US 2539284 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
. W. THOMAS Jan. 23, 1951 GOGGLES F-iledOct; 18, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 llllllllll .Il
. /IIlIIIIII BELLQWS INVENTOR ,0V/H650 #0M/m" T RNEY Jan. -23, 1951 w. THOMAS 2,539,284
y GOGGLES Filed Oct. 18, 1945 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 "lll" lll 52 Patented Jan. 23, 1951 UNITED: STA-r laf-.s PATENT oFF-ICE GOGGLES;
Wilfdl-Thnmas, Albany, N. Y.1v
Application October :18, 1945; lSeriaLN 012.622,'958
2 claims...i (clizia-14');l
Thisfinvention relates to goggles such: as; are :j usediibyf aviators andL others t'o protect the:4 eyes a either against extreme atmospheric;temperatures conditions .for against smokeyzdust, or otherzfoneignzmatter: Goggles `of..this..type usually have ar.,
ing,.1the:lens-frames or vholdersuin proper;A sight: re'lationtoctheteyes;` Such ani-arrangement. nec.- essari'lyfcreates. conditions Withinfxthe maslrthat-v are;` aptstoV cause foggingorifrosting of. the' lenses unless :some provision. be s-made to..preven'tfsuch1-` fo'ggngj or frosting., as, foriexample'; vby .circulat-fv ing-:ain: through thefmask land over thezlenses.
attachments..y which" are annoying Itorthe wearerv andvwhichsometimes are so located as` to-interfereawith his 'clearvision' Thespresentiinventioni aims to provide.non1-A fogg-ing and non-frosting goggles .for aviators.'
andfthe likeflwhich' are soifconstructed and arir rangedfthaanotonly areftheigoggles comfort-1` able :to2 wear?- and offer a4 minimuml of-1 interfer Y en'i'zel With the v/'earerfs Vision; but 'the f frostandil fog preventing 'circulationl of. air .overzthewlenses oifithe.1 goggles-requires; noiv special` outside: connections kand is. unconsciously brought aboutbytheawearer': himself '.'through mechanical Imeans remotelfr'om the gogglesand Operatedby normalf and unconsciously effected movement of'pants ofthe-body; as`,i.forfiexample, in respiration.
The amount. of'. air,V if .properly conditioned;V that mustlbecirculated through themask.and-n over thelenses-ofgoggles,.such as those to whichl the-invention particularly relates', to prevent the deposition! and accumulation of Ymoisture on the.' lenses,l isv not very greatV but it is' importanti -asjustsuggested, that thisair be sov conditioned "as notte-contribute' to :the deposition and accumulationy ofmoisture upon th'etlensesand-thatit also-be so conditioned asnot to causeiniury tov theeyes. This isparticularly true at high' alti*- tudes Vwhereextremen? cold air isencountered andwher'efit isimportantV that the cold -air be.: no'tso /introducedinto the circulating system"V thatlitwillfdirectlyimpi-nge upon the eyes.
Anrobject/of the. present invention is Lto pro-Iv vide'jforsuch treatment cfvtheair which" is vto be` circulated throughv the-'mask and over thelenses of.v the :goggles-ofi the presentinventionf that noti only-Will the :circulating airfbe at a1comfortable.v
temperature-but it .willbesto.alargerdegree .freedf fronnany moisture Which. :itlhas :brought with `:it
of.air. through a gogglefmask'- which can be so located. as nottoH interfere in` any,A-Way Withythe wearers vision or with the` normall functioning@ ofv his body butv which nevertheless can. bei' actuated bypthose` movements of thebodywhichf take.placeunconsciously, as in respiration;v To:v
this end the invention contemplates `the provision of mechanical air pumping means,v such,; for. example., as a bellows, that can .be actuated .by the movements of. the diaphragm in breathing.
Other-objects and' important features of. the invention to which attention has not hereinabove specically been directed will n appear hereinafterfwhenthe `following description and.
claims areY considered in connection. with. theY ac. companying drawingsin which-um Figure .lgis a front. View of vthe goggles part proper of. thezpresent invention-g Figure l2 is'` a section; on*l the :line 2--2V of Figi;- ure".=1;
Figure 3 4is aIfvieW: showingtheycomplete aiu;r circulatingisystem-,With elements thereof shownA inrse'ctiony Figu1e"4.1,-shows fafvestzor pinnerfgarment, whicln. may be Lworn -`by' theiaviator tosupport the fbelfff lows; hygroscopic. i filter and air ,heater of` the f-iar.; conditioning and circulating systenifinrsuitahlef.r
relations `itc vthe body, .both ifor xactuationofthe mechanical; circulating means andmfor eifectingf` the heatingiof.:theccirculating airY throughfbody;
Figure. 5 isfafsectionon the line 5.5 ofxthe;
coupling vmeans'shovvn. in'` Figure 3, and."
Figure 6 is aview similar to FigY 3v showing a circulating. system comprisingra f single. unitv for.; eiecting'thefcirculation over both-of Vthe goggle#v lenses as Ydistinguished froml the:` dual; system' shown in Figure' 3;.1
In theillustrative embodiment of the invention: thelensesZo-fithe' goggles are shown asmountedli' in i obliquely arranged substantiallyV rectangular.v` lensr-frames'd which` may be-of 'metal' or. other 'suitable materiaLth'ese frames inturnbeing sup-n,
esegesi ported, as shown in Figure 2, in a mask E, preferably of some plastic material of low heat conductivity. Further to protect the face of the wearer from rapid conduction of heat away from the face and also to insure an air-tight lit between the mask and the face there is interposed between the mask 6 and the face an inflatable flexible air cushion 8 of rubber or other suitable plastic which is provided with an inflation nipple i@ having therein the usual pressure retaining valve. The nipple li) is shown as so located that a comparatively short hose l2 connected thereto can be brought to the mouth of the wearer of the mask after the mask has been placed in position on his face and the cushion 8 inated by the wearer by blowing through the hose I2.
Straps i4 and I6 provided with a buckle I3 and hinged at 2li on the lens frames 4 provide for securing the goggles in position on the face of the wearer after which inflation of the cushion 8 can be effected to insure the air-tight fit.
As shown in Figure 2, the lenses 2 are curved to correspond substantially to the curvature of the eye. However, to prevent direct radiation from the body to the lenses 2, and vice versa, and direct passage of moisture from the body to the lenses, one or more baiiles are preferably interposed between the lenses 2 and the eyes. As shown in Figure 2, two baiiies 22 and 24, which may be formed of transparent plastic, are interposed between each lens 2 and the eye, these baffles 22 and 24 being carried in frames 2B and 28, respectively, which mayl also be of plastic material, the frame 2B being adapted to nest within the frame 26 and the nested frames being adapted to fit within the frame 4 which supports the lenses 2, the frames 25 and 23 being suciently elastic to allow the easy insertion and removal of either one or both bales for cleaning, etc. In some cases no baffle will be needed and in such an event both can be removed.
As shown in Figures 1 and 2, nipples 35 and 32 are provided on each of the lens frames 4 for connection thereto of hose or tubing from the mechanical air circulating means to insure circulation of air over the lenses 2 and through the mask. As shown particularly in Figure 2, the nipple 32 may have two connections to the interior of the lens frame 4, one in front of either one or both bafes 22 and 2li and the other behind these bailles and similarly the nipple 3i] may have two similar connections to the frame 4 thus causing the warmer'air inthe mask to bedrawn from the mask from behind the baies and the cold air to be withdrawn therefrom infront of the bales, thereby tending to keep the air of olifferent temperatures from mingling and bringing the Warmer part of the mixture to the dew point in the lens frame.
As also shown in Figure 2, the baiiles 22 and 24` are so mounted in their frames 26 and 28v that they do not entirely fill the frames, the bale 22 being shown as stopping short of the bottom of theframe 26 and the baiile 24- being shown as stopping short of the top of the frame 28.
'As hereinabove suggested, means operated by bellows.
normal| unconsciously effected movements of i parts of the body, such as the diaphragm in breathing, are employed to effect mechanical circulation of the air through the mask and over`- the lenses and baliles, the illustrated means comprising a bellows mechanism arranged to be lccated over the abdomen of the aviator or other wearer of the goggles so that the distension and contraction of the abdomen incident to the move-v 4 ments of the diaphragm in breathing will effect the collapsing and permit the expansion of the bellows to insure positive circulation of air through the system now to be described. The bellows shown in Figure 3 is of dual construction and comprises three relatively movable members 34, and 38 hinged together at their lower ends and connected by accordion folds and 42, the bellows being held normally in its open position by springs 44 and 46 located respectively between the members 34 and 36 and the members 36 and 38. The two chambers of the bellows have a common intake 48 through the central member 36 and, as shown in Figure 3, one branch 50 from the intake 48 is provided with a check valve 52 allowing flow of air only into the bellows and the other branch 54 is provided with a check valve 56 allowing for flow of air only out 0f the rIhus when the bellows is collapsed air is forced up through the tube 58 connected to the check Valve 56 and When the bellows' is expanded air is drawn down through the tube 8l! connected to the check valve 52.
Since one of the purposes of the invention is' may be of any suitable construction. The illustrative filter comprises a casing 62 screwed into a cap 64 having an intake 65 which extends to the bottom of the casing 52 and an outlet SB'.
connected to the tube Si). A removable cartridge 10 of suitable hygroscopic material is so located in the casing 62 that air introduced into the bottom of the casing through the inlet tube 65 must pass up through this hygroscopic material by which any moisture in the air is absorbed before f it passes out through the outlet 68 at the top of the casing. The cartridge 'i0 may be retained in proper position in the casing 62 by any suitable means such, for example, as a nut l2 threaded upon the bottom of the intake tube 66.
Since the capacity of the circulating air forvv picking up moisture will vary with its temperature as well as its dryness and since it is important that air that is not too cold be circulated through the mask in the region of the eyes, provision is preferably made for heating the air in the circuit. In most cases this may be done merely by providing heating means which receives its heat from the body. As shown in Figure 3, the heat exchanger 74, which may comprise a substantially fiat chamber having a considerable surface area in comparison to its thickness so that it can be inserted within the pocket of the garment worn by the aviator or othern goggle user, has a nipple 16 at one end, to which#V :'the tube 58 is connected, and a nipple '58 at its other end to which the tube 88 is connected By reason of the greater cross sectional dimension of the path of travel of the air through the f heat exchanger l, the movement of the air therethrough will be slowed down considerably, thus permitting it to absorb body heat conducted tive material such as copper.
To this end, as shown in Figure 3,
of the air through the heat exchanger 14, may be provided therein.
When goggles embodying the present invention are used by aviators, for example, who move from regions of comparatively high atmospheric pressure to regions of comparatively low atmospheric pressure and vice versa, it will be apparent that some provision should be made for equalizing the pressure in the system. To this end each of the goggle frames 4 is preferably provided with a bleed hcle 82. Provision is also made for providing make-up air in the system. As herein shown, an intake valve 84 may be provided in the lower end of the casing 62, this valve being constructed to permit flow of air only into the casing and being so located that any air drawn into the system must pass through the hygroscopic lter cartridge before it is driven through the mask and over the lenses.
Various arrangements of the connections between the circulating means comprising the bellows and the mask may be made, the one illustrated in Figure 3 requiring duplicate elements, that is, two air heaters '14, two hygroscopic filters 62 and two bellows. In Figure 6 is shown a circulating system in which only one bellows, one hygroscopic filter and one heater are required.
In the form shown in Figure 3, each lens has an independent circuit, the air from the nipple 30 being drawn out of the system through the exible tube or hose 86 and the heated and treated air being introduced into the nipple 32 through the flexible tube or hose 88. In order that the head part of the system may be placed upon the head independently of its connection to the body part of the system, a special coupling, such as shown in Figure 5, is provided, this coupling comprising an upper part 90 having two pairs of nipples 92 and 94, connected, respectively, to the tubes or hose 86 and 88, the lower part of the coupling 96 having two pairs of nipples 98 and |00 connected, respectively, to the tube |02 leading to the filter intake 66 and to the tube 80 from the heater 14. It will be seen that a bayonet joint |04 permits the separation of the two parts of the coupling and their reconnection after the head part of the system has been connected to the head and the body part has been placed in the proper position on the body.
In the arrangement shown in Figure 6, which is a much simpler arrangement, the nipple 32 of one lens frame is connected by a hose or tube |04 to the nipple 32 of the other lens frame and the nipple 30 of the first mentioned lens frame is directly connected to the intake valve 52 of the bellows, the nipple 30 of the other lens fra-me being connected to the discharge 68 of the hygroscopic lilter 62. As also shown in Figure 6, the nipple 18 of the heater 'i4 is connected through a hose |06 to the intake 66 of the hygroscopic lter and the other nipple 16 of the heater 14 is connected through a hose |08 to the discharge valve 56 of the bellows.
From the foregoing description it will be seen that not only does the invention provide improved means for preventing the fogging of the lenses of protective goggles but that, unlike any devices having similar purposes in the prior art, the goggle protecting device of the present invention is wholly independent of any apparatus outside of the wearer of the goggles and also wholly independent of what the wearer is doing or of his condition at any particular time so long as he is alive and breathing. The invention is therefore particularly useful in the aviation field where blackout or other temporary incapacity of the wearer of the goggles would render prior self-contained goggle conditioning means wholly inoperative or where disconnection from an outside supply of conditioning iluid would be equally disastrous.
What is claimed as new is:
1. Non-fogging goggles comprising lenses and frames therefor, a face fitting and external air excluding mask for supporting said lens frames in proper sight relation to the eyes, said lens frames being provided with intake and exhaust ports arranged to direct circulating air over said lenses, and mechanical means connected to said lens frame ports and designed to be arranged, when in use, to be operated by continuously occurring and unconsciously effected movements of parts of the body to cause a positive circulation of air through said lens frames, a plurality of transparent baffles dimensioned and arranged to intercept any direct radiation between the eyes and the lenses being carried by each lens frame between its lens and the eye protected thereby.
2. Non-fogging goggles comprising lenses and frames therefor, a face fitting and external air excluding mask for supporting said lens frames in proper sight relation to the eyes, said lens frames being provided with intake and exhaust ports arranged to direct circulating air over said lenses, and mechanical means connected to said lens frame ports and designed to be arranged, when in use, to be operated by continuously occurring and unconsciously effected movements of parts of the body to cause a, positive circulation of air through said lens frames, two transparent baliies between eachA eye and its appropriate lens being so dimensioned and supported in the respective lens frames that direct radiation between the eye and the lens is prevented and that circulating air passes over one edge of one baiiie and over the opposite edge of the other in each frame.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 996,135 Poe June 27, 1911 1,256,012 Gossack Feb. l2, 1918 1,654,925 Drager Jan. 3, 1928 1,989,876 Meyrowitz 1 Feb. 5, 1935 2,099,464 Bruner Nov. 16, 1937 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 13,349 Great Britain 1885