US 2537175 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 9, 1951 w. VlETS RATCHET TYPE SOCKET WRENCH Filed July 6, 1946 1 [mill INVENTOR; WALTER V1575 A Tram/BY Patented Jan. 9, 1951 UNITED STATE-S PATENT OFFICE RATCHET TYPESOCKET WRENCH Walter Viets, St. Louis, Mo.
Application Julyfi, 1946, Serial No. 681,687
1 This invention relates to improvements in ratchet wrenches, and more particularly to a side open socket wrench assembly which is particularly, but not exclusively, adapted to use on threaded fittings, forexample, the hexagon connections employed with high pre'ssuretubing, as in refrigerant and likesystems. a
There have heretoforebeen knownand utilized socket wrenches of ratchet type, in which both the wrench head and socket element are of side open type, enabling application of the wrench assembly laterally onto a. threaded fitting or nut, or alternately, lateral application of the assembly to a rod, tube or the like. As far as is known, wrenches of the type referred to are all subject to a defect or disadvantage, in that, when under ratchet operation, the pawl encounters the side recess in the socket, it may enter such recess and preclude further actuationof the fitting, at least without resetting the wrench thereon. Also noted as a series shortcoming is the fact that,
in conventional tools of the type noted, it has heretofore been impossible to actuate the socket element through a full turn without resetting re wrench. It is accordingly a major objective of the present improvements to obviate the noted inadequacies of existing ratchet wrench structures, and to enable, in a side-applicable wrench assembly, substantially a full revolution of the nut-engaging structure and to render possible such actuation by minor, angular movements of the lever or handle portion of the tool.
A further and important objective is realized in a wrench structure of the type referred to, and
such that, when used with fluid pressure connections, the socket will serve-as a shield to pro tect the operator against liquids or gases emitted under pressure from a loosened connection.
An additional important objective is realized in a ratchet wrench of socket type in which the socket element is extendedsubstantially beyond its ratchet portion, and is particularly conformed in such extended part to facilitate actuation of the socket by rotation within the wrench head, while axially positioned by the latter, all in a manner greatly to aid the starting application of a threaded connection such as a nut, or polygonal fittings generally.
A general object of the present improvements realized in a tool of the character referred to characterized by improved ease of pawl shift, better balance of the assembly, improved facilities for substitution of socket elements in the wrench head, and an improved design throughout the assembly.
2' Claims. (01. 81-63) limiting thedept-h of application of. the socket over anut or fitting received by the companion socket.
The foregoing and numerous other objects will appear from the following detailed decription of a presently preferred embodiment of the invention, as illustrated by the accompanying drawings, in which Fig. 1 is a plan view of a ratchet socket wrench assembly, as presently improved;
Fig. 2 is a side or edge elevation of the assembly of Fig. 1; 4
Fig. 3 is a top or plan view, with certain parts shown in section, the sectional portions being taken along line 3--3 of Fig. 2;
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken longitudinally of a double socket element, particularly as viewed along line 4'-4 of Fig. 2, and showing in dotted lines a high-pressure fluid connection of a nature particularly exemplifying certain functions of the improved socket; and
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig, 3, but showing the socket rotated relative to the wrench. head,
slightly beyond a half revolution, to illustrate the relation between the pawl and the side aperture of the socket structure.
Referring now by characters of reference to the drawings, the wrench structure of the present invention includes a handle 10 which may consist of an element of a flat metal stock, such as a suitable mild steel, or if desired, of tool steel or the like. The wrench head may be regarded as comprised of two spaced parallel plates, It and I 2, assembled to each other and to the handle ID as by a suitable plurality (shown as three) of fastening elements l3, l4 and IS. The plates and handle may be permanentlyjunited as by riveting although it is preferred, in order to facilitate interchange and substitution of sockets, to utilize machine screws or bolts in assembly, these being exemplified by the kerfed head screw elements shown, and provided with nuts engaging the opposite plate, suitable screw apertures such as I 6 and I! being provided in the component elements.
The two plates H and I2 are extended to form spaced component partsof an open'end wrench,
,pawl movement is lip:-
. of symmetrical form, provided with a central pivot aperture 24 through which extends the pin or screw (3 as a pawl pivot. The length of the pawl 23 in each direction from the pivot is such that in either limit of its movement, as hereafter described, an extension or finger piece projects laterallyjoeyond the head and is provided with ends 25 enabling ease .of pawl shift as by the forefinger of the hand grasping the wrench hardle. A spring 26 abuts the end face of the handle [0, and is retained by a positioning pin 2; at this end, and a similar positioning pin 38 Qiust op- 15 posite the pivoted zone of the pawl. length and loading of spring 26 are such that toggle relation exists, imparting maximum compression to the spring when the pawl is in a centeredor transverse position.
lment be complete-*- by the spring until the :[1 by its engagement with .the ratchet of the socket member, herein-after .described.
The pawl teeth are shown as four in number, two on each side of the pawl axis. An operative structure may consist of only two such pawl lteeth, each of which, indicated at 3|, will func- .tion selectively according to throw of the pawl,.30
the extension of the pawl endwise beyond each tooth.3l rendering it impossible for the pawl to the socket proper through the side opening thereof. Better results are, however, attained by theaddition of a further tooth 32 on each side,
by reason of which it will appear that, even though the recess of the socket fall opposite the pawl, the two teeth currently presented toward the,socket, will always be in position to engage the socket recess, or by a minor movement of the 40 its teeth to the ratchet teeth, and to the width of side opening of the socket, are such that in spite of the interruption of the band of ratchet teeth, the socket may be displaced by small angular step-by-step movements of the wrench head through a full circle of relative movement of the head and socket. Stated somewhat differently,
.the pawl, in either of its extreme positions will operatively and structurally bridge the gap or side opening in the socket. In most cases, when the side recess of the socket comes opposite the pawl, -one of the plurality, s own as two, of the pawl teeth will engage a ratchet tooth, either on one side or the other of the socket recess. In the occasional condition when neither of the adacent pawl teeth will engage, only a minor angular handle movement is necessary to cause resumption of pawl-and-ratchet actuation of the socket.
Referring now more particularly to the socket construction per se, this is in the form of an elongate tubular element, say of tool steel or other wear-resisting metal or alloy, shown in Figs. 2 and 4 as a. double socket element of much more than usual length. When utilized for lateral appllcation over a rod or tube, the socket structure is provided with a full length longitudinal recess 33. This is desirably of a width at least equal to that of the end opening 22 in the wrench head, and should be of a width to enable the wrench to be easily laterally applied, for example overthe 'length of. pressure tubing PT which, for illustra- 7 an engagementof a. next ratchet tooth, in prac- Thus as the pawl is shifted 20 .by forward movement ofgither end, such move- 4 tion, is assumed to be end-flared for connection to a rotatable internally threaded fitting F. The latter is secured in fluid tight relation to a male threaded fitting E1, the latter being sweated to a connected length of tubing PTI. Connections of this type are prevalent in the refrigeration industry.
It is preferred that each of the sockets 34 and 35 of the socket element, generally indicated at 36, be formed, for example, by breaching, and be mutuallyjangularly displaced or out'df-register to the maximum possible extent. In this manner, as will appear from Fig. 4, each socket formation provides an internal abutment for a fitting F received in the other socket, a construction presenting considerable production economies over the formation of a. separate internal annular collar 'or'abuunenti The double socket structure 36 is provided with a projecting interrupted band of ratchet teeth 40 which, in assembly. is received between and coacts in journalling relation with a. cylindrical aperture 4! in each of the jaws of the wrench head. It will be noted 'froni'Fig. 4 that the extent of protuberance 'of the band'of teeth is such as to assure a fixed axial position of the socket in the head, audit the same'time to permit free rotation of the socket in a. cylindrical aperture 4| of each of the jaws except, of course, as the socket and wrench are rotated together due to the action of the pawl;
It is preferred as a special convenience in manually starting to thread up the fitti imto provide the sockets 3t and 35 with a'greater than usual axial extension suchtliat each end thereof projects laterally beyond the ratchet portion, with a specially conformed outer surface. The type'of such surface is optional, but itshould at least be roughened as exemplified by the milling indicatedat l2.
One feature of the presently illustrated wrench is particularly useful when employed as an aid in manual starting of a. nut or fitting, although of value also under all conditions of usage of the tool, namely, an improved balance. Repeated experiments have shown that best balance is obtained when the parts are so proportioned that a center of gravity falls in a zone of the order of one third the distance from the free extremity of the wrench head to the opposite end of the wrench, being the full extremity of the handle.
The manner and advantages of'usage of the improved wrench assembly are believed to have been rendered fully apparent from the foregolng description. but it is briefly noted that for application as in refrigeration work, the openings 22 and 33 are brought into coincidence, the wrench applied endwfse toward. thence by preference laterally over the length of tubing PT. The chosen socket of the assembly 36 is then moved axially over the fitting F until the latter bottoms in the socket. Assuming it be desired to thread up the fitting, the pawl is moved to the position shown by Fig. 3, and with the handle H3 at a. right angle to the'tubing, the socket is 05 manually actuated through portions 42,'flrst utilizing the wrench onl as a. positioning agency. Upon further resistance by the fitting F, the wrench is oscillated in the usual manner so as to efiect a step-by-steo partial rotation of the socket, hence of the fitting. From Fig. 5 it will appear that after a half turn or so of the fitting at least certain of the pawl teeth will encounter the gap in the socket. However, due to the number and spacing of teeth there will still be enabled tically all cases by at least one of the operative pawl teeth, thus virtually eliminating the operative hiatus which would always exist with but a single operative pawl tooth. In the event ofan occasional failure of full operative bridge of the socket gap by the pawl teeth, only a very small angular movement, of much less arcuate extent than the socket gap, will quickly restore the pawl and ratchet teeth to operative relation Assuming now unthreading actuation of the fitting be desired the pawl is thrown to an op posite operative position,- and the fitting backed off from tightened relation. Occasionally, in emergency work, such fluid lines will remain under some pressure. The present preference in length of the socket structure is such that each socket is preferably of an order at least twice the actual length of the stardard fitting or nut to be en aged thereby. Thus the socket serves as a shield protecting the eyes, face and person of the operator, and even if a pressure fluid be released it will be constrained to flow along the tubing rather than outwardly therefrom, by the shielding effect of the elongate socket structure.
It will now have appeared that the tool as described will serve fully to attain the several objects enumerated, as well as other advantages implied from the foregoing description. Although,for completeness, the description has disclosed a preferred embodiment in detail, no limitation is thereby intended, because of the numerous variants possible within the intended scope of the claims hereto appended.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a socket wrench assembly, a wrench head and a handle connected therewith, a socket journaled in the head and having a side opening and ratchet teeth thereon, an elongated pawl extending transversely of the head substantially between the socket and the handle, means pivotally mounting the pawl on the head substantially midway of the length of the pawl, teeth on each end portion of the pawl in position for at least one of said teeth to engage the ratchet teeth and said teeth on each end portion of the pawl being in position to enter the side opening of the socket upon rotation of the socket to bring said opening into alignment with the teeth on one end of said pawl, and a handle on each outer end portion of the pawl projecting therefrom outwardly from the pawl teeth in position to bear against a side of the ratchet teeth and to limit entry of the pawl teeth into the side opening of the socket, one of said handles on each 9 end of the pawl projecting externally of the head in each position of the pawl for moving the pawl selectivel to different positions.
2. In a socket wrench assembly, a wrench head and a handle connected therewith, a socket journaled in the head and having a side opening and ratchet teeth thereon, an elongated pawl extending transversely of the head substantially between the socket and the handle, means pivotally mounting the pawl on the head substantially midway of the length of the pawl, teeth on each end portion of the pawl in position for at least one of said teeth to engage the ratchet teeth and said teeth on each end portion of the pawl being in position to enter the side opening of the socket upon rotation of the socket into alignment therewith, and a handle on each outer end portion of the pawl projecting therefrom outwardly from the pawl teeth in position to bear against a side of the ratchet teeth and to limit entry of the pawl teeth into the side opening of the socket. said handle on the pawl projecting externally of the head in one position of the pawl for moving the pawl selectively to difierent positions, the pawl teeth being arranged on the pawl in position to engage the ratchet teeth of the socket relatively close to the longitudinal plane through the wrench handle and through the axis of the socket, and a coiled spring bearing at one-end against an end of the handle and at the opposite end thereof against a side of the pawl substantially at the axis thereof in position to provide yieldable snap action on the pawl.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 603,377 Fitch May 3, 1898 917,904 Stewart Apr. 13, 1909 1,197,614 Duboish Sept. 12, 1916 1,289,558 Sedgley Dec. 31, 1918 1,475,834 Kadow Nov. 27, 1923 2,353,901 Jires July 18, 1944 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 13,448 Great Britain June 16, 1903