that this pump should be precooled. This may be accomplished by providing a coil I2! surrounding the pump cylinder and connected to the liquid oxy- 4 gen storage tank, one end of the coil being connected to the bottom of the tank and the other to the top. Circulation through the coil will then precool the pump cylinder.
The rate of feed may be controlled by varying the stroke of the sliding frame, as by an adjustable stop screw I30 (Fig. 1). The extent of opening of the valves H0, Ill and H2 (Fig. 2) may also be adjusted by a screw I3l.
Having thus described the invention and the advantages thereof, it is not desired that the invention be limited to the details herein disclosed, otherwise than as set forth in the claim, but what is claimed is:
In a rocket apparatus, a fixed frame, a combustion unit slidable by recoil in said fixed frame on the firing of each successive charge of a liquid combustion mixture and said unit comprising a combustion chamber and a discharge nozzle permanently secured thereto, separate pumps for the liquid fuel and for the liquid oxidizer in said combustion mixture and each pump comprising a cylinder and piston, one part of each pump being secured to said fixed frame and the other part of each pump being connected to and, movable with said combustion unit, the relative cylinder capacity of said pumps being selectively proportioned to the predetermined desired relative proportions of fuel and oxidizing agent in the combustion mixture but all of said pumps having the same stroke, supply and delivery connections to said pumps, and .a. check valve in eachpump part opening toward said combustion chamber.
ESTHER C. GODDARD, Executria: 0/ the Last Will and Testament of Robert H. Goddard, Deceased.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 575,498 Wright Jan. 19, 1897 760,843 Bland May 24, 1904 799,476 Lehmann Sept. 12, 1905 890,962 Cline June 16, 1908 1,291,032 Lesem Jan. 14, 1919 1,337,971 Watkins Apr. 20, 1920 1,398,452 Wagnon Nov. 29, 1921 1,529,409 Condra Mar. 10, 1925 2,124,462 Cummings July 19, 1938 2,129,875 Rost Sept. 13, 1938 2,352,891 Graves July 4, 1944