US 2538662 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 16, 1951 c. c. ABBOTT EXPENDABLE VALVE UNIT FOR SURGICAL APPLIANCES Filed Jan. 24, 1950 INVENTOR.
CHARLES C. ABBOTT Maw/ 2 ATTORNEY d w MAL. T \Y n //v/ ///////////Z x Q w /M E Patented Jan. 16, 1951 EXPENDABLE VALVE UNIT FOR SURGICAL APPLIANCES Charles 0. Abbott, Englewood Cliffs, N. J.
Application January 24, 1950, Serial No. 140,215
This invention relates to surgical apparatus for the intravenous administration of liquids, such as, whole blood, blood plasma, dextrose solutions, and the like, and is directed particularly to improved expendable valve unit constructions used in such apparatus.
Among the objects of the invention is to generally improve valve constructions of the character described, which shall comprise few and simple parts that are easily assembled yet rugged to withstand rough usage, which shall be cheap to manufacture from thermo-plastic resinous material as by injection molding in quantity production so that as a practical matter the article may be used only once and discarded, which shall be sensitive to minute changes in direction of flow at minimum velocity, which will be reliable in operation, which shall bereadily adapted. to provide valve and valve incorporating hypodermic needle constructions, and which shall be eificient and practical to a high degree in use.
Other objects of this invention will in part be obvious and in part hereinafter pointed out.
The invention accordingly consists in the features of constructions, combination of elements, and arrangement of parts which will be exemplified in the constructions hereinafter disclosed, the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the claims following.
In the accompanying drawing in which possible illustrative embodiments of the invention are shown,
Fig. 1 is a plan view of an assembly of a fluid delivery tube, expendable valve unit, and a hypodermic needle apparatus embodying the invention.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged cross sectional view taken on line 2--2 in Fig. 1 showing the valve unit in open position, the directional arrows indicating the flow of fluid toward the needle of said apparatus.
Figs. 3 and 4 are enlarged sectional views taken on lines 33 and d4, respectively, in Fig. 2 showing the cross sectional structure at an upper and lower portion, respectively, of the valve unit.
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view similar -to Fig. 2 but showing the valve unit in closed position, the directional arrows indicating momentary reverse pressure of fluid away from the Referring in detail to thedrawing, Ill denotes an apparatus constructed to embody the invention such as may be employed for the intravenous administration of physiological fluids from a delivery container (not shown) in any well known manner. Said apparatus It may comprise a delivery tube or hose H detachably connected to a valve unit l l, and hypodermic needle N demountably secured to terminate said valve unit ll, the latter being so arranged to permit the free flow of said fluids only in one direction, that is, toward the needle N and preventing backing up or draining of body fluids in an opposite direction.
As seen in Fig. 2, valve unit H may comprise an inlet member l2 which connects with delivery hose H at one end 12a of said member [2 and formed with a male coupling portion 22) at the other end thereof, a floating "gate 53 having a projecting stem Km, and a bonnet outlet fitting M which is detachably mounted on said coupling portion 12b to extend therefrom and to restrict floating gate l3, to limit movement thereof in an enclosed chamber 15 within unit H, as is clear from Figs. 2 and 5.
Inlet member l2 may be an elongated tubular.-
structure having an axial through-bore 520, said member l2 being of less outside diameter at hose connecting end I2a than at coupling end l2b..
m Said bore I20 terminates within the coupling end [212 in an outwardly tapering surface [2d to provide a seat for a corresponding shaped rim closure surface [31) provided on gate l3, as shown,
in Figs. 2 and 5.
Coupling end l2b of member [2 may be cut back on the exterior thereof as at [2e to provide shoulder abutment l 2 and for forming a frictionally retained tight joint with end and interior surfaces Ma of outlet fitting l4.
Bonnet outlet fitting M, as seen in Figs. 1 and 2, may have a tubular wall of substantially uniform thickness extending about an axial bore Mb which is expanded at one end, that is, a female end portion, to form with said joint forming surfaces I la said frictionally retained tight joint. Said fitting l4, when mounted on coupling end iZb, provides the enclosed chamber 15 in which gate it freely operates for said limited movement. Fitting l4 may have an intermediate neck i lc adjoining said expanded end, said neck I40 being extended into a relatively short tapering outlet portion Md sized and shaped to fric tionally fit inlet end E ofhypodermic needle N opposite beveled pointed end P. Said axial bore [417, if desired and as here shown, aligns with axial bore I2c, the latter preferably being of larger cross sectional area than bore Mb.
Gate I 3 may be disc shaped having said closure surface I31) formed on one side thereof and said stem I3a of polygonal cross section integrally formed therewith to upstand from the same side of gate I3 as closure surface I3b. Said stem I3a is loosely fitted to extend in bore I22 and as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, when of triangular crosssection, is sized to be inscribed in said bore I20, the longitudinally extending edges of stem I3a serving as a centralizing guide for keeping floating gate [3 in registering alignment in opening and closing operations thereof. The side opposite closure surface [3?) may be formed with hollow I3c to reduce the efiective weight of floating gate I3.
To limit the free movement of gate I3 in chamber I5 and to bring said gate I3 into most efiicient operating position in bonnet fitting It, chamber I5 may be provided with a plurality of spaced apart integrally formed fins Idle projecting radially inwardly from the tubular wall thereof in the intermediate neck Hie, said fins Me having edges I l longitudinally dispose; in alignment with bore i ib of outlet portion lad, thereby providing spaced apart passageways communicating directly said chamber I5 and bore Mb, said gate I3 being of overall smaller diameter than the interior diameter of space in chamber I5 wherethrough said gate I3 moves in the operation thereof as is clear from Figs. 2 and 5.
After forming the parts as described above by injection molding from thermoplastic resin, as for example, polystyrene, nylon or any other suitable material, the valve unit II may be readily assembled by inserting stem Ilia of gate I3 into bore I and then coupling end no of member I2 with expanded end of outlet fitting It, the edge thereof engaging shoulder abutment I2 to provide said frictionally retained tight joint therebetween. If desired in order to further secure said joint against accidental separation and to form an additional seal an elastic rubber band or a suitable adhesive tape means R may be positioned to overlie the jointure of shoulder abutment I2 and expanded end of outlet fitting I t'.
Valve unit H can, if desired, then be sterilized in any suitable well understood manner either by chemical agents such as alcohol or by heating in an autoclave, and packed in a sterile package ready for use.
The operation of valve unit II will be apparent. After assembling the parts as described above, sterile valve unit Ii is easily mounted in position in surgical apparatus It by inserting inlet member end I254 into hose H and outlet portion led into inlet end E of hypodermic needle N. Needle N is then inserted for delivery of a physiological fiuid into the body and as long as fluid pressure now is maintained in the direction of the arrows shown in Fig. 1, gate I3 will assume an open position against fins Hie permitting a flow of the fluid through needle N into the body. Upon release of pressure a reversal of the direction of flow takes place and gate is will be displaced from the open position shown Fig. 2 to a fully closed position shown in Fig. 5. In order to increase the sensitivity of the operation of valve unit II, in all relative positions so that the slightest reversal of flow will close gate the space size in passageways IE between stem I3a and wall of bore I2c may be of capillary tube dimensions so that the flow of fluid in said reverse direction will act to draw gate I3 closed by socalled capillary attraction on the stem I301 to augment the pressure force applied directly to gate I3 by said reverse fiow of fluid.
It has been found that valve unit I I of a practical size substantially like that shown in Fig. 1, bore I20 of about one eighth of an inch in diame ter when used with stem i3a of substantially triangular cross-section inscribed within a circle of slightly less diameter, and said stem 130. having a length of about one half of an inch renders satisfactory results.
A modified form of the invention is shown in Fig. 6 in which instead of making the needle N detachable from valve unit II a base holder 24 is provided of suitable plastic material with a metallic needle 26 permanently mounted to extend therefrom, said needle being of any conventional construction. As here shown a flared anchored end 26a of needle 26 may be embedded in an end 26d of base holder 24 having a throughpassage Z lb which aligns with axial bore of needle 26. Like in bonnet outlet fitting I4 above described, base holder 2:; may be formed with fins Z Ie radially spaced with respect to throughpassage 2% and base holder interior portion 24a frictionally fitted to coupling portion I21) against shoulder abutment I21 to provide a chamber I5 in which gate I3 operates so that, when closed, closure surface I3b fits against seating surface lid and gate stem ISa extends into bore I20 of inlet member I2.
Modified form of the invention shown in Fig. 6 may be assembled, sterilized and packaged as described above for valve unit II and will oper-.
ate in a similar manner as a combined valve and needle unit.
By making valve unit I I or said modification of a transparent thermoplastic resinous material, except needle N, a so-called unbreakable unit is provided and the flow of fluid through the surgical apparatus It will be visible at all times.
It will thus be seen that there are provided expendable valve unit constructions for surgical appliances whereby the several objects of this invention are achieved and which are well adapted to meet the conditions of practical use.
As various possible embodiments might be made of the above invention, and as various changes might be made in the embodiments above set forth, it is to be understood that all matter herein set forth or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense but any permissible change must fall within the purview of the claims in this application.
Having thus described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent:
1. A surgical device of the character described comprising an inlet member formed with an axial bore of substantially uniform cross-section, a tapering hose engaging portion at one end of said member and a male coupling portion of enlarged cross-section with respect to said hose engaging portion terminating in a valve seat surrounding an inner end of said bore at the other end of said member, a bonnet outlet fitting formed with a tubular wall of substantially uniform thickness having a female end portion extending over said male coupling portion to form a tight joint therebetween, said female end portion enclosing a valve chamber therein beyond said valve seat, a floating gate moveably mounted Within said chamber, having a stem of polygonal cross-section extend-' ing part way into said inlet member bore, a sur face of said gate disposed with relation to said valve seat for opening and closing communication between said chamber and said inlet member bore, said bonnet outlet fitting having an axial bore extending from said chamber through an outlet end portion and formed with a neck intermediate said female end portion and said outlet end portion, spaced apart fins integrally formed within said neck, said fins each having edges in longitudinal alignment with said outlet portion bore, said fins having edges extending transverse the chamber for limiting the free movement of said gate, the wall of said inlet member bore and the polygonal contour surfacesof said stem forming passageways therebetween of capillary dimensions along said inlet member bore, and a hypodermic needle having an axial bore mounted on said bonnet fitting outlet end portion with said needle bore in direct aligned communication with said bonnet fitting bore.
2. The surgical device as defined in claim 1 in i which said needle is of conventional construction, said bonnet fitting outlet end portion being tapered to size and shape to form a frictional coupling joint for said mounting of the needle thereon.
3. A valve unit of the character described comprising an inlet member formed with an axial bore of substantially uniform cross-section, a tapering hose engaging portion at one end of said member and a male coupling portion of enlarged cross-section with respect to said hose engaging portion terminating in a valve seat surrounding an inner end of said bore at the other end of said member, a bonnet outlet fitting formed with a tubular wall of substantially uniform thickness having a female end portion extending over said male coupling portion to form a tight joint therebetween, said female end portion enclosing a valve chamber therein beyond said valve seat, a floating gate moveably mounted within said chamber having a stem of polygonal cross-section extending part way into said inlet member bore, a surface of said gate disposed with relation to said valve seat for opening and closing communication between said chamber and said inlet member bore, said bonnet outlet fitting having an axial bore of smaller cross-section than said inlet member bore extending from said chamber through an outlet end portion and formed with a neck intermediate said female end portion and said outlet end portion, spaced apart fins integrally formed within said neck to project radially inwardly thereof, said fins each having edges in longitudinal alignment with said outlet portion bore, said fins having edges extending transverse the chamber for limiting the free movement of said gate, the wall of said inlet member bore and the polygonal contour surfaces'oi' said stem forming passageways therebetween of capillary dimensions along said inlet member bore.
4. A valve unit as defined in claim 3 in which said bonnet outlet fitting terminates in a hypodermic needle having an axial bore in direct alignment with said fitting bore.
5. In a surgical device of the character described, a one-piece bonnet fitting having a tubular wall of substantially uniform thickness formed with an expanded female end portion for extending over a male coupling portion to form a valve chamber therein, said fitting having an intermediate neck and an outlet end portion formed with an axial bore extending therethrough from said chamber, spaced apart fins formed within said neck to project radially inwardly therefrom below said chamber, said fins each having edges in longitudinal and radial alignment with said outlet portion bore, and a hypodermic needle having an axial bore terminating said bonnet fitting with said bores in alignment.
6. In a surgical device as defined in claim 5, in which said bonnet fitting is a molded structure, having an end of the hypodermic needle permanently anchored in said outlet end portion.
CHARLES C. ABBOTT.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 789,092 Hulett May 2, 1905 1,094,685 Spangler -l--- Apr. 28, 1914