US 2540805 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Filed April 30, 1946 Feb. 6, 1951 J, 55555 2,540,805
ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS FOR MAKING RADIATOR CORES 5 Sheets-Sheet l gwuem/to o Job/10.55555, Q J
Feb. 6,1951 J. D. BEEBE ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS FOR MAKING RADIATOR CORES s Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed April 50, 1946 o cf oooo wflaqo oooo o @XWQJ L OOOO Jo/m' 035585,
J. D. BEEBE 2,540,805
ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS FOR MAKING RADIATOR CORES Feb. 6, 1951 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed April 30, 1946 JED/7n 0.. 55586,
Patented Feb. 6, 1951 ELECTROLYTIC APPARATUS FOR MAKING RADIATOR CORES John D. Beebe, Detroit, Mich., assignor of onehalf to John C. Schwartz, New York, N. Y.
Application April 30, 1946, Serial No. 666,137
This invention relates to radiator cores and has for its object to teach the method and to provide an apparatus by which such cores may be made electrolytically.
I am aware that various attempts have been made to make radiator cores electrolytically, however, so far as I am aware, no previous attempt has been entirely successful. The main difiiculties have been that the finished product was inevitably porous, that there was lack of uniformity of thickness in the sections supposed to be of uniform thickness, that the Walls of the air openings therethrough varied in thickness and in quality of cop er upon which strength depends, and that the metal forming the header and connecting portions for sister cores were lacking in proper strength because of the inability to vary the thickness of deposit where a thicker section is needed.
The principal object of this invention is to provide an apparatus by which cores can be made and which will overcome all of these difli culties rendering it possible to make a core which will be free of pin holes, which will have greater strength with less weight of metal than present conventional cores, which can be made from scrap copper or other scrap electrolytic material, which will have a high rating of heat dissipation, which can be made economically and which lends itself to production in quantity.
The general principles of essential parts of the process and apparatus which I employ are fully described and claimed in my co-pending applications Serial Number 640,090 filed January 9, 1946, now abandoned, and Serial Number 640,091 filed January 9, 1946. In those applications it is explained, contrary to the conception of the action of an electrolytic bath by many who have worked in the art, an electrolytic deposit is not picked up out of solution by the cathode but that the ions which leave the anode deposit directly upon the cathode and that the direction of those ions may be controlled. It is further set forth that the control depends upon the provision of an anode constructed with attention to provision for an adequate flow of electrolyte thereover, with provision for the proportioning of the areasof the anode to the cathode depending upon the grade of metal to be deposited, upon proper concentration of the acid in the electrolyte and to the other factors of the bath therein described. The theory and practice set forth in those pendin applications is retained in full in this process, the only difference being that this process is the application of that original process to a special complicated case which presents additional problems.
More specifically it is the object of this invention to teach the deposit of electrolytic metal by different paths of varied length from an anode to a cathode, to teach the control of each of these paths in order'to obtain deposition over the areas desired and to teach the control of each of these paths for thickness of deposit so that the cathode, in one immersion, may be coated to completion with metal which varies in thickness over the areas selected but which will have uniform thickness in any given area.
Other objects and advantages will become hereinafter more fully apparent as reference is had to the accompanying drawings wherein my invention is illustrated by way of example and in which Figure 1 is a side elevation of a complete radiator core made according to my improved process,
Figure 2 is a front view of one section of the core of Figure 1, as seen along the line 2-2 of Figure Figure 3 is a top plan view of the core,
Figure 4 is a front View of an anode employed to electrodeposit the section in Figure 2,
Figure 5 is a side elevation of the main right hand section of Figure 2 in the process of electroformation,
Figure 6 is a side elevation of the left hand section of Figure 2 in the process of electroformation, and
Figure 7 is a horizontal section taken along the line 7-1 of Figure 6.
More particularly, Figure 1 shows a complete radiator core which is composed of two main sections I and 2 together with an additional header section 3. The sections l and 2 are composed essentially of a front face t and a rear face 5 connected by a multiplicity of walled openings 6, borders 1, header portions 8 and 9 respectively, and of lower solid sections I0 and II. The sections I and 2 are joined at their header sections 8 and 9 by collars i 2 and I3, and at their lower sections In and II by the collars M. The section 2 has a cylindrical outlet I5 for attachment to the collar l1 of the section 2. This section 3 is also provided with a filler opening l8 and a water inlet l9.
In order to electroform the three sections I, 2 and 3, I provide a matrix which may be made of some material such as plumbago or wax coated with graphite or other conductivematerial upon which deposition can be made. The essential is that the material be uniformly conductive so that there will be a uniform beginning of plating over its entire surface, that it hold its exact molded shape at the operating temperature of the vat, which is about 90 F., and that it be capable of being melted out at temperatures be low that which might have any noticeable effect on the section from which it is to be removed. The matrix, in each instance, is moulded solidly in the exact shape of the section to be formed.
The matrices are suspended individually in a vat filled with a suitable electrolyte, Figure showing a matrix in process of being coated in the formation of thesection i and Figure 6 showing a matrix in process of being coated in the formation of the section 2. The matrix of the section 5 is suspended between two anode baskets 2c and El and the matrix of the section 2 is suspended between two anode baskets 22 and 23, each having a multiplicity of openings therethrcugh, as will be described, and the electrolyte hard rubber, or of metal which is fully coated with such material so that the metal will be fully insulated against electrolytic action and against deterioration by the acid of the electrolyte.
The baskets each have hangers 2 1 of good elecfor an ionic stream and each of which is at a uniform small distance from a face of the matrix which is to form a face 4 or 5 of the core sections. There is one extension 29 from each anode basket for each opening in each matrix which is to form an 'air opening 6 in the core sections I and 2. Each extension 29 is therefore expected to emit a flow of ions sufiicient to cover the interior of onehalf the sidewalls in the matrix and likewise to coat a portion of the face of the matrix equal to one-half the distance to the area to be coated by the adjacent extensions 29 in forming the walls of the adjacent openings 6 together with a portion of the faces :2 or 5. If the extensions'29 terminate too close to the matrix too great a proportion of the deposit will take place within the openings and if too far away too great a proportion will occur on the faces at the expense of the thickness of the sidewalls. If acurrent density approximately equal to forty amperes per square 7 foot at 4 to 5 volts, a concentration of'solution trical conductivity,-such as copper, for support of the baskets and for establishment of a path of current flow from positive bus bars 25. The matrices are supported by conductive hangers its from negative bus bars 2 The anode baskets are filled with particles of electrolytic material, such as copper. Copper shot or pellets or copper trimmings and scrap, etc., may be used. In order to maintain electrical contact between the hangers 2d and this material I provide conductive strips 28 which are attached to the hangers at their upper ends and which hang freely in the baskets to a considerable depth.
The concentration of acid and copper sulphate in the electrolyte is important and should be maintained at a constant value insofar as possibio. I recommend seven ounces of sulphuric acid per gallon of water to which I add 34 ounces of copper sulphate, the radiator cores being, preferably, of very soft copper.
The baskets'are provided with a multiplicity of openings of various types depending upon the area and the shape of the area of the matrix upon which each one must direct a stream of ions. The total area of the openings in the baskets should equal approximately one-fifth the area tion Serial #640,090 that the ionic flow may be directed and that diffusion of the stream will depend, in large measure,-upon the distance of the point of release of the flow from the surface upon which deposit is made. The baskets are therefore provided with hollow tubular extensions '29; each of which projects toward an opening a through the matrix, each of which is a. projector as indicated and a ratio of area'of each area of each extension 29 to its. assigned area are, all properly maintained then the thickness of: do.- posit within the holes and'on the faces will. be found without difiiculty by a few trials after which the position ofthe baskets with respect to the matrices can be fixed by properly spacing the positive negative busv bars: or by adjusting the shape or position of the hangers 241 In addition to the extensions or projectors 2,9. I provide other projectors. 3|). which are similar to projectors 29 but which terminate inlinclined surfaces. These projectors 3B. are adjacent that portion of the matrix. upon which the. collars l2, l3; Hi, E5, E3 and it are to be formedso that the area of deposit assigned to each of them is onehalf' the depth of an opening to form the holes 6 and a'portion of therarea of a face t or 5 and a portion of the area of a collar. Bycutting away one side' of the projector as illustrated, therewill be a greater diffusion' of 'the ionic flow and, the deposit will occur where'desired.
'In forming the large water connection is 1 provide extensions 53 on the matrix 111 .1 Which deposit is to be made (Figure dunner-end); The extensions 33': are, of course, solid; and no deposit is to. be made except on the side Walls thereof 'I, therefore, provide a ring-like extension fi iopposite the solidsurface of the extensions 33, the inside surfaces of the ring-like extensions being shaped, similarly to the extensions 33 but slightly larger in peripheral size than the outer ends of the extensions 33 so that thedeposition will be limited to the desired area.
' Where the deposit is to be made surfaces such as on the face of the matrices to form the headers 8; S and iii, I provide aseries of openings 35 in the baskets. And; I provide a further series of openings 32 as a complete border forv the. other openings in the baskets, as best seen in Figure 4 in. which a frontal view of the basket '23 is shown. These latter openings will form the rims E. Since the diffusion from these openings 3| and 32 are assigned areas and since the diffusion therefrom must not be so great as to fail to cover these areas as desired, it is obvious that the desired distance of these openings from the faces of the matrix will determine the length of the projectors 29 and 30.
Where no deposit is desired, as'in the spaceon the matrices interiorly ofthe surfaces upon which the col ars are to be formed, no openings are'provided in the baskets;
The header section smay ;be simila y f rmed on the fiat V by following the principles herein set forth, by providing anode baskets made for the purpose.
What I claim is:
1. An electrolytic apparatus for making a radiator core comprising a matrix formed in the shape of the core and having a plurality of openings therethrough, and an anode on each side of said matrix, said anodes each being containers for bits of electrolytic metal and having a p1urality of openings through the side walls thereof, one of said openings being opposite each of said openings in said matrix and closely adjacent thereto for directing a flow of ions into said openings, said containers each having additional openings through the sidewalls generally encircling the first named openings for directing a flow of ions onto the remaining surfaces of said matrix, the outlets of the last named openings being spaced a greater distance from said matrix than the first named openings whereby there is increased diifusion of the ions from said last named openings, said anodes and said matrix being relatively stationary when said apparatus is in operation.
2. An electrolytic apparatus for making a radiator core comprising a matrix formed in the shape of the core and having a plurality of openings transversely therethrough, said matrix being adapted to serve as a cathode, and an anode on each side of said matrix, said anodes each being containers for bits of electrolytic metal, said containers each having a multiplicity of hollow tubular projections each of which resides immediately opposite one of said openings, said anodes each having additional openings therethrough through which ions may flow for deposition on the rim and border of the matrix, said tubular projections terminating substantially closer to said matrix than the walls around said additional openings, said anodes and said matrix being relatively stationary when said apparatus is in operation.
3. An electrolytic apparatus for making a radiator core comprising a matrix formed in the shape of the core, and having a plurality of openings transversely therethrough, said core serving as a cathode when immersed in an electrolyte, and an anode residing alongside of each side of said matrix each of said anodes bein a container for electrolytic metal and each having a multi- 5 plicity of tubular projections extending outwardly therefrom each of which terminates immediately opposite one of said openings, certain of the tubular projections of the two anodes being of diiferent length and terminating at equal distances from said matrix, said anodes each having additional openings for outletting a flow of ions toward the rim and border of the matrix, the sidewalls of the last named openings being at greater distances from said matrix than the ends of said tubular projections whereby said apparatus forms a complete core in one operation.
4. An electrolytic apparatus for making a radiator core comprising a matrix formed in the shape of the core, having a plurality of openings transversely therethrough and having solid projections extending outwardly therefrom in replication of the hollow water connections of the core, said matrix serving as a cathode when immersed in an electrolyte, and an anode residing alongside each side of said matrix, each of the anodes being a container for electrolytic metal and each having a multiplicity of hollow tubular projections extending laterally therefrom, each of said extensions terminating immediately opposite one of said openings, said anodes each having a multiplicity of additional openings through the walls th reof through which a flow of ions may flow for deposit on the boundary surfaces of said matrix, said anodes each presenting a solid surface opposite said solid projections of the matrix and each having a ring-like extension thereon the inside surface of which is similar to and slightly larger than the periphery of the outer end of the adjacent solid connection, said ringlike projections residing closely adjacent said solid projections, said anodes each having a multiplicity of openings through the walls thereof together encircling said ringlike extensions whereby a now of ions therethrough will form a deposition on the exposed surfaces of said solid projections simultaneously with the formation of the remainder of the core.
JOHN D. BEEBE.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 895,164 Cowper-Coles Aug. 4, 1908 1,188,228 Woodward June 20, 1916 1,280,249 Landry Oct. 1, 1918 1,416,929 Bailey May 23, 1922 1,517,630 Jones Dec. 2, 1924 1,519,572 Wolf Dec. 16, 1924 1,765,320 Bart June 17 1930 1,792,998 M-elish Feb. 17, 1931 1,853,700 Rosenqvist Apr. 12, 1932 2,260,893 Ewing Oct. 28, 1941