US 2539469 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 30, 1951 M. A, POWERS 2,539,469
HEATING SYSTEM Filed Nov. 4, 1944 Ff 5L 5 Q4 Z as INVENTOR. M/fon ,4. PO/Ve/J QM M Patented Jan. 30, I 1951 HEATING SYSTEM Milton A. Powers, Detroit, Mich, assignor to The Timken-Detroit Axle Company, Detroit, Mich,
a corporation of Ohio Application November 4, 1944, Serial No. 561,980
1 Claim. 1
The present invention relates to gravity flow heating systems and more particularly to combined space and domestic hot water heating systerns.
It is a major object of this invention to provide a novel combined space and domestic hot water heating system wherein said space is heated only after the domestic hot water reaches a predetermined temperature, and the space heating portion of the system is a gravity and convection 'flow arrangement wherein relatively cool return water is admixed and entrained with outgoing relatively hot water from the boiler so as to provide passage of a relatively large amount of rather moderately heated water through said space heating portion so that the latter is heated slowly and uniformly and without waste or excessively high temperature conditions.
A further object of this invention is to provide a heating system having novel and improved means for eifecting recirculation of the fluid,
Another object of the invention is to provide a heating system having a fluid circulating loop in which adjacent parts of the supply and return conduits have communicative connection for recirculation and in which one of said parts is equipped with means for facilitating entrainment of the cooler return fluid with the outgoing hotter supply fluid.
A further object of the invention is to provide a heating system having a domestic water heating loop in by-pass relation with a space heating loop and novel temperature responsive means operative to automatically control the flow of fluid through the respective loops.
A still further object of the invention is to provide a heating system of the aforesaid character which operates at high efficiency with gravity flow.
Further objects will become apparent as the specification proceeds in connection with the annexed drawings, and from the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is an elevational view of a preferred embodiment of the system of the invention having parts diagrammatically illustrated therein;
Figure 2 is an enlarged detailed section through a part of the system;
Figure 3 is a section taken substantially on line 33 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is an enlarged side elevational view of another part of the system partly broken away to illustrate interior construction; and
Figure 5 is a section taken on line 55 of Figure 4.
Referring to the drawing by reference characters in which like characters designate like parts, It! designates each of a plurality of space heating means such as room heating radiators having the ,inlet side connected, through branch pipes i2,
With a supply conduit or header [4 supported in a substantially horizontal position. The outlet of each radiator is connected, through ,a return branch it, with a substantially horizontal return conduit or header 18. Connected to the supply header, as by a T 25:, and depending therefrom, is a riser conduit generally indicated at 22. i Connecting with an upper part of the riser 22, through a T 24, is an essentially horizontal conduit 26 constituting a supply main having its opposite end connected to the outlet of a boiler 28, of any desired construction. To the inlet of boiler 28 is connected oneend of a horizontally extending conduit as having its other .end connected with a bottom part of the riser'22, as by a reducing T 32, to the bottom of whichlatter is connected a drain pipe 34.
A conduit 36 connects the return header l8 with the riser 22 at a point below and adjacent the junction of supply main 26 with riser 22 and may embody a T 38 connecting a horizontal run of conduit 36 with the'riser in close proximity to the T 24. Thus, riser 2 2 embodies a section 40 between T 38 and the return conduit or main 30, a section 42 between T 24 and the supply header I l, and a quite short section or nipple 44 between the T fittings 24 and 38.
A domestic water heater, generally indicated at 46, is mounted vertically between and has fluid communicative connection with the supply and return mains 26 and 39, Heater 46 is advantageously of the indirect type having a central tube 48 extending axially through a vertical tank 50. The lower end of tube 48, extending below the bottom closed end of the tank, connects with the return main 38 through a T 52 while the upper end of the tube, extending through the closed top end of the tank, connects .with the supply main 2% through the medium of a fitting generally indicated at 54. Cold water is supplied to the tank 50 by a feed pipe 56 while hot water for tapping and other domestic purposes is drawn therefrom through a pipe 58.
Water from a suitable source of supply is delivered to the boiler 28 through a pipe 60 making connection with the boiler through a branch pipe 62 and with a pipe 54, connecting the boiler with a compression tank 66, through a T 68. As is customary, line 60 may be equipped with a pressure reducing valve H! and a pressure relief valve 12, also acting as a blow-oif for the compression tank.
The fitting 54, which is illustrated in detail in Figures 4 and 5, embodies a T 92 having one horizontal outlet formed with a flange 94 bolted to a matching flange 95,011 one end of a tubular valve housing as. Between the flanges 94 and '35 is clamped the peripheral margin of a partition plate 99 having a central opening Hit lead ing into a pocket N32. The sides of pocket I02 are provided with transversely aligned openings the disks and out 01f flow of heating fluid to the I04 and 106., at the edges of which are formed radiators.
annularseating bosses JIUB and H9. In guide The T fitting. 24, as illustrated inlEigures 2 bearings I I2 and II4, supported centrally of the and 3, is equipped With a deflector I32 fixed thereopenings I04 and I06 by spiders or other suitable '5 in so as to direct the fluid entering from the means, is mounted a transversely disposed axially supply main 26 upwardly at one side of the T slidable valve stem IIE, having fixed Onppposedwhileproviding a passage I34 behind the deflecend portions valve disks IIBandJZI]. .Thesedisks tor for entrainmentof part of the return fluid are mounted so that at one position'ofaaxialitravel entering T 38'from the return conduit 36. The of the stem they seat upon the respective bosses lo element'I32 maybe in the form of an angular I08 and II to close the side openings of the plate having a lower part I36 extending diagpocket while, in reverse position of the stem; they onally upward "from the shoulder between the assume open position. To a pin I22 supported" bottom-and lateral outlets, to the center of the vertically between projections on the plate 99 is T and has a web I38 rising from the top edge of fixed -theinner end of .a. temperature responsive the diagonal part along theaxis .of the vertical element 124, .such .as a spirally coiled bimetallic run. As illustrated in Figures 2 'and.3 the. .ele-
strip. The outer endof the strip I24 is connected ment..l32 provides a. restriction in the heating fixedly tothevalve .stem II6. An arm. I28 fixed fluid supply main, and resultant increased veloctohandl'extending.radially fromthepin I22 Ienity of flow .therethrough.increases the entraingagesthe lower end of a regulating spindle I26 .ment of the cooler return fluid.
operable by a .hand wheel. I30 secured on the The boiler 28,1for example a conventionalhot upperend thereof to turn arm I28 for calibrated Water boiler, is heated byany preferred heating adjustment of .thestrip I24. The opposed outer means such as an oil burner indicated 14. The .endslof the TBZIandhousing 98 threadedl-y conoil. burner 14 is equipped with knownswitch nect iwithhspaced parts of the .supply .main 26 means electricallyeonnected, throughconductors while. the.downwardly directed .outlet of T 92 56, I8 and :80, in parallel with..a.thermostatic connects withthe upper endof the heatertube 58. member 84, ,constituti-nga deviceresponsive to the Th'ethermostatic'element I24 is mountedin temperature of the waterin the boiler, .anda
fittingv .54 substantially in thezoneflof. intersecspaceor room thermostat 8.5, to.line .WiresBB tion betweenthe vertical and horizontal runs 25 30 and 90.
and 48 and is designed to so operate that, when Under conditions wherein there is no demand there is nefldeme d r he e radiator p for heat in the-space heatedby the radiators. I0, and the domestic heater 45 is pp from the the thermostatic .member 84 functions to mainboiler withheating .i'luid below a predetermined tainthe-water of the boilerizs, andnonsequently temperature under w0011131431 v0f thermostatic the water in the domestic supply tank 50, at an men the COIltfOIVelVe vWithin fitting is approximatelyconstant desiredtemperature,beheld closed and there iS nofiOW n ma b low that at which the control valveinfitting- 54 y g l. This issufficiient to heat the hot isset to open. In-theeventthat thetemperature water intank 50 to .desiredtemperature for .diin the space .heatedby the radiators should fall rest-domestic .use.. 40 to a predetermined .degree, the burner control When the boi er s Supp y heating fluid to circuit through the thermostat 86 is closed .with main..2 ate higher emperature than that p the result that thenboiler water is heated-toe determined. temperature under control of thertemperature above the maximum .permittedlby mostat 35 e p o ma d heat o the thermostat...84 to provide required excess heat p ee heated by the radiators, and the .hot water for radiators. When the-temperature in the space inztankfifl is at Orab S desiliedvtempelature, heated by theradiatorsrises to a predetermined the control ifalv in fi g 54 is opened'by the? maximum the control circuit through the-.thermostaticelement I24 o s pp yh t0 the r mostat 86 is broken. If there should be no deators Upon decreaseof the temperature of the mand for heat t t radiators f r extendedpe, Waterin tanlcfiflJaswhen hot water is drawn off riods f t t consequent, lowering of t at afaucet, there s resulting lowering of the temperature in the boiler will resultin automatic fiuid.temperaturein the zone about therclosingof .the controlvalve in fitting-54 and the mostat. I24 and the latter. operates to cause .pard ti h t at r supply at 50 will be .maintialor- Co p e Closing 0f pp y Control tained under the .control of thermostat 84- Ve1Ve,-dependiI1g upO theeXtent of temperature 55 During the gravity and convectioncirculation drop of the. water-inthetanh. Afterthewater through t di t plant of th tem th in tank 56 has been raisedto .the desired temheating fluid supply flows from the boiler perature excess heataccumulates inthe T chamthrough a loop comprising the supply main 26, berof the fitting .54. to eventually raise. the tem- T 24, upper secti 42 of the riser, header .I4
Perature of the heating flu in the Zone abQllt 50 and .theradiators. The returnflowis effected thermostatieelementl to-ceu p g O the through. return header I8, return conduit-36,
Co Va S0-- that v110W 0f 2 e g. fl lower section 45 of the riser andithe return main through.main.26 totheradiator loop is resumed. auto. the boiler. As .the hot WZI'GBDTIOIII the Specifically,whenthetemperature of theheatboi er flows through the T 24, the element I32 ingiliiidin the. T 921s inexcessof that required servesv to, deflect the relatively high speed fiow to bring the domestic hot water to its desired thereof to one sideand upwardly, .creatingQintemperature, thermostatic element I24 expands jector actionin passage. I34 .of the T and causing sufilc'iently to actuate stern I I6 and 'move valve entrainment and intermixture of [parts of the disks. II8 and 12!! toopen position to enableflow cooler return fluid entering T 38 from the return of heating fluid to theradiators. Should the conduit .36 with the outgoing hot water supply.
heatingfiuidtemperature .within the T192 fall, The hotter the supply fluid, the. greater its either because of demand for heat by the dovelocityrand the larger the amount of cooler rernestic heater or lowering of the temperature .of turned fluid which will be entrained therewith. the .boiler output under control of the thermo- As a result of such intermixture, a relatiuely stat 84;the element I24 will contract and seat'75 large quantity of fluid at a temperature lower than that at the boiler discharge is circulated through the radiators, eifecting gradual heating throughout the radiator system as contrasted with the relatively greater temperature variation and unbalanced heat distribution that would be produced by higher temperature supply of water in less volume. Thus when supplied with heating fluid each radiator gradually rises in temperature and all rooms receive their desired share of the total heat from the boiler. Without this feature, the relatively high temperature of the water entering the space heating system upon opening of the thermostatic valve and the fact that the volume of such flow is limited by the heating capacity of the boiler may result in a portion of the radiators becoming highly heated while others receive little or no heat.
The connection of the indirect heater 46 between the supply and return mains forms a bypass 100p constantly open to the boiler outlet and return. This insures prompt and eiiicient indirect heating of the water in the storage tank at all times when there is heated water in the boiler.
Likewise the positioning of the thermostatic valve control element in this constantly open loop connection to the boiler at a point above the storage tank insures prompt and effective control of the flow of excess heated water to the radiators whenever the temperature exceeds the setting of valve adjustment.
The system is advantageous in that a constant supply of hot water for domestic use is continuously available, regardless of the space heating requirements. Furthermore under all conditions likely to be encountered, the system functions automatically to maintain or re-establish hot water in the domestic storage tank. At any instant, only excess heat beyond that which the tank is able to absorb is allowed to flow to the radiators, thus insuring maximum speed in reestablishing the reserve supply of hot domestic water. For example, let us consider a cold day, with the total boiler output going to the radiators, the domestic storage tank having been fully heated. There is a sudden excessive drain on the domestic hot water supply and it is exhausted. The replacement of the hot water in the tank by cold water surrounding the tube 48 will cause the water in that tube to cool, and hot water from boiler main 28 will immediately flow through tube 48 to reheat the domestic water. However, the radiators were already using the entire capacity of the boiler. Consequently the temperature of the water in the zone around the thermal element drops somewhat, the valve partly closes to reduce the flow to the radiators, and the heat flow to the storage tank increases. This condition prevails until the water in the storage tank is reheated, at which time the full flow to the radiators is reestablished.
Consider now that the entire system is cold, and both domestic water and radiator heat are suddenly demanded. The unrestricted water loop between boiler and domestic water tank insures prompt heating of the tank to the maximum capacity of both boiler and tank. This will continue until the tank is heated at which time the thermal valve will open to allow all heat to flow to the radiators. As the tank gains heat, its absorbing capacity falls away and whenever excess heat is available the thermal valve will send such excess to the radiators.
Other conditions of operation might be described, but those given will serve to illustrate the fact that my system is so designed as to assure an ample domestic water supply under all conditions, regardless of the space heating requirements.
The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiment is therefore to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.
What is claimed and desired to be secured by United States Letters Patent is:
In a heating system, a boiler, a space heating plant having a supply header and a return header connecting with a plurality of radiators or like heat dissipating means, a riser having its upper end connecting with said supply header, a supply main having one end connected with the boiler outlet and having a substantially horizontal run connected with an elevated part of the riser, a substantially horizontal return main connecting a lower part of the riser with, the boiler inlet, a domestic hot water storage tank having a heater conduit therefor connected between said supply main and said return main in bypass relation to said space heating plant, a temperature responsive valve in the connection between said supply main and said heater conduit for proportioning fiow of boiler water to said space heating plant and said domestic hot water storage tank and permitting flow of hot water to said space heating plant only when said water temperature exceeds a predetermined value, a conduit connecting said return header with the riser below and immediately adjacent the junction of the supply main with said riser and at a substantial distance above the return -main so that fluid returning from said heat dissipating means flows from said return header down the lower part of said riser and through said return main into the boiler, and flow deflecting means mounted in said junction of the supply main with the riser adapted to deflect all of said supply fluid from said supply main upwardly through said riser in such manner as to cause entrainment therewith of part of the cooler fluid flowing into the riser from the return header.
MILTON A. POWERS.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS