US 2539457 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 30, 1951 c. E. METHENY EI'AL 2,539,457
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR COLORING OLEOMARGARINE Filed May 26, 194
INVEN TOR. 61 YOE 5. N5 THEN) Leo/v R ALEXANDER Br .SrA/VLE r TURNER ain 7m amdhu 514M A 7 roe/v5 rs Patented Jan. 30, 1951 METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR COLORING OLEOMABGARINE Clyde Mctheny, San Diego, Leon R. Alexander, Los Angcles, and Stanley Turner, Santa Monica,
Application May 28, 1948, Serial No. 29,214
This invention relates to a method and means for mixing coloring material with oleomargarine, and more particularly to a method and means of incorporating the coloring material within the cake for enabling the coloring to be performed by a kneading operation.
The current method of supplying oleomargarine with coloring material intended for manipulation at home in one pound packages, is to aflix a breakable capsule containing the coloring material in liquid form to the inner surface of a polyethylene container. The capsule is sufliciently strong to retain the coloring material out of contact with the oleomargarine during shipment, but is adapted to be broken when kneaded, so that the coloring material is then dispersed through the body of the oleomargarine.
However, the use of such a method has necessi-.
tated the construction of a special pocket in the polyethylene bag, has required the insertion of the capsule by hand into the pocket and has thennecessitated a filling of the bag by a hand operation prior to being sealed and wrapped. Thus. the hand operations'have interrupted what previously was an entirely mechanized operation, and have required the oleomargarine to be extruded into the bag in a semi-liquid state instead of being handled as .a solid bar. Such added operations have increased the expense of manufacture to such an extent as to require an increase in the retail price of 3 to 6 per pound over oleomargarine of comparable quality.
An object of the present invention is to devise a method by means of which the dispersal of the coloring material through the body of the oleomargarine may be accomplished by a kneading operation, without necessitating a hand operation for filling the package and without requiring a specially constructed package.
An additional object of the present invention is to provide a method of inserting a pre-determined quantity of coloring material into a bar of oleomargarine while the bar is maintained in relatively hard condition, whereby the operation may be performed mechanically, after which the bar may be slid into an open-ended tube of polyethylene which is then sealed by heat at both ends. The invention therefore contemplates the use of coloring material in such form and substance as will remain intact during shipment, but which will be adapted for ready dispersal into the body of the oleomargarine upon kneading.
In the drawings, Figure 1, is a perspective view of a package of oleomargarine having our invention embodied therein; Figure 2 is a transverse section through the oleomargarine, illustrating one form of device for holding the coloring material; Figure 3 is a cross-sectional view, showing a modified form of assembly of the coloring material within the body of the oleomargarine, and Figure 4 is a perspective view showing the package being kneaded during the color-mixing operation.
In the drawings, in indicates the wrapper for the cake H of oleomargarine. The wrapper comprises a tube or sheath of polyethylene or analogous material, which is capable of being sealed at each end after the oleomargarine has been inserted therein. Such plastic material should be flexible, translucent and sufllciently sturdy as to permit wrinkling during the kneading of the contents without breaking or tearing. The sealing *of the ends I! may be accomplished by the application of heat. I
By the present invention coloring material is first placed within a soft dispersable capsule l5 so that it may be handled as a unit independently of the cake of oleomargarine. The capsule is then inserted into a depression or pocket It within the cake by a mechanical operation so as not to project beyond the outer surface of the cake, and then the cake with the capsule therein is inserted or slid as a-unit into the wrapper, which is thereafter sealed as aforesaid.
Any certified, oil-soluble food coloring dye may be used such as benzeneazo-b-naphthylamine. milligrams of such powdered dye is suflicient to color one pound of oleomargarine. The capsule is preferably composed of an edible gelatine which may comprise a solution of 7% to 10% U. S. P. Food Gelatine in water. When the gelatine is chilled it becomes sufiiciently rigid so that 1 cubic centimeter of it will be adequate to contain the dye.
It has been found however that when the dryoil-soluble dye is placed in the soft gelatine capsule without other additives, the dye will absorb water from the surrounding gelatine, so that later when it is dispersed through the body of the oleomargine, it does not readily mix with the oil phase due to its water content. It has been discovered, however, that this result can be avoided by mixing with the dye an edible oil such as cottonseed oil, soya bean oil, peanut oil, etc. preferably in amount to form a thick, nonflowable, smooth paste. Such paste will not be disadvantageously eilected by the surrounding gelatine wall when the capsule is dispersed through the oleomargarine. In such form it is As noted earlier, an outstanding problem of the 1 prior art, has centered around the difliculty of keeping the coloring matter separate from the body of the oleomargarine until it is desired to mix it therewith. This is due to the fact that since the oleomargarine is a water-in-oil emulsion, the oil-soluble dye, when afforded any con-- tact at all with the oleomargarine, will in time migrate or spread through the entire mass.
Accordingly, another feature of the present invention embraces the provision of a coloring composition which will not spread by itself through the body of the oleomargarine and hence need not be walled off therefrom but may be merely inserted into the block of oleomargarine without any protective capsule or container, as shown at I8 in Fig. 3. This coloring composition is based on the use of a dye which is water-soluble and not oil-soluble so that it must be mechanically distributed through the oleomargarine in order to color it. In other words, the dye colors the water phase rather than the oil phase of the emulsion. It will be apparent however, that whatever phaseis colored, this phase imparts color to the whole as far as appearance to the eye is concerned.
Any yellowish or butter-colored water-soluble, food coloring certified by the U. S. Department of Agriculture is applicable, For example, one may use a 3 to 1 mixture of Marigoline Yellow A-4890, 47% com. and Vitroline Yellow A-5690, 57% conc., these particular grades being commercially available. Another commercially applicable dye is National Aniline Sunset Yellow No. l.
It is desirable to incorporate a coagulant or bodying agent with the water dispersible dye in order to facilitate its subsequent dispersion through the mass upon later manipulation of the cake of oleomargarine, since when the material is free-flowing, it is difiicult to work it into the cake. Such thickening agents are, for example, gelatine, or the natural gums such as tragacanth, lucust bean, karaya, quince seed, carrageen, acacia, etc.
However, a preferred thickening agent is waterdispersible methylcellulose, known commercially as Methocel. This is particularly advantageous for the present purpose because it increases in viscosity upon heating so that it thereby affords a safety factor in preventing migration of the color into the cake of oleomargarine prior to kneading. In addition, Methocel will not support mold formation.
Commercially obtainable grades of Methocel vary in viscosity from 10 cps. to 4000 cps. (at C.) and the latter (pharmaceutical grade) is employed for the present purpose, although grades of higher or lower viscosity could also be used. In practice, the quantity of water used is first heated to about 85-90 C., the coloring mat ter introduced, and then the Methocel added. While the mixture is kept at this temperature, it is passed through a colloid mill or otherwise manipulated to thoroughly disperse the Methocel and eliminate any lumps. It is then allowed to cool, whereupon it sets to a rigid gel.
With any of the above coagulants (or mixtures thereof) the water-miscible coloring composition is generally formed with the following proportions by weight:
. Percent Water about 90- 94 Coagulant about 3.5- 6 Water-soluble dye about 2.5-4.5
It will be realized however, that these amounts can vary outside of these ranges, for example, depending upon the viscosity of the coagulant, the intensity of the dye, etc.
As a rule, the oil and water phases of oleomargarine will separate at a temperature of about 114-l20 F. That is, the emulsion will break down. Accordingly, samples of oleomargarine into which portions of the above coloring composition had been injected at a particular location without any protective capsules or containers, were held at temperatures over 100 F. and no migration of color was observed over a period of several months. A like result, of course, obtained at lower temperatures.
After the water soluble coloring material is treated as aforesaid, it may then be introduced into a depression within the cake of oleomargarine, either onto the surface of the cake or anywhere within the interior thereof in one mechanical operation. Thereupon the cake, having the coloring matter inserted therein, is
' inserted into the open polyethylene tube, and
the ends of the tube are sealed by the application of heat, as indicated at 20 and 2| respectively in Figure 1.
In all forms of the present invention, the mixture of the coloring material with the oleomargarine is accomplished by kneading the mass, as illustrated in Figure 4, the material being worked with the fingers and preferably against a rigid surface. After the cake has been kneaded for a sufficient length of time to effect a thorough mixing, it may then be shaped into a square or rectangular shape corresponding to the packing in which it was originally received, and then can be placed in the refrigerator and chilled to form a rigid mass.
It is therefore seen that in all of the forms of the present invention, the coloring matter introduced into the body of the oleomargarine is prevented from spreading therethrough before kneading, by a non-permeable wall. In the case of the oil-soluble dye, that wall is the gelatine capsule. In the case of the water-soluble dye, the wall is the continuous or outer oil-phase of the water-in-oil emulsion.
The invention claimed is:
1. In the preparation of uncolored oleomar garine for subsequent coloring by kneading or mixing a portion of edible coloring material therewith, the improvement comprising: introducing into a body of said oleomargarine, a predetermined quantity of coloring composition which will not spread through the body without kneading or mixing, said composition containing as an essential ingredient a water-soluble dye, and a stabilizing agent.
2. In the preparation of uncolored oleomargarin'e for subsequent coloring by kneading or mixing a portion of edible coloring material therewith, the improvement comprising: introducing into a body of said oleomargarine, a predetermined quantity of a coloring composition assaes'r Percent Water about 90 -94 coagulant about 3.5- 6 Dye about 2.5- 4.5
7. The improvement of claim 2 wherein said composition consists by weight essentially 01' Percent Water about 90 -94 Methylcellulose about 3.5 6 Dye about 2.5- 4.5
8. A body of uncolored oleomargarine containing therein a predetermined quantity of a coloring composition which will not spread through the body by itself and is adapted to color said body upon kneading or mixing therewith, said composition containing as an essential ingredient a water-soluble dye, and a stabilizing agent.
9. A body of uncolored oleomargarine containing therein a predetermined quantity of a coloring composition which will not spread through the body by itself and is adapted to color said body upon kneading or mixing therewith, which composition comprises water, a water-soluble dye, and an edible, water-miscible coagulant in amount sufllcient to form a plastic mass with the dye and water.
10. The oleomargarine of claim 9 wherein said coagulant comprises gelatine.
11. The oleomargarine of claim 9 wherein said coagulant comprises methycellulose.
12. The oleomargarine of claim 9 wherein said composition consists by weight essentially of Percent Water about 90 -94 coagulant about 3.5- 8 Dye about 2.5- 4.5
13. The oleomargarine of claim 9 wherein said composition consists by weight essentially oi Percent Water about 90 -94 Methylcellulose about 3.5- 6 Dye about 2.5-4.5
'14. A composition suitable for coloring oleomargarine upon being kneaded or mixed therewith, and being adapted to be contained in the body of the oleomargarine prior to kneading without spreading through the same, which composition comprises water, a water-soluble dye, and an edible, water-miscible coagulant in amount suflicient to form a plastic mass with the dye and water.
15. The composition of claim 14 wherein said coagulant comprises a natural gum.
16. The composition of claim 14 wherein said coagulant comprises gelatine.
17. The composition of claim 14 wherein said coagulant comprises methylcellulose.
18. The composition of claim 14 which consists by weight essentially of Percent Water about 90 44 Coagulant about 3.5- 6 Dye about 2.5- 4.5
19. The composition 01' claim 14 which consists by weight essentially 01' Percent Water about 90 44 Methylcellulose about 3.5- 6 Dye about 2.5- 4.5
20. In the preparation of uncolored oleomargarine for subsequent coloring by kneading or mixing a portion of edible coloring material therein, the improvement comprising: inserting in said oleomargarine a predetermined quantity of a water soluble coloring material and a stabilizing agent, said coloring material being separated by a non-permeable wall in the body of the oleomargarine from the phase of the oleomargarine which it is adapted to color, and said non-permeable wall comprising the continuous oil phase of the oleeomargarine emulsion.
CLYDE E. METHENY. LEON R. ALEXANDER. STANLEY TURNER.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1,388,174 Denny Aug. 28, 1921 1,474,248 English Nov. 13, 1923 1,919,025 Jones et al. July 18, 1933 1,986,783 Adler Jan. 8, 1935 2,052,175 Haurand --Aug. 25, 1936 2,347,640 Peters May 2, 1944 2,454,420 Adler et al. Nov. 23, 1948 OTHER REFERENCES "Industrial and Engineering Chemistry," Sept. 1987, vol. 29, No. 9, article entitled Water-loo uble Cellulose Ether-s" by L. G. Bock, m8 085.
986. and 987.